487 Works

Rwenzori colobus core unit SNA data - association scans between units, simple association index per dyad, male dispersal events, rainfall and food availability

Julie Teichroeb, Frances Adams, T. Jean Arseneau-Robar & Tyler Bonnell
1. Multi-level societies are complex, nested social systems where basic social groups (i.e., core units) associate in a hierarchical manner, allowing animals to adjust their group sizes in response to variables such as food availability, predation, or conspecific threat. These pressures fluctuate over time and examining the extent to which this variation affects the clustering of core units into different tiers may be instrumental in understanding the evolution of multi-level societies. 2. The goal of...

Data from: Predators can influence the host-parasite dynamics of their prey via non-consumptive effects

Nicolette Zukowski, Devin Kirk, Kiran Wadhawan, Dylan Shea, Denon Start & Martin Krkosek
Ecological communities are partly structured by indirect interactions, where one species can indirectly affect another by altering its interactions with a third species. In the absence of direct predation, non-consumptive effects of predators on prey have important implications for subsequent community interactions. To better understand these interactions, we used a Daphnia-parasite-predator cue system to evaluate if predation risk affects Daphnia responses to a parasite. We investigated the effects of predator cues on two aspects of...

Ongoing production of low-fitness hybrids limits range overlap between divergent cryptic species

Else Mikkelsen & Darren Irwin
Contact zones between recently-diverged taxa provide opportunities to examine the causes of reproductive isolation and the processes that determine whether two species can coexist over a broad region. The Pacific Wren (Troglodytes pacificus) and Winter Wren (Troglodytes hiemalis) are two morphologically similar songbirds that started diverging about 4 million years ago, older than most sister species pairs of temperate songbirds. The ranges of these species come into narrow contact in western Canada, where the two...

Progressive neurochemical abnormalities in cognitive and motor subgroups of ALS: a prospective multicentre study

Daniel Ta, Abdullah Ishaque, Ojas Srivastava, Chris Hanstock, Peter Seres, Dean Eurich, Collin Luk, Hannah Briemberg, Richard Frayne, Angela Genge, Simon Graham, Lawrence Korngut, Lorne Zinman & Sanjay Kalra
Objective: To evaluate progressive cerebral degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by assessing alterations in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) ratios in the motor and prefrontal cortex within clinical subgroups of ALS. Methods: Seventy-six ALS patients and 59 healthy controls were enrolled a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study in the Canadian ALS Neuroimaging Consortium (CALSNIC). Participants underwent serial clinical evaluations and MRS at baseline, 4 and 8 months using a harmonized protocol across 5 centers. NAA ratios were quantified...

Shade tree traits and microclimate modifications: Implications for pathogen management in biodiverse coffee agroforests

Stephanie Gagliardi, Jacques Avelino, Elias De Melo Virginio-Filho & Marney Isaac
Diversified coffee agroforests modify microclimate conditions in comparison to monocultures, impacting the success of significant plant pathogens, such as Hemileia vastatrix, which causes coffee leaf rust (CLR). However, research is often limited to the dichotomous analysis of shaded agroforestry systems or unshaded monocultures, often overlooking the nuanced effect of shade tree trait diversity. Our study aims to determine the cumulative effects of shade tree canopy architectural characteristics and leaf functional traits in biodiverse agroforests on...

WiDS (Women in Data Science) Datathon 2020: ICU Mortality Prediction

Meredith Lee, Jesse Raffa, Marzyeh Ghassemi, Tom Pollard, Sharada Kalanidhi, Omar Badawi, Karen Matthys & Leo Anthony Celi
WiDS (Women in Data Science) Datathon 2020: ICU Mortality Prediction focuses on patient health through data from MIT’s GOSSIS (Global Open Source Severity of Illness Score) initiative. Brought to you by the Global WiDS team, the West Big Data Innovation Hub, and the WiDS Datathon Committee, this year’s datathon is launching on Kaggle: bit.ly/WiDSdatathon2020kaggle.

Recovery after the Rupture

Aarzoo Singh
The notion of home and belonging, specifically in the context of South Asian postcolonial diasporas, is connected to past traumas of colonization and displacement. This paper addresses how trauma, displacement, and colonialism can be understood through and with material culture, and how familial objects and items emit and/ or carry within them, emotional narratives. I turn to the affective currency that emit and are transferred on and down from objects, by diasporic subjects, to access...

Data from: The Chlamydiales pangenome revisited: structural stability and functional coherence

Fotis E. Psomopoulos, Victoria I. Siarkou, Nikolas Papanikolaou, Ioannis Iliopoulos, Athanasios S. Tsaftaris, Christos A. Ouzounis & Vasilis J. Promponas
The entire publicly available set of 37 genome sequences from the bacterial order Chlamydiales has been subjected to comparative analysis in order to reveal the salient features of this pangenome and its evolutionary history. Over 2,000 protein families are detected across multiple species, with a distribution consistent to other studied pangenomes. Of these, there are 180 protein families with multiple members, 312 families with exactly 37 members corresponding to core genes, 428 families with peripheral...

Data from: Insect herbivores drive real-time ecological and evolutionary change in plant populations

Anurag A. Agrawal, Amy P. Hastings, M. T. J. Johnson, J. L. Maron & Juha-Pekka Salminen
Insect herbivores are hypothesized to be major factors affecting the ecology and evolution of plants. We tested this prediction by suppressing insects in replicated field populations of a native plant, Oenothera biennis, which reduced seed predation, altered interspecific competitive dynamics, and resulted in rapid evolutionary divergence. Comparative genotyping and phenotyping of nearly 12,000 O. biennis individuals revealed that in plots protected from insects, resistance to herbivores declined through time due to changes in flowering time...

Data from: Condition dependence of female choosiness in a field cricket

Kevin A. Judge, Janice J. Ting & Darryl T. Gwynne
Females generally choose mates that produce the loudest, brightest or most elaborate sexual displays, and these costly male displays are predicted to be condition dependent. However, mate choice itself is a costly behaviour also expected to be condition dependent. Male fall field crickets, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, produce a conspicuous long-distance calling song that attracts females and is condition dependent. In this study, we tested the condition dependence of female preferences (preference function and choosiness) for male...

Data from: Antibiotics and the risk of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI): a meta-analysis

K. A. Brown, Nagham Khanafer, Nick Daneman & David N. Fisman
The rising incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) could be reduced by lowering exposures to high risk antibiotics. The objective of this study was to determine the association between antibiotic class and the risk of CDI in the community setting. EMBASE and PubMed were queried without restriction to date or language. Comparative observational studies and RCTs considering the impact of antibiotic exposures on CDI risk among non-hospitalized populations were considered. We estimated pooled odds ratios...

Data from: The condition dependency of fitness in males and females: the fitness consequences of juvenile diet assessed in environments differing in key adult resources

Andrea E. Zikovitz & Aneil F. Agrawal
Variation in environmental or genetic quality leads to phenotypic variation in condition, but how much variation in fitness is created by this variation in condition? Using Drosophila melanogaster, we manipulated condition via alternative larval diets and then tested several key factors predicted to influence how much variation in fitness results from differences in condition. Specifically, we were interested in whether male and female fitness are affected equally by condition and whether the strength of selection...

Data from: The effect of parasites on sex differences in selection

Nathaniel P. Sharp & Crystal M. Vincent
The life history strategies of males and females are often divergent, creating the potential for sex differences in selection. Deleterious mutations may be subject to stronger selection in males, owing to sexual selection, which can improve the mean fitness of females and reduce mutation load in sexual populations. However, sex differences in selection might also maintain sexually antagonistic genetic variation, creating a sexual conflict load. The overall impact of separate sexes on fitness is unclear,...

Data from: Tropical trees in a wind-exposed island ecosystem: height-diameter allometry and size at onset of maturity

Sean C. Thomas, Adam R. Martin & Erin E. Mycroft
1. Tropical tree species adapted to high wind environments might be expected to differ systematically in terms of stem allometry and life-history patterns, as compared with species found in less windy forests. We quantified height-diameter (H-D) allometries and relative size at onset of maturity (RSOM) for rainforest tree and tree fern species native to Dominica, West Indies, an island that experiences some of the highest average wind speeds pantropically. 2. H-D allometries for 17 Dominican...

Data from: A study of canalization and developmental stability in the sternopleural bristle system of Drosophila melanogaster

Ian Dworkin
Among the explanations for minimizing the effects of extraneous variation has been canalization and developmental stability. However, there is little agreement as to whether these two processes reflect a common set of mechanisms. This confusion is inflated due to the lack of consensus as to a precise definition of canalization. In this study, canalization in the sternopleural bristle system is used to investigate the relationships between measures of canalization and developmental stability by comparing how...

Data from: Shell geometry and habitat determination in extinct and extant turtles (Reptilia: Testudinata)

Roger B. J. Benson, Gábor Domokos, Peter L. Várkonyi & Robert R. Reisz
A number of means, including forelimb proportions and shell bone histology have been used to infer the paleoecology of extinct turtles. However, the height to width ratio of the shell (as a one-parameter shell model) has been dismissed because of its unreliability, and more complex aspects of shell geometry have generally been overlooked. Here we employ a more reliable, three-parameter geometric model of the shell outline in anterior view as a means to assess turtle...

Data from: Landmark based thin plate spline relative warp analysis of gastropod shells

J. R. Stone
In the analysis of organismal form, landmark-based geometrical morphometrics now are preferred to traditional morphometrics by many systematists. However, certain forms have eluded geometrical morphometric analysis because landmarks on them are difficult to define; this situation is a problem of logistics rather than an inadequacy of the landmark-based approach. In this article, a landmark-based geometrical morphometric analysis is performed on one such form (the gastropod shell), and the results obtained are compared to those obtained...

Data from: New Middle Cambrian bivalved arthropod from the Burgess Shale (British Columbia, Canada)

David A. Legg & Jean-Bernard Caron
The morphology of two new bivalved arthropods, Loricicaris spinocaudatus gen. et sp. nov. and Nereocaris briggsi sp. nov. from the middle Cambrian (Series 3, Stage 5) Burgess Shale Formation (Collins Quarry locality on Mount Stephen, Yoho National Park, British Columbia, Canada), is described. The material was originally assigned to the genus Branchiocaris, but exhibits distinctive character combinations meriting its assignment to other taxa. Loricicaris spinocaudatus possesses an elongate and spinose abdomen comparable to the contemporaneous...

Data from: Rapid adaptation to climate facilitates range expansion of an invasive plant

Robert I. Colautti & Spencer C.H. Barrett
Adaptation to climate, evolving over contemporary time scales, could facilitate rapid range expansion across environmental gradients. Here, we examine local adaptation along a climatic gradient in the North American invasive plant Lythrum salicaria. We show that the evolution of earlier flowering is adaptive at the northern invasion front where it increases fitness as much as, or more than, the effects of enemy release and the evolution of increased competitive ability. However, early flowering decreases investment...

Where New Words Are Born: Distributional Semantic Analysis of Neologisms and Their Semantic Neighborhoods

Maria Ryskina, Ella Rabinovich, Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick, David R. Mortensen & Yulia Tsvetkov

Data from: Modern spandrels: the roles of genetic drift, gene flow and natural selection in the formation of parallel clines

James S. Santangelo, Marc T.J. Johnson & Rob W. Ness
Urban environments offer the opportunity to study the role of adaptive and non-adaptive evolutionary processes on an unprecedented scale. While the presence of parallel clines in heritable phenotypic traits is often considered strong evidence for the role of natural selection, non-adaptive evolutionary processes can also generate clines, and this may be more likely when traits have a non-additive genetic basis due to epistasis. In this paper, we use spatially-explicit simulations modelled according to the cyanogenesis...

Data from: The ‘filtering’ metaphor revisited: competition and environment jointly structure invasibility and coexistence

Rachel M. Germain, Margaret M. Mayfield & Benjamin Gilbert
‘Filtering’, or the reduction in species diversity that occurs because not all species can persist in all locations, is thought to unfold hierarchically, controlled by the environment at large scales and competition at small scales. However, the ecological effects of competition and the environment are not independent, and observational approaches preclude investigation into their interplay. We use a demographic approach with 30 plant species to experimentally test (i) the effect of competition on species persistence...

Data from: The effects of haploid selection on Y chromosome evolution in two closely related dioecious plants

George Sandler, Felix E.G. Beaudry, Spencer C.H. Barrett, Stephen I. Wright, Felix E. G. Beaudry & Spencer C. H. Barrett
The evolution of sex chromosomes is usually considered to be driven by sexually antagonistic selection in the diploid phase. However, selection during the haploid gametic phase of the lifecycle has recently received theoretical attention as possibly playing a central role in sex chromosome evolution, especially in plants where gene expression in the haploid phase is extensive. In particular, male-specific haploid selection might favour the linkage of pollen beneficial alleles to male sex determining regions on...

Data from: Habitat partitioning during character displacement between the sexes

Stephen P. De Lisle, Samuel Paiva & Locke Rowe
Ecological differences between the sexes are often interpreted as evidence of within-species ecological character displacement (ECD), a hypothesis with almost no direct tests. Here we experimentally-test two predictions, that are direct corollaries of ECD between the sexes, in a salamander. First, we find support for the prediction that each sex has a growth rate advantage in the aquatic microhabitat where it is most commonly found. Second, we test the prediction that selection for ECD in...

Screening the Sigma LOPAC®1280 library of compounds for protective effects against cisplatin-induced oto- and nephrotoxicity

Jaime Wertman, Nicole Melong, Matthew Stoyek, Olivia Piccolo, Stewart Langley, Benno Orr, Shelby Steele, Babak Razaghi & Jason Berman
Dose-limiting toxicities for cisplatin administration, including ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity, impact the clinical utility of this effective chemotherapy agent and lead to lifelong complications, particularly in pediatric cancer survivors. Using a two-pronged drug screen employing the zebrafish lateral line as an in vivo readout for ototoxicity and kidney cell-based nephrotoxicity assay, we screened 1280 compounds and identified 22 that were both oto- and nephroprotective. Of these, dopamine and L-mimosine, a plant-based amino acid active in the...

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