14 Works

Data from: Establishment and maintenance of aphid endosymbionts after horizontal transfer is dependent on host genotype

Benjamin James Parker, Ailsa H.C. McLean, Jan Hrcek, Nicole M. Gerardo, H. Charles J. Godfray & Ailsa H. C. McLean
Animal-associated microbial communities have important effects on host phenotypes. Individuals within and among species differ in the strains and species of microbes that they harbour, but how natural selection shapes the distribution and abundance of symbionts in natural populations is not well understood. Symbionts can be beneficial in certain environments but also impose costs on their hosts. Consequently, individuals that can or cannot associate with symbionts will be favoured under different ecological circumstances. As a...

Data from: Deltamethrin resistance in Aedes aegypti results in treatment failure in Merida, Mexico

Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec, Anuar Medina-Barreiro, Azael Che-Mendoza, Felipe Dzul-Manzanilla, Fabian Correa-Morales, Guillermo Guillermo-May, Wilbert Bibiano-Marin, Valentin Uc-Puc, Eduardo Geded-Moreno, Jose Vadillo-Sanches, Jorge Palacio-Vargas, Scott A. Ritchie, Audrey Lenhart, Pablo Manrique-Saide & José Vadillo-Sánchez
The operational impact of deltamethrin resistance on the efficacy of indoor insecticide applications to control Aedes aegypti was evaluated in Merida, Mexico. A randomized controlled trial quantified the efficacy of indoor residual spraying (IRS) against adult Ae. aegypti in houses treated with either deltamethrin (to which local Ae. aegypti expressed a high degree of resistance) or bendiocarb (to which local Ae. aegypti were fully susceptible) as compared to untreated control houses. All adult Ae. aegypti...

Data from: Prospective comparison of two models of integrating early infant male circumcision with maternal child health services in Kenya: the Mtoto Msafi Mbili Study

Robert C. Bailey, Fredrick Adera, Mary Ellen Mackesy-Amiti, Timothy Adipo, Sherry K. Nordstrom, Supriya D. Mehta, Walter Jaoko, F. L. Fredrik G. Langi, Walter Obiero, Edmon Obat, Fredrick O. Otieno & Marisa R. Young
As countries scale up adult voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention, they are looking ahead to long term sustainable strategies, including introduction of early infant male circumcision (EIMC). To address the lack of evidence regarding introduction of EIMC services in sub-Saharan African settings, we conducted a simultaneous, prospective comparison of two models of EIMC service delivery in Homa Bay County, Kenya. In one division a standard delivery package (SDP) was introduced and included...

Data from: Ploidy tug-of-war: evolutionary and genetic environments influence the rate of ploidy drive in a human fungal pathogen

Aleeza C. Gerstein, Heekyung Lim, Judith Berman & Meleah A. Hickman
Variation in baseline ploidy is seen throughout the tree of life, yet the factors that determine why one ploidy level is maintained over another remain poorly understood. Experimental evolution studies using asexual fungal microbes with manipulated ploidy levels intriguingly reveals a propensity to return to the historical baseline ploidy, a phenomenon that we term ‘ploidy drive’. We evolved haploid, diploid, and polyploid strains of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans under three different nutrient limitation...

Data from: Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle

Kyle P. Blum, Boris Lamotte D’Incamps, Daniel Zytnicki & Lena H. Ting
Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle...

Data from: Ecological opportunity alters the timing and shape of adaptive radiation

Edward D. Burress & Milton Tan
The uneven distribution of diversity is a conspicuous phenomenon across the tree of life. Ecological opportunity is a prominent catalyst of adaptive radiation and therefore may alter patterns of diversification. We evaluated the distribution of shifts in diversification rates across the cichlid phylogeny and the distribution of major clades across phylogenetic space. We also tested if ecological opportunity influenced these patterns. Colonization-associated ecological opportunity altered the tempo and mode of diversification during the adaptive radiation...

Data from: Mechanical evidence that flamingos can support their body on one leg with little active muscular force

Young-Hui Chang & Lena H. Ting
Flamingos (Phoenicopteridae) often stand and sleep on one leg for long periods, but it is unknown how much active muscle contractile force they use for the mechanical demands of standing on one leg: body weight support and maintaining balance. First, we demonstrated that flamingo cadavers could passively support body weight on one leg without any muscle activity while adopting a stable, unchanging, joint posture resembling that seen in live flamingos. By contrast, the cadaveric flamingo...

Data from: Community water improvement, household water insecurity, and women’s psychological distress: an intervention and control study in Ethiopia

Edward G. J. Stevenson, Argaw Ambelu, Bethany A. Caruso, Yihenew Tesfaye & Matthew C. Freeman
Background: Over 650 million people worldwide lack access to safe water supplies, and even among those who have gained access to ‘improved’ sources, water may be seasonally unreliable, far from homes, expensive, and provide insufficient quantity. Measurement of water access at the level of communities and households remains crude, and better measures of household water insecurity are urgently needed to inform needs assessments and monitoring and evaluation. We set out to assess the validity of...

Data from: Preference for conspecifics evolves earlier in males than females in a sexually dimorphic radiation of fishes

Tamra C. Mendelson, Jennifer M. Gumm, Michael D. Martin & Patrick J. Ciccotto
Speciation by sexual selection is generally modeled as the co-evolution of female preferences and elaborate male ornaments leading to behavioral (sexual) reproductive isolation. One prediction of these models is that female preference for conspecific males should evolve earlier than male preference for conspecific females in sexually dimorphic species with male ornaments. We tested that prediction in darters, a diverse group of freshwater fishes with sexually dimorphic ornamentation. Focusing on the earliest stages of divergence, we...

Data from: Landscape and environmental influences on Mycobacterium ulcerans distribution among aquatic sites in Ghana

Shannon M. Pileggi, Heather Jordan, Julie A. Clennon, Ellen Whitney, M. Eric Benbow, Richard Merritt, Mollie McIntosh, Ryan Kimbirauskas, Pamela Small, Daniel Boayke, Charles Quaye, Jiaguo Qi, Lindsay Campbell, Jenni Gronseth, Edwin Ampadu, William Opare, Lance Waller, Lance A. Waller & Daniel Boakye
Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is highly endemic in West Africa. While the mode of transmission is unknown, many studies associate Buruli ulcer with different types of water exposure. We present results from the largest study to date to test for M. ulcerans in aquatic sites and identify environmental attributes associated with its presence. Environmental samples from 98 aquatic sites in the Greater Accra, Ashanti, and Volta regions of Ghana were tested for the...

Data from: Life-history strategy determines constraints on immune function

Benjamin James Parker, Seth M. Barribeau, Alice M. Laughton, Lynn H. Griffin & Nicole M. Gerardo
1) Determining the factors governing investment in immunity is critical for understanding host-pathogen ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Studies often consider disease resistance in the context of life-history theory, with the expectation that investment in immunity will be optimized in anticipation of disease risk. Immunity, however, is constrained by context-dependent fitness costs. How the costs of immunity vary across life-history strategies has yet to be considered. 2) Pea aphids are typically unwinged but produce winged offspring...

Data from: Experimental species removals impact the architecture of pollination networks

Berry J. Brosi, Kyle Niezgoda & Heather M. Briggs
Mutualistic networks are key for the creation and maintenance of biodiversity, yet are threatened by global environmental change. Most simulation models assume that network structure remains static after species losses, despite theoretical and empirical reasons to expect dynamic responses. We assessed the effects of experimental single bumblebee species removals on the structure of entire flower visitation networks. We hypothesized that network structure would change following processes linking interspecific competition with dietary niche breadth. We found...

Data from: Output variability across animals and levels in a motor system

Angela Wenning, Brian J. Norris, Cengiz Günay, Daniel Kueh & Ronald L. Calabrese
Rhythmic behaviors vary across individuals. We investigated the sources of this output variability across a motor system, from the central pattern generator (CPG) to the motor plant. In the bilaterally symmetric leech heartbeat system, the CPG orchestrates two coordinations in the bilateral hearts with different intersegmental phase relations (Δφ) and periodic side-to-side switches. Population variability is large. We show that the system is precise within a coordination, that differences in repetitions of a coordination contribute...

Data from: Transcriptional profile and differential fitness in a specialist milkweed insect across host plants varying in toxicity

Stephanie S.L. Birnbaum, David C. Rinker, Nicole M. Gerardo, Patrick Abbot & Stephanie S. L. Birnbaum
Interactions between plants and herbivorous insects have been models for theories of specialization and coevolution for over a century. Phytochemicals govern many aspects of these interactions and have fostered the evolution of adaptations by insects to tolerate or even specialize on plant defensive chemistry. While genomic approaches are providing new insights into the genes and mechanisms insect specialists employ to tolerate plant secondary metabolites, open questions remain about the evolution and conservation of insect counter-defenses,...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    14

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    14

Affiliations

  • Emory University
    14
  • Georgia Institute of Technology
    2
  • University of Oxford
    2
  • California Polytechnic State University
    1
  • University of Kansas
    1
  • Stephen F. Austin State University
    1
  • Oregon State University
    1
  • University of Minnesota
    1
  • University of Ghana
    1
  • University of Tennessee at Knoxville
    1