21 Works

Data from: Optogenetic dissection of descending behavioral control in Drosophila

Jessica Cande, Shigehiro Namiki, Jirui Qiu, Wyatt Korff, Gwyneth M. Card, Joshua W. Shaevitz, David L. Stern & Gordon J. Berman
In most animals, the brain makes behavioral decisions that are transmitted by descending neurons to the nerve cord circuitry that produces behaviors. In insects, only a few descending neurons have been associated with specific behaviors. To explore how descending neurons control an insect's movements, we developed a novel method to systematically assay the behavioral effects of activating individual neurons on freely behaving terrestrial D. melanogaster. We calculated a two-dimensional representation of the entire behavior space...

Data from: The effects of milkweed induced defense on parasite resistance in monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus

Wen-Hao Tan, Leiling Tao, Kevin M. Hoang, Mark D. Hunter & Jacobus C. De Roode
Many plants express induced defenses against herbivores through increasing the production of toxic secondary chemicals following damage. Phytochemical induction can directly or indirectly affect other organisms within the community. In tri-trophic systems, increased concentrations of plant toxins could be detrimental to plants if herbivores can sequester these toxins as protective chemicals for themselves. Thus, through trophic interactions, induction can lead to either positive or negative effects on plant fitness. We examined the effects of milkweed...

Data from: How symbiosis and ecological context influence the variable expression of transgenerational wing induction upon fungal infection of aphids

Wen-Hao Tan, Miguel L. Reyes, Kim L. Hoang, Tarik Acevedo, Fredrick Leon, Joshua D. Barbosa & Nicole M. Gerardo
Aphids, like most animals, mount a diverse set of defenses against pathogens. For aphids, two of the best studied defenses are symbiont-conferred protection and transgenerational wing induction. Aphids can harbor bacterial symbionts that provide protection against pathogens, parasitoids and predators, as well as against other environmental stressors. In response to signals of danger, aphids also protect not themselves but their offspring by producing more winged than unwinged offspring as a way to ensure that their...

Data from: Rapid change in host specificity in a field population of the biological control organism Pasteuria penetrans

Chang Liu, Amanda Kyle Gibson, Patricia Timper, Levi T. Morran & R. Scott Tubbs
In biological control, populations of both the biological control agent and the pest have the potential to evolve, and even to coevolve. This feature marks the most powerful and unpredictable aspect of biological control strategies. In particular, evolutionary change in host specificity of the biological control agent could increase or decrease its efficacy. Here, we tested for change in host specificity in a field population of the biological control organism Pasteuria penetrans. Pasteuria penetrans is...

Data from: Ecosystem function in predator-prey food webs - confronting dynamic models with empirical data

Alva Curtsdotter, H. Thomas Banks, John E Banks, Mattias Jonsson, Tomas Jonsson, Amanda N. Laubmeier, Michael Traugott & Riccardo Bommarco
1. Most ecosystem functions and related services involve species interactions across trophic levels, e.g. pollination and biological pest control. Despite this, our understanding of ecosystem function in multi-trophic communities is poor, and research has been limited to either manipulations in small communities or statistical descriptions in larger ones. 2. Recent advances in food web ecology may allow us to overcome the trade-off between mechanistic insight and ecological realism. Molecular tools now simplify the detection of...

Data from: Restoration of pyrethroid susceptibility in a highly resistant Aedes aegypti population

Marissa K. Grossman, Valentin Uc-Puc, Julian Rodriguez, David J. Culter, Levi T. Morran, Pablo Manrique-Saide, Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec & David J. Cutler
Insecticide resistance has evolved in disease vectors worldwide, creating the urgent need to either develop new control methods or restore insecticide susceptibility to regain the use of existing tools. Here we show that phenotypic susceptibility can be restored in a highly resistant field-derived strain of Aedes aegypti in only ten generations through rearing them in the absence of insecticide.

Data from: The EGA+GNM framework: an integrative approach to modelling behavioural syndromes

Jordan S. Martin, Jorg J. M. Massen, Vedrana Šlipogor, Thomas Bugnyar, Adrian V. Jaeggi & Sonja E. Koski
1. Behavioural syndromes refer to correlated suites of behavioural traits exhibiting consistent among-individual variation, i.e. personality. Factor analysis (FA) is currently the dominant method for modelling behavioural syndromes in humans and animals. Although FA is useful for inferring the latent causes underlying trait correlations, it does not account for pairwise behavioural interactions that also contribute to syndrome structure. Given that latent factors and pairwise interactions are likely ubiquitous causes of trait covariation, both should be...

Data from: Predictors of alcohol responsiveness in dystonia

Johanna Junker, Valerie Brandt, Brian D. Berman, Marie Vidailhet, Emmanuel Roze, Anne Weissbach, Cynthia Comella, Irene A. Malaty, Joseph Jankovic, Mark S. LeDoux, Alfredo Berardelli, Richard Barbano, Stephen G. Reich, Joel S. Perlmutter, Hyder A. Jinnah & Norbert Brüggemann
Objective: To determine predictors of alcohol responsiveness in a large cohort of dystonia patients. Methods: 2159 participants with dystonia were prospectively enrolled in the cross-sectional Dystonia Coalition multicenter study. Patients with secondary, combined or confirmed genetic dystonia (total n=164) or unknown alcohol responsiveness (n= 737) were excluded. Patients answered a standardized questionnaire and were clinically examined using a standardized video protocol and the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale. Alcohol responsiveness was determined by patients’ self-report. Results:...

Data from: Phytochemical changes in milkweed induced by elevated CO2 alter wing morphology but not toxin sequestration in monarch butterflies

Leslie E. Decker, Abrianna J. Soule, Jacobus C. De Roode & Mark D. Hunter
1. Environmental change has the potential to influence trophic interactions by altering the defensive phenotype of prey. 2. Here, we examine the effects of a pervasive environmental change driver, elevated atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (eCO2), on toxin sequestration and flight morphology of a specialist herbivore. 3. We fed monarch butterfly larvae, Danaus plexippus, foliage from four milkweed, Asclepias, species of varying chemical defense profiles grown under either ambient or eCO2. We also infected a subset...

Data from: Linking the vectorial capacity of multiple vectors to observed patterns of West Nile virus transmission

Joseph R. McMillan, Rebekah A. Blakney, Daniel G. Mead, William T. Koval, Sarah M. Coker, Lance A. Waller, Uriel Kitron & Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec
1. Theoretical models suggest that increased vector species participation in pathogen transmission significantly increases the prevalence of vector and host infections. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support this. 2. We linked transmission potential of multiple vectors species to observed patterns of enzootic pathogen transmission by conducting longitudinal field surveillance of West Nile virus (WNv) infections in Culex spp. mosquitoes and avian host communities in the southeastern U.S. We then used...

Data from: Floral resource partitioning by individuals within generalised hoverfly pollination networks revealed by DNA metabarcoding

Andrew Lucas, Owen Bodger, Berry J. Brosi, , Dan W. Forman, Carolyn Greig, Matthew Hegarty, Laura Jones, Penelope J. Neyland & Natasha De Vere
Pollination is a key ecosystem service for agriculture and wider ecosystem function. However, most pollination studies focus on Hymenoptera, with hoverflies (Syrphidae) frequently treated as a single functional group. We tested this assumption by investigating pollen carried by eleven species of hoverfly in five genera, Cheilosia, Eristalis, Rhingia, Sericomyia and Volucella, using DNA metabarcoding. Hoverflies carried pollen from 59 plant taxa, suggesting they visit a wider number of plant species than previously appreciated. Most pollen...

Data from: Statistically testing the role of individual learning and decision-making in trapline foraging

Carolyn A. Ayers, Paul R. Armsworth & Berry J. Brosi
Trapline foraging, a behavior consisting of repeated visitation to spatially fixed resources in a predictable sequence, has been observed over diverse taxa and is important ecologically for efficient resource gathering. Despite this, few null models exist to test the significance of suspected traplines, particularly for studies interested in the role of individual decision-making in the formation of traplines versus the role of resource layouts and random movement patterns. Here we present a spatially explicit, individual-based...

Data from: The influence of symbiotic bacteria on reproductive strategies and wing polyphenism in pea aphids responding to stress

Miguel L. Reyes, Alice M. Laughton, Benjamin James Parker, Hannah Wichmann, Maretta Fan, Daniel Sok, Jan Hrcek, Tarik Acevedo & Nicole M. Gerardo
1. Environmental stressors can be key drivers of phenotypes, including reproductive strategies and morphological traits. The response to stress may be altered by the presence of microbial associates. For example, in aphids, facultative (secondary) bacterial symbionts can provide protection against natural enemies and stress induced by elevated temperatures. Furthermore, aphids exhibit phenotypic plasticity, producing winged (rather than wingless) progeny that may be better able to escape danger, and the combination of these factors improve the...

Data from: Elevated atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide reduce monarch tolerance and increase parasite virulence by altering the medicinal properties of milkweeds

Leslie E. Decker, Jacobus C. De Roode & Mark D. Hunter
Hosts combat their parasites using mechanisms of resistance and tolerance, which together determine parasite virulence. Environmental factors, including diet, mediate the impact of parasites on hosts, with diet providing nutritional and medicinal properties. Here, we present the first evidence that ongoing environmental change decreases host tolerance and increases parasite virulence through a loss of dietary medicinal quality. Monarch butterflies use dietary toxins (cardenolides) to reduce the deleterious impacts of a protozoan parasite. We fed monarch...

Data from: No measurable fitness cost to experimentally evolved host defense in the Caenorhabditis elegans-Serratia marcescens host-parasite system

McKenna J. Penley, Arielle B. Greenberg, Arooj Khalid, Sathvik R. Namburar & Levi T. Morran
Host susceptibility to parasites can vary over space and time. Costs associated with the maintenance of host defense are thought to account for a portion of this variation. Specifically, tradeoffs wherein elevated defense is maintained at the cost of fitness in the absence of the parasite may cause levels of host defense to change over time and differ between populations. In previous studies we found that populations of the host nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans evolved greater...

Data from: Migratory monarchs that encounter resident monarchs show life-history differences and higher rates of parasite infection

Dara A. Satterfield, John C. Maerz, Mark D. Hunter, D. T. Tyler Flockhart, Keith A. Hobson, D. Ryan Norris, Hillary Streit, Jacobus C. De Roode & Sonia Altizer
Environmental change induces some wildlife populations to shift from migratory to resident behaviours. Newly formed resident populations could influence the health and behaviour of remaining migrants. We investigated migrant-resident interactions among monarch butterflies and consequences for life history and parasitism. Eastern North American monarchs migrate annually to Mexico, but some now breed year-round on exotic milkweed in the southern U.S. and experience high infection prevalence of protozoan parasites. Using stable isotopes (2H, 13C) and cardenolide...

Data from: Larval density mediates knockdown resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in adult Aedes aegypti

Marissa K. Grossman, Valentin Uc-Puc, Adriana E. Flores, Pablo C. Manrique-Saide & Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec
Background: Understanding mechanisms driving insecticide resistance in vector populations remains a public health priority. To date, most research has focused on the genetic mechanisms underpinning resistance, yet it is unclear what role environmental drivers may play in shaping phenotypic expression. One of the key environmental drivers of Aedes aegypti mosquito population dynamics is resource-driven intraspecific competition at the larval stage. We experimentally investigated the role of density-dependent larval competition in mediating resistance evolution in Ae....

Data from: Generalisation and specialisation in hoverfly (Syrphidae) grassland pollen transport networks revealed by DNA metabarcoding

Andrew Lucas, Owen Bodger, Berry J. Brosi, , Dan W. Forman, Carolyn Greig, Matthew Hegarty, Penelope J. Neyland & Natasha De Vere
Pollination by insects is a key ecosystem service and important to wider ecosystem function. Most species‐level pollination networks studied have a generalised structure, with plants having several potential pollinators, and pollinators in turn visiting a number of different plant species. This is in apparent contrast to a plant's need for efficient conspecific pollen transfer. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of pollen transport networks at three levels of biological hierarchy: community,...

Data from: Of poisons and parasites: the defensive role of tetrodotoxin against infections in newts

Pieter T. J. Johnson, Dana M. Calhoun, Amber N. Stokes, Calvin B. Susbilla, Travis McDevitt-Galles, Cheryl J. Briggs, Jason T. Hoverman, Vasyl V. Tkach, Jaap C. De Roode & Jacobus C. De Roode
1. Classical research on animal toxicity has focused on the role of toxins in protection against predators, but recent studies suggest these same compounds can offer a powerful defense against parasites and infectious diseases. 2. Newts in the genus Taricha are brightly colored and contain the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX), which is hypothesized to have evolved as a defense against vertebrate predators such as garter snakes. However, newt populations often vary dramatically in toxicity, which...

Data from: Field evaluation of the safety, acceptability, and feasibility of early infant male circumcision using the AccuCirc device

Robert C. Bailey, Irene Nyaboke, Mary Ellen Mackesy-Amiti, Erick Okello, Valentine Pengo, Betha Ochomo, Mary Emmaculate Ouma, Simon Were, Stella Ojuok, Evelyne Adoyo, Mildred Adhiambo, Marisa R. Young, Rebeca M. Plank & Fredrick O. Otieno
Background: As countries scale up adult voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention, they are looking ahead to long term sustainable strategies, including introduction of early infant male circumcision (EIMC). Although a number of devices for EIMC are prequalified by the World Health Organization, evaluation of additional devices can provide policy-makers and clinicians the information required to make informed decisions. We undertook a field evaluation of the safety and acceptability of the AccuCirc device...

Data from: Turnover in local parasite populations temporarily favors host outcrossing over self-fertilization during experimental evolution

Zachary R. Lynch, McKenna J. Penley & Levi T. Morran
The ubiquity of outcrossing in plants and animals is difficult to explain given its costs relative to self-fertilization. Despite these costs, exposure to changing environmental conditions can temporarily favor outcrossing over selfing. Therefore, recurring episodes of environmental change are predicted to favor the maintenance of outcrossing. Studies of host–parasite coevolution have provided strong support for this hypothesis. However, it is unclear whether multiple exposures to novel parasite genotypes in the absence of coevolution are sufficient...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    21

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    21

Affiliations

  • Emory University
    21
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    4
  • University of Georgia
    3
  • Pennsylvania State University
    3
  • Autonomous University of Yucatán
    2
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
    1
  • Stanford University
    1
  • Princeton University
    1
  • California State University, Monterey Bay
    1
  • Assistance Publique -Hopitaux De Paris
    1