460 Works

The role of spines in anthropogenic seed dispersal on the Galápagos islands

Marc Johnson, Mae Johnson, Oscar Johnson & Reagan Johnson
Dispersal has important ecological and evolutionary consequences for populations, but understanding the role of specific traits in dispersal can be difficult and requires careful experimentation. Moreover, understanding how humans alter dispersal is an important question, especially on oceanic islands where anthropogenic disturbance through species introductions can dramatically alter native ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the functional role of spines in seed dispersal of the plant caltrop (Tribulus cistoidesL., Zygophyllaceae) by anthropogenic agents. We also...

Data from: Eulerian videography technology improves classification of sleep architecture in primates

Emilie M. Melvin, David R. Samson & Charles L. Nunn
Sleep is a critically important dimension of primate behavior, ecology, and evolution, yet primate sleep is under-studied because current methods of analyzing sleep are expensive, invasive, and time-consuming. In contrast to electroencephalography (EEG) and actigraphy, videography is a cost-effective and non-invasive method to study sleep architecture in animals. With video data, however, it is challenging to score subtle changes that occur in different sleep states, and technology has lagged behind innovations in EEG and actigraphy....

Data from: Effects of niche overlap on co-existence, fixation, and invasion in a population of two interacting species

Matthew Badali & Anton Zilman
Synergistic and antagonistic interactions in multi-species populations - such as resource sharing and competition - result in remarkably diverse behaviors in populations of interacting cells, such as in soil or human microbiomes, or clonal competition in cancer. The degree of inter- and intra-specific interaction can often be quantified through the notion of an ecological "niche". Typically, weakly interacting species that occupy largely distinct niches result in stable mixed populations, while strong interactions and competition for...

Raw data from: Consumer-resource interactions along urbanization gradients drive natural selection

Colin Bonner
Urbanization is an important component of global change. Urbanization affects species interactions, but the evolutionary implications are rarely studied. We investigate the evolutionary consequences of a common pattern: the loss of high trophic-level species in urban areas. Using a gall-forming fly, Eurosta solidaginis, and its natural enemies that select for opposite gall sizes, we test for patterns of enemy loss, selection, and local adaptation along five urbanization gradients. Eurosta declined in urban areas, as did...

Spatial heterogeneity in soil pyrogenic carbon mediates tree growth and physiology following wildfire

Nigel Gale & Sean Thomas
Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is a ubiquitous legacy of wildfire in terrestrial soils, yet how it affects the growth and function of regenerating plants has received little research attention. We examined responses to a natural gradient of PyC deposition five years following a severe fire in a northern boreal forest, based on measurements of growth (height, basal area increment, and leader extension), physiological performance (Fv/Fm), and foliar nutrition (foliar C, N, P, K, Mg) of Pinus...

Data for: Thermal habitat of brook trout in lakes of different size

Darren Smith, Don Jackson & Mark Ridgway
We assessed thermal habitat use of lake-dwelling Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in 39 lakes of varying size with short-set duration, stratified-random netting surveys in Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada. Temperature at capture depth was determined from vertical temperature profiles and used as a proxy of Brook Trout temperature selection. Almost all Brook Trout observations fit within their aerobic scope, indicating that our approach adequately captured the distribution of body temperature for this species. However, we...

Maximum carboxylation rate estimation with chlorophyll content as a proxy of rubisco content

Xuehe Lu, Weimin Ju, Jing Li, Holly Croft, Jing M. Chen, Yiqi Luo, Hua Yu & Haijing Hu
The maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) is a key parameter in determining the plant photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area. However, most terrestrial biosphere models currently treat Vcmax as constants changing only with plant functional types, leading to large uncertainties in modelled carbon fluxes. Vcmax is tightly linked with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Here we investigated the relationship between leaf chlorophyll content and Rubisco (Chl-Rub) within a winter wheat paddock. With chlorophyll as a proxy of Rubisco,...

Morning glory species co-occurrence is associated with asymmetrically decreased and cascading reproductive isolation

Kate Ostevik, Joanna Rifkin, Hanhan Xia & Mark Rausher
Hybridization between species can affect the strength of the reproductive barriers that separate those species. Two extensions of this effect are: (1) the expectation that asymmetric hybridization or gene flow will have asymmetric effects on reproductive barrier strength and (2) the expectation that local hybridization will affect only local reproductive barrier strength and could therefore alter within-species compatibility. We tested these hypotheses in a pair of morning glory species that exhibit asymmetric gene flow from...

Data for: Coevolution fails to maintain genetic variation in a host-parasite model with constant finite population size

Ailene MacPherson, Matthew Keeling & Sarah Otto
Coevolutionary negative frequency-dependent selection has been hypothesized to maintain genetic variation in host and parasites. Despite the extensive literature pertaining to host-parasite coevolution, the dynamics of genetic variation has not been examined in a matching-alleles model (MAM) with a finite population size relative to the expectation under neutral genetic drift alone. The dynamics of the MA coevolution in an infinite population, in fact, suggests that genetic variation in these coevolving populations behaves neutrally. By comparing...

Primary detection records for aquatic nonindigenous species in global estuarine and marine ecosystems and the Great Lakes

Sarah Bailey, Lyndsay Brown, Marnie Campbell, João Canning-Clode, James Carlton, Nuno Castro, Paula Chainho, Farrah Chan, Joel Creed, Amelia Curd, John Darling, Paul Fofonoff, Bella Galil, Chad Hewitt, Graeme Inglis, Inti Keith, Nicholas Mandrak, Agnese Marchini, Cynthia McKenzie, Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Henn Ojaveer, Larissa Pires-Teixeira, Tamara Robinson, Gregory Ruiz, Kimberley Seaward … & Aibin Zhan
Aim The introduction of aquatic non-indigenous species (ANS) has become a major driver for global changes in species biogeography. We examined spatial patterns and temporal trends of ANS detections since 1965 to inform conservation policy and management. Location Global Methods We assembled an extensive dataset of first records of detection of ANS (1965-2015) across 49 aquatic ecosystems, including the i) year of first collection, ii) population status and iii) potential pathway(s) of introduction. Data were...

Species differences in phenology shape coexistence

Christopher Blackford, Rachel Germain & Benjamin Gilbert
Ecological theory produces opposing predictions about whether differences in the timing of life history transitions, or ‘phenology’, promote or limit coexistence. Phenological separation is predicted to create temporal niche differences, increasing coexistence, yet phenological separation could also competitively favour one species, increasing fitness differences and hindering coexistence. We experimentally manipulated relative germination timing, a critical phenological event, of two annual grass species, Vulpia microstachys and V. octoflora, to test these contrasting predictions. We parameterized a...

Data from: Dissecting molecular evolution in the highly diverse plant clade Caryophyllales using transcriptome sequencing

Ya Yang, Michael J. Moore, Samuel F. Brockington, Douglas E. Soltis, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Eric J. Carpenter, Yong Zhang, Li Chen, Zhixiang Yan, Yinlong Xie, Rowan F. Sage, Sarah Covshoff, Julian M. Hibberd, Matthew N. Nelson & Stephen A. Smith
Many phylogenomic studies based on transcriptomes have been limited to “single-copy” genes due to methodological challenges in homology and orthology inferences. Only a relatively small number of studies have explored analyses beyond reconstructing species relationships. We sampled 69 transcriptomes in the hyperdiverse plant clade Caryophyllales and 27 outgroups from annotated genomes across eudicots. Using a combined similarity- and phylogenetic tree-based approach, we recovered 10,960 homolog groups, where each was represented by at least eight ingroup...

Data from: The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) statement: methods for arriving at consensus and developing reporting guidelines

Stuart G. Nicholls, Pauline Quach, Erik Von Elm, Astrid Guttmann, David Moher, Irene Petersen, Henrik T. Sørensen, Liam Smeeth, Sinéad M. Langan & Eric I. Benchimol
Objective: Routinely collected health data, collected for administrative and clinical purposes, without specific a priori research questions, are increasingly used for observational, comparative effectiveness, health services research, and clinical trials. The rapid evolution and availability of routinely collected data for research has brought to light specific issues not addressed by existing reporting guidelines. The aim of the present project was to determine the priorities of stakeholders in order to guide the development of the REporting...

Data from: Life-stage differences in spatial genetic structure in an irruptive forest insect: implications for dispersal and spatial synchrony

Patrick M. A. James, Barry Cooke, Bryan Brunet, Lisa Lumley, Felix Sperling, Marie-Josée Fortin, Vanessa S. Quinn, Brian R. Sturtevant, Bryan M. T. Brunet, Lisa M. Lumley & Felix A. H. Sperling
Dispersal determines the flux of individuals, energy, and information and is therefore a key determinant of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Yet, it remains difficult to quantify its importance relative to other factors. This is particularly true in cyclic populations in which demography, drift, and dispersal contribute to spatio-temporal variability in genetic structure. Improved understanding of how dispersal influences spatial genetic structure is needed to disentangle the multiple processes that give rise to spatial synchrony in...

Data from: In and out of refugia: historical patterns of diversity and demography in the North American Caesar’s mushroom species complex

Santiago Sánchez-Ramirez, Rodham E. Tulloss, Laura Guzmán-Davalos, Joaquín Cifuentes-Blanco, Ricardo Valenzuela, Arturo Estrada-Torres, Felipe Ruán-Soto, Raúl Díaz-Moreno, Nallely Hernández-Rico, Mariano Torres-Gómez, Hugo León & Jean-Marc Moncalvo
Some of the effects of past climate dynamics on plant and animal diversity make-up have been relatively well studied, but to less extent in fungi. Pleistocene refugia are thought to harbor high biological diversity (i.e. phylogenetic lineages and genetic diversity), mainly as a product of increased reproductive isolation and allele conservation. In addition, high extinction rates and genetic erosion is expected in previously glaciated regions. Some of the consequences of past climate dynamics might involve...

Data from: Sensitivity of the distribution of mutational fitness effects to environment, genetic background, and adaptedness: a case study with Drosophila

Alethea D. Wang, Nathaniel Philip Sharp & Aneil F. Agrawal
Heterogeneity in the fitness effects of individual mutations has been found across different environmental and genetic contexts. Going beyond effects on individual mutations, how is the distribution of selective effects, f(s), altered by changes in genetic and environmental context? In this study, we examined changes in the major features of f(s) by estimating viability selection on 36 individual mutations in Drosophila melanogaster across two different environments in two different genetic backgrounds that were either adapted...

Data from: Rapid evolution of larval life history, adult immune function and flight muscles in a poleward moving damselfly

Lieven Therry, Viktor Nilsson-Örtman, Dries Bonte & Robby Stoks
Although a growing number of studies have documented the evolution of adult dispersal-related traits at the range edge of poleward-expanding species, we know little about evolutionary changes in immune function or traits expressed by nondispersing larvae. We investigated differentiation in larval (growth and development) and adult traits (immune function and flight-related traits) between replicated core and edge populations of the poleward-moving damselfly Coenagrion scitulum. These traits were measured on individuals reared in a common garden...

Data from: Parasitism and the expression of sexual dimorphism

Stephen P. De Lisle & Locke Rowe
Although a negative covariance between parasite load and sexually selected trait expression is a requirement of few sexual selection models, such a covariance may be a general result of life-history allocation trade-offs. If both allocation to sexually selected traits and to somatic maintenance (immunocompetence) are condition dependent, then in populations where individuals vary in condition, a positive covariance between trait expression and immunocompetence, and thus a negative covariance between trait and parasite load, is expected....

Data from: Changing climate cues differentially alter zooplankton dormancy dynamics across latitudes

Natalie T. Jones & Benjamin Gilbert
1. In seasonal climates, dormancy is a common strategy that structures biodiversity and is necessary for the persistence of many species. Climate change will likely alter dormancy dynamics in zooplankton, the basis of aquatic food webs, by altering two important hatching cues: mean temperatures during the ice-free season, and mean day length when lakes become ice free. Theory suggests that these changes could alter diversity, hatchling abundances and phenology within lakes, and that these responses...

Data from: Simulation as a new tool to establish benchmark outcome measures in obstetrics

Matt M. Kurrek, Pamela Morgan, Steven Howard, Peter Kranke, Aaron Calhoun, Joshua Hui & Alex Kiss
Background: There are not enough clinical data from rare critical events to calculate statistics to decide if the management of actual events might be below what could reasonably be expected (i.e. was an outlier). Objectives: In this project we used simulation to describe the distribution of management times as an approach to decide if the management of a simulated obstetrical crisis scenario could be considered an outlier. Design: Twelve obstetrical teams managed 4 scenarios that...

Data from: Antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits

Kenneth A. Thompson, Marc T. J. Johnson & Ken A. Thompson
While many studies demonstrate that herbivores alter selection on plant reproductive traits, little is known about whether antiherbivore defenses affect selection on these traits. We hypothesized that antiherbivore defenses could alter selection on reproductive traits by altering trait expression through allocation trade-offs, or by altering interactions with mutualists and/or antagonists. To test our hypothesis, we used white clover, Trifolium repens, which has a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide—a potent antiherbivore defense. We...

Data from: Analysis of iris surface features in populations of diverse ancestry

Melissa Edwards, David Cha, S. Krithika, Monique Johnson & Esteban J. Parra
There are many textural elements that can be found in the human eye, including Fuchs’ crypts, Wolfflin nodules, pigment spots, contraction furrows and conjunctival melanosis. Although iris surface features have been well-studied in populations of European ancestry, the worldwide distribution of these traits is poorly understood. In this paper, we develop a new method of characterizing iris features from photographs of the iris. We then apply this method to a diverse sample of East Asian,...

Data from: Aggressive behaviours, food deprivation and the foraging gene

Silu Wang & Marla B. Sokolowski
A pleiotropic gene governs multiple traits, which might constrain the evolution of complexity due to conflicting selection on these traits. However, if the pleiotropic effect is modular, then this can facilitate synergistic responses to selection on functionally related traits, thereby leveraging the evolution of complexity. To understand the evolutionary consequence of pleiotropy, the relation among functionally different traits governed by the same gene is key. We examined a pleiotropic function of the foraging (for) gene...

Data from: Chronotype variation drives night-time sentinel-like behaviour in hunter–gatherers

David Samson, Alyssa Crittenden, Ibrahim Mabulla, Audax Mabulla, Charles Nunn, Charles L. Nunn, David R. Samson, Audax Z. P. Mabulla, Ibrahim A. Mabulla & Alyssa N. Crittenden
Sleep is essential for survival, yet it also represents a time of extreme vulnerability to predation, hostile conspecifics, and environmental dangers. To reduce the risks of sleeping, the sentinel hypothesis proposes that group-living animals share the task of vigilance during sleep, with some individuals sleeping while others are awake. To investigate sentinel-like behaviour in sleeping humans, we investigated activity patterns at night among Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. Using actigraphy, we discovered that all subjects were...

Data from: Using experimentation to understand the 10-year snowshoe hare cycle in the boreal forest of North America

Charles Krebs, Rudy Boonstra, Stan Boutin & Charles J. Krebs
1. Population cycles have long fascinated ecologists from the time of Charles Elton in the 1920s. The discovery of large population fluctuations in undisturbed ecosystems challenged the idea that pristine nature was in a state of balance. The 10-year cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) across the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska is a classic cycle, recognized by fur traders for more than 300 years. 2. Since the 1930s ecologists have investigated the...

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