16 Works

Data from: Stressor fluxes alter the relationship between beta-diversity and regional productivity

Jonathan De Raedt, Jan M. Baert, Colin R. Janssen & Frederik De Laender
Dispersal of organisms can influence the relationship between beta-diversity and regional productivity in heterogeneous environments. However, many ecosystems are also linked by fluxes of stressors, with an unknown influence on this relationship. In this study, we assess the relationship between beta-diversity (measured as Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) and regional productivity (measured as biovolume) under various levels of a stressor flux in meta-ecosystems that were composed of two marine micro-algae communities. We created heterogeneity by exposing one of...

Data from: Genetic structure of fragmented southern populations of African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer)

Nathalie Smitz, Daniel Cornélis, Philippe Chardonnet, Alexandre Caron, Michel De Garine-Wichatitsky, Ferran Jori, Alice Mouton, Alice Latinne, Lice-Marie Pigneur, Mario Melletti, Kimberly L. Kanapeckas, Jonathan Marescaux, Carlos Lopes Pereira & Johan Michaux
Background: African wildlife experienced a reduction in population size and geographical distribution over the last millennium, particularly since the 19th century as a result of human demographic expansion, wildlife overexploitation, habitat degradation and cattle-borne diseases. In many areas, ungulate populations are now largely confined within a network of loosely connected protected areas. These metapopulations face gene flow restriction and run the risk of genetic diversity erosion. In this context, we assessed the “genetic health” of...

Paradoxes in postmodern consumption

Alain Decrop
Postmodernity has brought new consumption trends juxtaposing opposites. This film presents a number of such paradoxes of postmodern consumers, i.e., alone and together, real and virtual, fast and slow, nomadic and sedentary, masculine and feminine, producer and consumer, profane and sacred. We show how a bunch of products and activities have developed around these paradoxes.

Data from: Controlled fluorescence in a beetle's photonic structure and its sensitivity to environmentally induced changes

Sébastien R. Mouchet, Michaël Lobet, Branko Kolaric, Anna M. Kaczmarek, Rik Van Deun, Peter Vukusic, Olivier Deparis & Eloise Van Hooijdonk
The scales covering the elytra of the male Hoplia coerulea beetle contain fluorophores embedded within a porous photonic structure. The photonic structure controls both insect colour (reflected light) and fluorescence emission. Herein, the effects of water-induced changes on the fluorescence emission from the beetle were investigated. The fluorescence emission peak wavelength was observed to blue-shift on water immersion of the elytra whereas its reflectance peak wavelength was observed to red-shift. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements, together with...

Effects of pigment richness and size variation on coexistence, richness and function in light limited phytoplankton

Jürg Spaak & Frederik De Laender
1. Trait diversity is traditionally seen as promoting species richness and ecosystem function. Species with dissimilar traits would partition available resources, increasing niche differences, facilitating coexistence and increasing ecosystem function. 2. Here we first show, using theory and simulations for light-limited phytoplankton, that combing photosynthetic pigments is indeed a necessary condition for coexistence and stimulates ecosystem function. 3. However, pigment richness does mostly not permit the coexistence of more than two species, and increases productivity...

Co-conception d’un jeu sérieux pour éduquer au développement durable: Chronique de l’implémentation d’une innovation pédagogique à l’ISTOM (Angers)

Camille Calicis, Ludovic Andres, Nicolas Dendoncker, Marc Romainville & Michel Vaillant
L’ISTOM (école d’ingénieur en agro-développement international) forme des ingénieurs aux métiers des filières agricoles à l’international. Son projet de formation ambitionne d’intégrer davantage au cursus une éducation au développement durable à travers une innovation pédagogique ciblée tout en favorisant l’apprentissage expérientiel. Des enseignants-chercheurs de l’ISTOM s’investissent donc aujourd’hui dans la mise en place de cette innovation pédagogique qui prend la forme d’une recherche-action pluridisciplinaire ayant pour but la conception et l’évaluation d’un jeu sérieux en...

Data from: Genetic uniformity and long-distance clonal dispersal in the invasive androgenetic Corbicula clams

Lise-Marie Pigneur, Emilie Etoundi, David C. Aldridge, Jonathan Marescaux, Nina Yasuda & Karine Van Doninck
The clam genus Corbicula is an interesting model system to study the evolution of reproductive modes since it includes both sexual and asexual (androgenetic) lineages. While the sexual populations are restricted to the native Asian areas, the androgenetic lineages are widely distributed being also found in America and Europe where they form a major aquatic invasive pest. We investigated the genetic diversity of native and invasive Corbicula populations through a worldwide sampling. The use of...

Data from: The topology of a discussion: the #occupy case

Floriana Gargiulo, Jacopo Bindi & Andrea Apolloni
Introduction: We analyse a large sample of the Twitter activity that developed around the social movement 'Occupy Wall Street', to study the complex interactions between the human communication activity and the semantic content of a debate. Methods: We use a network approach based on the analysis of the bipartite graph @Users-#Hashtags and of its projections: the 'semantic network', whose nodes are hashtags, and the 'users interest network', whose nodes are users. In the first instance,...

Data from: Footprint of the host restriction factors APOBEC3 on the genome of human viruses

Nicolas Gillet & Florian Poulain
APOBEC3 enzymes are innate immune effectors that introduce mutations into viral genomes. These enzymes are cytidine deaminases which transform cytosine into uracil. They preferentially mutate cytidine preceded by thymidine making the 5’TC motif their favored target. Viruses have evolved different strategies to evade APOBEC3 restriction. Certain viruses actively encode viral proteins antagonizing the APOBEC3s, others passively face the APOBEC3 selection pressure thanks to a depleted genome for APOBEC3-targeted motifs. Hence, the APOBEC3s left on the...

Data from: Horizontal and vertical diversity jointly shape food web stability against small and large perturbations

Qinghua Zhao, Paul J. Van Den Brink, Camille Carpentier, Yingying. X. G. Wang, Pablo Rodríguez-Sánchez, Chi Xu, Silke Vollbrecht, Frits Gillissen, Marlies Vollebregt, Shaopeng Wang & Frederik De Laender
The biodiversity of food webs is composed of horizontal (i.e. within trophic levels) and vertical diversity (i.e. the number of trophic levels). Understanding their joint effect on stability is a key challenge. Theory mostly considers their individual effects and focuses on small perturbations near equilibrium in hypothetical food webs. Here, we study the joint effects of horizontal and vertical diversity on the stability of hypothetical (modelled) and empirical food webs. In modelled food webs, horizontal...

Critical thermal maxima of early life stages of three tropical fishes: effects of rearing temperature and experimental heating rate

Björn Illing, Adam T. Downie, Mahaut Beghin & Jodie L. Rummer
Marine ectotherms are often sensitive to thermal stress, and certain life stages can be particularly vulnerable (e.g., larvae or spawners). In this study, we investigated the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) of larval and early juvenile life stages of three tropical marine fishes (Acanthochromis polyacanthus, Amphiprion melanopus, and Lates calcarifer). We tested for potential effects of developmental acclimation, life stage, and experimental heating rates, and we measured metabolic enzyme activities from aerobic (citrate synthase, CS) and...

Summary of the microsatellite genotyping analysis of 280 C. gariepinus samples originating from eight locations in the Congo basin using five microsatellite markers

Maarten Van Steenberge, Maarten Vanhove, Auguste Chocha Manda, Maarten Larmuseau, Belinda Swart, Faustin Khang'Mate, Allan Arndt, Bart Hellemans, Jeroen Van Houdt, Jean-Claude Micha, Stephan Koblmüller, Rouvay Roodt-Wilding & Filip Volckaert
Aim The formation history of Africa’s current river basins remains largely unknown. In order to date changes in landscape and climate, we studied the biogeography of the African freshwater fish with the largest natural distribution. We also validated biogeographic units. Location Continental Africa. Taxon Clarias gariepinus sl. Methods We investigated mitochondrial cytb sequences of 443 individuals from 97 localities, using a haplotype network and a genetic landscape analysis. We inferred a dated phylogeny using maximum...

Data from: Postglacial climate changes and rise of three ecotypes of harbor porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in western Palearctic waters

Michaël C. Fontaine, Kathleen Roland, Isabelle Calves, Frederic Austerlitz, Friso P. Palstra, Krystal A. Tolley, Sean Ryan, Marisa Ferreira, Thierry Jauniaux, Angela Llavona, Bayram Öztürk, Ayaka A. Öztürk, Vincent Ridoux, Emer Rogan, Ursula Siebert, Marina Sequeira, Gísli A. Vikingsson, Asunción Borrell, Johan R. Michaux & Alex Aguilar
Despite no obvious barriers to gene flow in the marine realm, environmental variation and ecological specializations can lead to genetic differentiation in highly mobile predators. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of the harbor porpoise over the entire species distribution range in western Palearctic waters. Combined analyses of ten microsatellite loci and a 5,085 bases-pairs portion of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of three ecotypes, equally divergent at the mitochondrial genome, distributed in the...

Data from: Prudent behavior rather than chemical deception enables a parasite to exploit its ant host

Thomas Parmentier, Frederik De Laender, Tom Wenseleers & Dries Bonte
Many parasites display complex strategies to evade host detection. The principal view is that parasites of social insects deceive their host by means of advanced chemical adaptations such as mimicking the cuticular host recognition cues, being chemically odorless, or emitting manipulative volatiles. Apart from these chemical adaptations, parasites of social insects may also use simpler behavioral strategies to evade host detection. As yet, such behavior has rarely been studied. Here we tested which chemical and...

Data from: Structural and compositional mismatch between captive and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parrs gut microbiota highlights the relevance of integrating molecular ecology for management and conservation methods.

Camille Lavoie, Maxime Courcelle, Baptiste Redivo, Nicolas Derome & Baptise Redivo
Stocking methods are used in the Province of Quebec to restore Salmo salar populations. However, Atlantic salmon stocked juveniles show higher mortality rates than wild ones when introduced into nature. Hatchery environment, which greatly differs from the natural environment, is identified as the main driver of the phenotypic mismatch between captive and wild parrs. The latter is also suspected to impact the gut microbiota composition, which can be associated with essential metabolic functions for their...

Biometric conversion factors as a unifying platform for comparative assessment of invasive freshwater bivalves

Neil Coughlan, Eoghan Cunningham, Ross Cuthbert, Patrick Joyce, Pedro Anastacio, Filipe Banha, Nicolás Bonel, Stephanie Bradbeer, Elizabeta Briski, Vincent Butitta, Zuzana Čadková, Jaimie Dick, Karel Douda, Lawrence Eagling, Noé Ferreira-Rodríguez, Leandro Hünicken, Mattias Johansson, Louise Kregting, Anna Labecka, Deliang Li, Florencia Liquin, Jonathan Marescaux, Todd Morris, Patrycja Nowakowska, Małgorzata Ożgo … & Francisco Sylvester
1. Invasive bivalves continue to spread and negatively impact freshwater ecosystems worldwide. As different metrics for body size and biomass are frequently used within the literature to standardise bivalve related ecological impacts (e.g. respiration and filtration rates), the lack of broadly applicable conversion equations currently hinders reliable comparison across bivalve populations. To facilitate improved comparative assessment amongst studies originating from disparate geographic locations, we report body size and biomass conversion equations for six invasive freshwater...

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