1,573 Works

Data from: The condition dependency of fitness in males and females: the fitness consequences of juvenile diet assessed in environments differing in key adult resources

Andrea E. Zikovitz & Aneil F. Agrawal
Variation in environmental or genetic quality leads to phenotypic variation in condition, but how much variation in fitness is created by this variation in condition? Using Drosophila melanogaster, we manipulated condition via alternative larval diets and then tested several key factors predicted to influence how much variation in fitness results from differences in condition. Specifically, we were interested in whether male and female fitness are affected equally by condition and whether the strength of selection...

Data from: Antibiotics and the risk of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI): a meta-analysis

K. A. Brown, Nagham Khanafer, Nick Daneman & David N. Fisman
The rising incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) could be reduced by lowering exposures to high risk antibiotics. The objective of this study was to determine the association between antibiotic class and the risk of CDI in the community setting. EMBASE and PubMed were queried without restriction to date or language. Comparative observational studies and RCTs considering the impact of antibiotic exposures on CDI risk among non-hospitalized populations were considered. We estimated pooled odds ratios...

Data from: Rapid adaptation to climate facilitates range expansion of an invasive plant

Robert I. Colautti & Spencer C.H. Barrett
Adaptation to climate, evolving over contemporary time scales, could facilitate rapid range expansion across environmental gradients. Here, we examine local adaptation along a climatic gradient in the North American invasive plant Lythrum salicaria. We show that the evolution of earlier flowering is adaptive at the northern invasion front where it increases fitness as much as, or more than, the effects of enemy release and the evolution of increased competitive ability. However, early flowering decreases investment...

Data from: New Middle Cambrian bivalved arthropod from the Burgess Shale (British Columbia, Canada)

David A. Legg & Jean-Bernard Caron
The morphology of two new bivalved arthropods, Loricicaris spinocaudatus gen. et sp. nov. and Nereocaris briggsi sp. nov. from the middle Cambrian (Series 3, Stage 5) Burgess Shale Formation (Collins Quarry locality on Mount Stephen, Yoho National Park, British Columbia, Canada), is described. The material was originally assigned to the genus Branchiocaris, but exhibits distinctive character combinations meriting its assignment to other taxa. Loricicaris spinocaudatus possesses an elongate and spinose abdomen comparable to the contemporaneous...

Data from: The Chlamydiales pangenome revisited: structural stability and functional coherence

Fotis E. Psomopoulos, Victoria I. Siarkou, Nikolas Papanikolaou, Ioannis Iliopoulos, Athanasios S. Tsaftaris, Christos A. Ouzounis & Vasilis J. Promponas
The entire publicly available set of 37 genome sequences from the bacterial order Chlamydiales has been subjected to comparative analysis in order to reveal the salient features of this pangenome and its evolutionary history. Over 2,000 protein families are detected across multiple species, with a distribution consistent to other studied pangenomes. Of these, there are 180 protein families with multiple members, 312 families with exactly 37 members corresponding to core genes, 428 families with peripheral...

Data from: Shell geometry and habitat determination in extinct and extant turtles (Reptilia: Testudinata)

Roger B. J. Benson, Gábor Domokos, Peter L. Várkonyi & Robert R. Reisz
A number of means, including forelimb proportions and shell bone histology have been used to infer the paleoecology of extinct turtles. However, the height to width ratio of the shell (as a one-parameter shell model) has been dismissed because of its unreliability, and more complex aspects of shell geometry have generally been overlooked. Here we employ a more reliable, three-parameter geometric model of the shell outline in anterior view as a means to assess turtle...

Data from: A study of canalization and developmental stability in the sternopleural bristle system of Drosophila melanogaster

Ian Dworkin
Among the explanations for minimizing the effects of extraneous variation has been canalization and developmental stability. However, there is little agreement as to whether these two processes reflect a common set of mechanisms. This confusion is inflated due to the lack of consensus as to a precise definition of canalization. In this study, canalization in the sternopleural bristle system is used to investigate the relationships between measures of canalization and developmental stability by comparing how...

Data from: Landmark based thin plate spline relative warp analysis of gastropod shells

J. R. Stone
In the analysis of organismal form, landmark-based geometrical morphometrics now are preferred to traditional morphometrics by many systematists. However, certain forms have eluded geometrical morphometric analysis because landmarks on them are difficult to define; this situation is a problem of logistics rather than an inadequacy of the landmark-based approach. In this article, a landmark-based geometrical morphometric analysis is performed on one such form (the gastropod shell), and the results obtained are compared to those obtained...

Data from: Hybridization in headwater regions, and the role of rivers as drivers of speciation in Amazonian birds

Jason T. Weir, Maya S. Faccio, Paola Pulido-Santacruz, Alfredo Barrera-Guzmán & Alexandre Aleixo
Many understory birds and other groups form genetically differentiated subspecies or closely related species on opposite sides of major rivers of Amazonia, but are proposed to come into geographic contact in headwater regions where narrower river widths may present less of a dispersal barrier. Whether such forms hybridize in headwater regions is generally unknown, but has important implications to our understanding of the role of rivers as drivers of speciation. We used a dataset of...

Data from: Selection towards different adaptive optima drove the early diversification of locomotor phenotypes in the radiation of Neotropical geophagine cichlids

Viviana Astudillo-Clavijo, Jessica H. Arbour & Hernán López-Fernández
Background: Simpson envisaged a conceptual model of adaptive radiation in which lineages diversify into "adaptive zones" within a broad adaptive landscape. However only a handful of studies have actually investigated the adaptive landscape and its implication for our interpretation of the underlying mechanisms of phenotypic evolution. In fishes the evolution of locomotor phenotypes may represent an important dimension of ecomorphological diversification during an adaptive radiation given its implications for feeding and habitat use. Neotropical geophagine...

Data from: The effect of parasites on sex differences in selection

Nathaniel P. Sharp & Crystal M. Vincent
The life history strategies of males and females are often divergent, creating the potential for sex differences in selection. Deleterious mutations may be subject to stronger selection in males, owing to sexual selection, which can improve the mean fitness of females and reduce mutation load in sexual populations. However, sex differences in selection might also maintain sexually antagonistic genetic variation, creating a sexual conflict load. The overall impact of separate sexes on fitness is unclear,...

Data from: Condition dependence of female choosiness in a field cricket

Kevin A. Judge, Janice J. Ting & Darryl T. Gwynne
Females generally choose mates that produce the loudest, brightest or most elaborate sexual displays, and these costly male displays are predicted to be condition dependent. However, mate choice itself is a costly behaviour also expected to be condition dependent. Male fall field crickets, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, produce a conspicuous long-distance calling song that attracts females and is condition dependent. In this study, we tested the condition dependence of female preferences (preference function and choosiness) for male...

Data from: Ontogenetic changes in genetic variances of age-dependent plasticity along a latitudinal gradient

Viktor Nilsson-Örtman, Bjorn Rogell, Robby Stoks & Frank Johansson
The expression of phenotypic plasticity may differ among life stages of the same organism. Age-dependent plasticity can be important for adaptation to heterogeneous environments, but this has only recently been recognized. Whether age-dependent plasticity is a common outcome of local adaptation and whether populations harbor genetic variation in this respect remains largely unknown. To answer these questions, we estimated levels of additive genetic variation in age-dependent plasticity in six species of damselflies sampled from 18...

Data from: Loss of GD1-positive Lactobacillus correlates with inflammation in human lungs with COPD

Marc A. Sze, Soraya Utokaparch, W. Mark Elliott, James C. Hogg & Richard G. Hegele
Objectives: The present study assesses the relationship between contents of GD1 (glycerol dehydratase)-positive Lactobacillus, presence of Lactobacillus and the inflammatory response measured in host lung tissue in mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesise that there will be a loss of GD1 producing Lactobacillus with increasing severity of COPD and that GD1 has anti-inflammatory properties. Setting: Secondary care, 1 participating centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Participants: 74 individuals who donated non-cancerous...

Data from: Tropical trees in a wind-exposed island ecosystem: height-diameter allometry and size at onset of maturity

Sean C. Thomas, Adam R. Martin & Erin E. Mycroft
1. Tropical tree species adapted to high wind environments might be expected to differ systematically in terms of stem allometry and life-history patterns, as compared with species found in less windy forests. We quantified height-diameter (H-D) allometries and relative size at onset of maturity (RSOM) for rainforest tree and tree fern species native to Dominica, West Indies, an island that experiences some of the highest average wind speeds pantropically. 2. H-D allometries for 17 Dominican...

Data from: A large new leanchoiliid from the Burgess Shale and the influence of inapplicable states on stem arthropod phylogeny

Cédric Aria, Jean-Bernard Caron & Robert Gaines
Characterized by atypical frontalmost appendages, leanchoiliids are early arthropods whose phylogenetic placement has been much debated. Morphological interpretations have differed, some of which concern critical characters such as the number of eyes and head appendages, but methodological approaches also have diverged. Here, we describe a new leanchoiliid, Yawunik kootenayi gen. et sp. nov., based on 42 specimens from the newly discovered Marble Canyon locality of the Burgess Shale (Kootenay National Park, British Columbia; middle Cambrian)....

Data from: Simulation assisted analysis of the intrinsic stiffness for short DNA molecules imaged with scanning atomic force microscopy

Haowei Wang & Joshua N. Milstein
Studying the mechanical properties of short segments of dsDNA can provide insight into various biophysical phenomena, from DNA looping to the organization of nucleosomes. Scanning atomic force microscopy (AFM) is able to acquire images of single DNA molecules with near-basepair resolution. From many images, one may use equilibrium statistical mechanics to quantify the intrinsic stiffness (or persistence length) of the DNA. However, this approach is highly dependent upon both the correct microscopic polymer model and...

Data from: Both morph- and species-dependent asymmetries affect reproductive barriers between heterostylous species

Barbara Keller, Jurriaan M. De Vos, Alexander N. Schmidt-Lebuhn, James D. Thomson & Elena Conti
The interaction between floral traits and reproductive isolation is crucial to explaining the extraordinary diversity of angiosperms. Heterostyly, a complex floral polymorphism that optimizes outcrossing, evolved repeatedly and has been shown to accelerate diversification in primroses, yet its potential influence on isolating mechanisms remains unexplored. Furthermore, the relative contribution of pre- versus postmating barriers to reproductive isolation is still debated. No experimental study has yet evaluated the possible effects of heterostyly on pre- and postmating...

Data from: Agreements between industry and academia on publication rights: a retrospective study of protocols and publications of randomized clinical trials

Benjamin Kasenda, Erik Von Elm, John J. You, Anette Blümle, Yuki Tomonaga, Ramon Saccilotto, Alain Amstutz, Theresa Bengough, Joerg J. Meerpohl, Mihaela Stegert, Kelechi K. Olu, Kari A. O. Tikkinen, Ignacio Neumann, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Markus Faulhaber, Sohail M. Mulla, Dominik Mertz, Elie A. Akl, Dirk Bassler, Jason W. Busse, Ignacio Ferreira-González, Francois Lamontagne, Alain Nordmann, Viktoria Gloy, Heike Raatz … & Matthias Briel
Background: Little is known about publication agreements between industry and academic investigators in trial protocols and the consistency of these agreements with corresponding statements in publications. We aimed to investigate (i) the existence and types of publication agreements in trial protocols, (ii) the completeness and consistency of the reporting of these agreements in subsequent publications, and (iii) the frequency of co-authorship by industry employees. Methods and Findings: We used a retrospective cohort of randomized clinical...

Data from: Woodstoich III: integrating tools of nutritional geometry and ecological stoichiometry to advance nutrient budgeting and the prediction of consumer-driven nutrient recycling

Erik Sperfeld, Halvor M. Halvorson, Matthew Malishev, Fiona J. Clissold & Nicole D. Wagner
Within the last two decades, ecological stoichiometry (ES) and nutritional geometry (NG, also known as geometric framework for nutrition) have delivered novel insights into core questions of nutritional ecology. These two nutritionally explicit frameworks differ in the ‘nutrient currency’ used and the focus of their past research; behavioural feeding strategies in NG, mainly investigating terrestrial organisms, and trophic ecology in ES, mainly in aquatic settings. However, both NG and ES have developed in explaining patterns...

Data from: A stochastic neuronal model predicts random search behaviors at multiple spatial scales in C. elegans

William M. Roberts, Steven B. Augustine, Kristy J. Lawton, Theodore H. Lindsay, Tod R. Thiele, Eduardo J. Izquierdo, Serge Faumont, Rebecca A. Lindsay, Matthew Cale Britton, Navin Pokala, Cornelia I. Bargmann & Shawn R. Lockery
Random search is a behavioral strategy used by organisms from bacteria to humans to locate food that is randomly distributed and undetectable at a distance. We investigated this behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, an organism with a small, well-described nervous system. Here we formulate a mathematical model of random search abstracted from the C. elegans connectome and fit to a large-scale kinematic analysis of C. elegans behavior at submicron resolution. The model predicts behavioral...

Data from: The Red Queen lives: epistasis between linked resistance loci

César M. J. A. Metzger, Pepijn Luijckx, Gilberto Bento, Mahendra Mariadassou & Dieter Ebert
A popular theory explaining the maintenance of genetic recombination (sex) is the Red Queen Theory. This theory revolves around the idea that time-lagged negative frequency-dependent selection by parasites favors rare host genotypes generated through recombination. Although the Red Queen has been studied for decades, one of its key assumptions has remained unsupported. The signature host-parasite specificity underlying the Red Queen, where infection depends on a match between host and parasite genotypes, relies on epistasis between...

Data from: A global genetic interaction network maps a wiring diagram of cellular function

Michael Costanzo, Benjamin VanderSluis, Elizabeth N. Koch, Anastasia Baryshnikova, Carles Pons, Guihong Tan, Wen Wang, Matej Usaj, Julia Hanchard, Susan D. Lee, Vicent Pelechano, Erin B. Styles, Maximilian Billmann, Jolanda Van Leeuwen, Nydia Van Dyk, Zhen-Yuan Lin, Elena Kuzmin, Justin Nelson, Jeff S. Piotrowski, Tharan Srikumar, Sondra Bahr, Yiqun Chen, Raamesh Deshpande, Christoph F. Kurat, Sheena C. Li … & Charles Boone
INTRODUCTION: Genetic interactions occur when mutations in two or more genes combine to generate an unexpected phenotype. An extreme negative or synthetic lethal genetic interaction occurs when two mutations, neither lethal individually, combine to cause cell death. Conversely, positive genetic interactions occur when two mutations produce a phenotype that is less severe than expected. Genetic interactions identify functional relationships between genes and can be harnessed for biological discovery and therapeutic target identification. They may also...

Data from: Copulation with immature females increases male fitness in cannibalistic widow spiders

M. Daniela Biaggio, Iara Sandomirsky, Yael Lubin, Ally R. Harari, Maydianne C.B. Andrade & Maydianne C. B. Andrade
Copulatory cannibalism of male ‘widow’ spiders (genus Latrodectus) is a model example of the extreme effects of sexual selection, particularly in L. hasselti and L. geometricus where males typically facilitate cannibalism by females and mate only once. We show that these males can increase their reproductive success by copulating with final-instar, immature females after piercing the female's exoskeleton to access her newly developed sperm storage organs. Females retain sperm through their final moult and have...

Data from: What drives selection on flowering time? An experimental manipulation of the inherent correlation between genotype and environment

Emily J. Austen & Arthur E. Weis
The optimal timing of the seasonal switch from somatic growth to reproduction can depend on an individual's condition at reproduction, the quality of the environment in which it will reproduce, or both. In annual plants, vegetative size (a function of age at flowering) affects resources available for seed production, while exposure to mutualists, antagonists, and abiotic stresses in the environment (functions of Julian date of flowering), influences success in converting resources into offspring. The inherent...

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