27 Works

COVID-19 and Opioid Use in Appalachian Kentucky

Rachel Vickers-Smith, Hannah L. F. Cooper & April M. Young
Appalachian Kentucky is currently fighting two public health emergencies – COVID-19 and the opioid epidemic – leaving the area strapped for resources to care for these ongoing crises. During this time, people who use opioids (PWUO) have increased vulnerability to fatal overdoses and drug-related harms (e.g., HIV). Disruption of already limited services posed by COVID-19 could have an especially detrimental impact on the health of PWUO. Though the COVID-19 pandemic is jeopardizing hard-won progress in...

Weatherlessness

John J. Stuhr
First, I develop an account of the nature of moods and the relation of mood to emotion and temperament. This account stresses that social and individual moods are marked by four features: They are transactional - neither wholly subjective nor objective; in experience they shade into and blur back and forth with feeling and temperament; they are ambient and atmospheric, a habit of living ·in the world more expansive than a habit of mind; and,...

Energy drinks consumption and perceptions among university students in Beirut, Lebanon: a mixed methods approach

Malake Ghozayel, Ali Ghaddar, Ghada Farhat, Lara Nasreddine, Janine Kara & Lamis Jomaa
Background: Energy drinks (ED) are caffeine and sugar-rich beverages with other ingredients that are marketed for their energy boosting and performance-enhancing effects. The consumption of these drinks, with and without alcohol, is dramatically increasing worldwide, despite the reported side effects and potential harms to consumers. Few studies, to date, have explored the perceptions and experiences of young adults towards these beverages. Objective: The present study aimed to explore the consumption patterns and correlates of ED...

Data from: Diverse and complex muscle spindle afferent firing properties emerge from multiscale muscle mechanics

Kyle Blum, Brian Horslen, Kenneth Campbell, Brian Horslen, Paul Nardelli, Stephen Housley, Timothy Cope & Lena Ting
Despite decades of research, we lack a mechanistic framework capable of predicting how movement-related signals are transformed into the diversity of muscle spindle afferent firing patterns observed experimentally, particularly in naturalistic behaviors. Here, a biophysical model demonstrates that well-known firing characteristics of mammalian muscle spindle Ia afferents – including movement history dependence, and nonlinear scaling with muscle stretch velocity – emerge from first principles of muscle contractile mechanics. Further, mechanical interactions of the muscle spindle...

Data from: Aridity drives coordinated trait shifts but not decreased trait variance across the geographic range of eight Australian trees

Leander Anderegg, Xingwen Loy, Ian Markham, Christina Elmer, Mark Hovenden, Janneke HilleRisLambers & Margaret Mayfield
Large intraspecific functional trait variation strongly impacts many aspects of communities and ecosystems, and is the medium upon which evolution works. Yet intraspecific trait variation is inconsistent and hard to predict across traits, species, and locations. We measured within-species variation in leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), branch wood density (WD), and allocation to stem area vs. leaf area in branches (branch Huber value, HV) across the aridity range of seven...

Elevated atmospheric concentrations of CO2 increase endogenous immune function in a specialist herbivore

Leslie Decker, Chris Jeffrey, Kaitlin Ochsenrider, Abigail Potts, Jaap De Roode, Angela Smilanich & Mark Hunter
1. Animals rely on a balance of endogenous and exogenous sources of immunity to mitigate parasite attack. Understanding how environmental context affects that balance is increasingly urgent under rapid environmental change. In herbivores, immunity is determined, in part, by phytochemistry which is plastic in response to environmental conditions. Monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, consistently experience infection by a virulent parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, and some medicinal milkweed (Asclepias) species, with high concentrations of toxic steroids (cardenolides), provide...

The Power of the Brush

Hwisang Cho
The invention of an easily learned Korean alphabet in the mid-fifteenth century sparked an “epistolary revolution” in the following century as letter writing became an indispensable daily practice for elite men and women alike. The amount of correspondence increased exponentially as new epistolary networks were built among scholars and within families, and written culture created room for appropriation and subversion by those who joined epistolary practices. Focusing on the ways that written culture interacts with...

Data from: Perturbation-evoked cortical responses associated with balance ability

Aiden Payne & Lena Ting
Background: Reactive balance recovery evokes a negative peak of cortical electroencephalography (EEG) activity (N1) that is simultaneous to brainstem-mediated automatic balance-correcting muscle activity. This study follows up on an observation from a previous study, in which N1 responses were larger in individuals who seemed to have greater difficulty responding to support-surface perturbations. Research Question: We hypothesized that people engage more cortical activity when balance recovery is more challenging. We predicted that people with lower balance...

Archives and Special Collections Linked Data: Navigating between Notes and Nodes

Erin Blake, Itza A. Carbajal, Regine Heberlein, Sarah Horowitz, Jason Kovari, VANESSA LACEY, Cory Lampert, Holly Mengel, Cory Nimer, Maria Oldal, Merrilee Proffitt, Nathan Putnam, Arielle Rambo, Elizabeth Roke, Eric de Ruijter, Dan Santamaria, Karen Smith-Yoshimura, Weatherly Stephan, Bruce Washburn & Chela Weber

Data from: Higher dominance rank is associated with lower glucocorticoids in wild female baboons: A rank metric comparison

Emily Levy, Laurence Gesquiere, Emily McLean, Mathias Franz, J Kinyua Warutere, Serah Sayialel, Raphael Mututua, Tim Wango, Vivian Oudu, Jeanne Altmann, Elizabeth Archie & Susan Alberts
In vertebrates, glucocorticoid secretion occurs in response to energetic and psychosocial stressors that trigger the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Measuring glucocorticoid concentrations can therefore shed light on the stressors associated with different social and environmental variables, including dominance rank. Using 14,172 fecal samples from 237 wild female baboons, we test the hypothesis that high-ranking females experience fewer psychosocial and/or energetic stressors than lower-ranking females. We predicted that high-ranking females would have lower fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) concentrations...

Bat community response to intensification of biomass production for bioenergy across the southeastern United States

Holly Ober, Gavin Jones, Isabel Gottlieb, Shelly Johnson, Lora Smith, Berry Brosi & Robert Fletcher
Human demand for food, fiber, and space is accelerating the rate of change of land cover and land use. Much of the world now consists of a matrix of natural forests, managed forests, agricultural cropland, and urbanized plots. Expansion of domestic energy production efforts in the United States is one driver predicted to influence future land-use and land management practices across large spatial scales. Favorable growing conditions make the southeastern United States an ideal location...

Clinical and genomic evaluation of 207 genetic myopathies in the Indian subcontinent

Samya Chakravorty, Babi Nallamilli, Satish Khadilkar, Madhu Bala Singla, Ashish Bhutada, Rashna Dastur, Pradnya Gaitonde, Laura Rufibach, Logan Gloster & Madhuri Hegde
Objective Inherited myopathies comprise more than 200 different individually rare disease-subtypes but when combined together have a high prevalence of 1 in 6000 individuals across the world. Our goal was to determine for the first time the clinical- and gene-variant spectrum of genetic myopathies in a substantial cohort study of the Indian subcontinent. Methods In this cohort-study, we performed the first large clinical exome sequencing (ES) study with phenotype correlation on 207 clinically well-characterized inherited...

Host heterogeneity mitigates virulence evolution

P. Signe White, Angela Choi, Rishika Pandey, Arthur Menezes, McKenna Penley, Amanda Gibson, Jacobus De Roode, Levi Morran & Amanda K. Gibson
Parasites often infect genetically diverse host populations, and the evolutionary trajectories of parasite populations may be shaped by levels of host heterogeneity. Mixed genotype host populations, compared to homogeneous host populations, can reduce parasite prevalence and potentially reduce rates of parasite adaptation due to tradeoffs associated with adapting to specific host genotypes. Here, we used experimental evolution to select for increased virulence in populations of the bacterial parasite Serratia marcescens exposed to either heterogenous or...

PRISM-HD: Patient-Reported Impact of Symptoms in Huntington Disease

Alistair M Glidden, Elizabeth A Luebbe, Molly J Elson, Steven B Goldenthal, Christopher W Snyder, Christine E Zizzi, E Ray Dorsey & Chad R Heatwole
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and relative importance of symptoms experienced by adults with Huntington disease (HD) and to identify factors associated with a higher disease burden. METHODS: We performed 40 qualitative interviews (n = 20 with HD, n = 20 caregivers) and analyzed 2,082 quotes regarding the symptomatic burden of HD. We subsequently performed a cross-sectional study with 389 participants (n = 156 with HD [60 of whom were prodromal], n = 233 caregivers)...

Financial Characteristics of Cities in the United States, 1905 - 1930

Christopher Curran

Resource fluctuations inhibit the reproduction and virulence of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni in its snail intermediate host

David Civitello, Lucy Baker, Selvaganesh Maduraiveeran & Rachel Hartman
Resource availability can powerfully influence host-parasite interactions. However, we currently lack a mechanistic framework to predict how resource fluctuations alter individual infection dynamics. We address this gap with experiments manipulating resource supply and starvation for a human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, and its snail intermediate host to test a hypothesis derived from mechanistic energy budget theory: resource fluctuations should reduce schistosome reproduction and virulence by inhibiting parasite ingestion of host biomass. Low resource supply caused hosts...

Vector bionomics and vectorial capacity as emergent properties of mosquito behaviors and ecology

Sean Wu, Penny Hancock, Arnaud Le Menach, Tanya Russell, Thomas Burkot, , Derek Cummings, Kelly Compton, Daniel Citron, John Marshall, Biyonka Liang, Catherine Moyes, Qian Zhang, David Smith, Samson Kiware, Anne Wilson, Thomas Scott, John Henry, Steven Lindsay, Amit Verma & Hector Sanchez C.
Mosquitoes are important vectors for pathogens that infect humans and other vertebrate animals. Some aspects of adult mosquito behavior and mosquito ecology play an important role in determining the capacity of vector populations to transmit pathogens. Here, we re-examine factors affecting the transmission of pathogens by mosquitoes using a new approach. Unlike most previous models, this framework considers the behavioral states and state transitions of adult mosquitoes through a sequence of activity bouts. We developed...

Data from: Host-induced genome instability rapidly generates phenotypic variation across Candida albicans strains and ploidy states

Amanda Smith & Meleah Hickman
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans that is typically diploid yet has a highly labile genome tolerant of large-scale perturbations including chromosomal aneuploidy and loss-of-heterozygosity events. The ability to rapidly generate genetic variation is crucial for C. albicans to adapt to changing or stressful environments, like those encountered in the host. Genetic variation occurs via stress-induced mutagenesis or can be generated through its parasexual cycle, in which tetraploids arise via diploid mating...

Vasoactive intestinal peptide as a mediator of the effects of a supergene on social behavior

Brent M. Horton, Christina M. Michael, Mackenzie R. Prichard & Donna L. Maney
Supergenes, or linked groups of alleles that are inherited together, present excellent opportunities to understand gene-behavior relationships. In white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis), a supergene on the second chromosome associates with a more aggressive and less parental phenotype. This supergene includes the gene for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide known to play a causal role in both aggression and parental behavior. Here, using a free-living population, we compared levels of VIP mRNA between birds with...

Guest Editorial a Reader-Centered Approach: Making Sense of Research Articles

Andrew Wilson

Data from: Canine sense of quantity: evidence for numerical ratio-dependent activation in parietotemporal cortex

Lauren S Aulet, Veronic C Chiu, Ashley Prichard, Mark Spivak, Stella F Lourenco & Gregory S. Berns
The approximate number system (ANS), which supports the rapid estimation of quantity, emerges early in human development and is widespread across species. Neural evidence from both human and non-human primates suggests the parietal cortex as a primary locus of numerical estimation, but it is unclear whether the numerical competencies observed across non-primate species are subserved by similar neural mechanisms. Moreover, because studies with non-human animals typically involve extensive training, little is known about the spontaneous...

The impact of bioenergy pine plantation management practices on bee communities

Xingwen Loy, David Gruenewald, Isabel Gottlieb, Emily Dobbs, Andriana Miljanic, Jamieson Botsch, Brice Lawley, Holly Ober, Lora Smith, Robert Fletcher & Berry Brosi
1. Cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks is a growing land-use worldwide, yet we have a poor understanding of how bioenergy crop management practices affect biodiversity. This knowledge gap is particularly acute for candidate cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks, such as tree plantations, and for organisms that provide important ecosystem services, such as pollinators. 2. We examined bee communities in 83 sites across three states in the southeastern USA—Alabama, Florida and Georgia. We compared bee abundance and diversity in...

The effects of the Medicare NCS reimbursement policy: utilization, payments, and patient access

Evan Reynolds, Kevin Kerber, Chloe Hill, Lindsey De Lott, Brandon Magliocco, Gregory Esper & Brian Callaghan
Objective: To determine whether the 2013 nerve conduction study (NCS) reimbursement reduction changed Medicare utilization, payments, and patient access to Medicare physicians, we performed a retrospective analysis of Medicare data (2012-2016 fee-for-service data from the CMS Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File). Methods: Individual billable services were identified by Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System CPT and G codes. Medicare utilization and payments were stratified by specialty and type of service (electrodiagnostic tests, including NCS...

Vasoactive intestinal peptide as a mediator of the effects of a supergene on social behavior

Brent M. Horton, Christina M. Michael, Mackenzie R. Prichard & Donna L. Maney
Supergenes, or linked groups of alleles that are inherited together, present excellent opportunities to understand gene-behavior relationships. In white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis), a supergene on the second chromosome associates with a more aggressive and less parental phenotype. This supergene includes the gene for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide known to play a causal role in both aggression and parental behavior. Here, using a free-living population, we compared levels of VIP mRNA between birds with...

Data from: Virulence phenotypes result from interactions between pathogen ploidy and genetic background

Meleah Hickman, Dorian Feistel & Rema Elmostafa
Studying fungal virulence is often challenging and frequently depends on many contexts, including host immune status and pathogen genetic background. However, the role of ploidy has often been overlooked when studying virulence in eukaryotic pathogens. Since fungal pathogens, including the human opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans, can display extensive ploidy variation, assessing how ploidy impacts virulence has important clinical relevance. As an opportunistic pathogen, C. albicans causes non-lethal, superficial infections in healthy individuals, but life-threatening bloodstream...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Affiliations

  • Emory University
    27
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
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  • Princeton University
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  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    2
  • University of Virginia
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2
  • University of Kentucky
    2
  • Millersville University
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