471 Works

Data from: Contrasting the effects of natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow on urban evolution in white clover (Trifolium repens)

Marc T.J. Johnson, Cindy M. Prashad, Mélanie Lavoignat & Hargurdeep S. Saini
Urbanization is a global phenomenon with profound effects on the ecology and evolution of organisms. We examined the relative roles of natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow in influencing the evolution of white clover (Trifolium repens), which thrives in urban and rural areas. Trifolium repens exhibits a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), a potent antiherbivore defence. We quantified the relative frequency of HCN in 490 populations sampled along urban-rural transects...

Data from: Linking sex differences to the evolution of infectious disease life-histories

Matthew D. Hall & Nicole Mideo
Sex differences in the prevalence, course and severity of infection are widespread, yet the evolutionary consequences of these differences remain unclear. Understanding how male–female differences affect the trajectory of infectious disease requires connecting the contrasting dynamics that pathogens might experience within each sex, to the number of susceptible and infected individuals that are circulating in a population. In this study, we build on theory using genetic covariance functions to link the growth of a pathogen...

Data from: Heterostyly promotes disassortative pollination and reduces sexual interference in Darwin’s primroses: evidence from experimental studies

Barbara Keller, James D. Thomson & Elena Conti
Different strategies to reduce selfing and promote outcrossing have evolved in hermaphroditic flowers. Heterostyly, a complex floral polymorphism that occurs in at least 27 families of angiosperms, is hypothesized to achieve both goals by optimizing cross-pollination (via disassortative pollen transfer) and restricting gamete wastage to autogamy (via the reduction of sexual interference between male and female organs). In heterostylous flowers, the reciprocal positioning of sexual organs in different morphs and the pollen incompatibility-system within flower...

Data from: Hard and soft selection on phenology through seasonal shifts in the general and social environments: a study on plant emergence time

Arthur E. Weis, Kyle M. Turner, Bergita Petro, Emily J. Austen & Susana M. Wadgymar
The timing of transition out of one life history phase determines where in the seasonal succession of environments the next phase is spent. Shifts in the general environment (e.g., seasonal climate) affect the expected fitness for particular transition dates. Variation in transition date also leads to temporal variation in the social environment. For instance, early transition may confer a competitive advantage over later individuals. If so, the social environment will impose frequency- and density-dependent selection...

Data from: Evolution of sexual dimorphism in phenotypic covariance structure in Phymata

David Punzalan & Locke Rowe
Sexual dimorphism is a consequence of both sex-specific selection and potential constraints imposed by a shared genetic architecture underlying sexually homologous traits. However, genetic architecture is expected to evolve to mitigate these constraints, allowing the sexes to approach their respective optimal mean phenotype. In additon, sex-specific selection is expected to generate sexual dimorphism of trait covariance structure (e.g. the phenotypic covariance matrix, P) but previous empirical work has not fully addressed this prediction. We compared...

Data from: Paleocommunity analysis of the Burgess Shale Tulip Beds, Mount Stephen, British Columbia: comparison with the Walcott Quarry and implications for community variation in the Burgess Shale

Lorna J. O'Brien & Jean-Bernard Caron
The Tulip Beds locality on Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia) yields one of the most abundant and diverse (~10,000 specimens in 110 taxa) Burgess Shale fossil assemblages in the Canadian Rockies. Detailed semi quantitative and quantitative analyses of this assemblage suggest strong similarities with the Walcott Quarry on Fossil Ridge. Both assemblages are dominated by epibenthic, sessile, and suspension feeding taxa, mostly represented by arthropods and sponges and have comparable diversity patterns, despite...

Data from: Understanding the spectacular failure of DNA barcoding in willows (Salix): Does this result from a trans-specific selective sweep?

Diana M. Percy, George W. Argus, Quentin C. Cronk, Aron J. Fazekas, Prasad R. Kesanakurti, Kevin S. Burgess, Brian C. Husband, Steven G. Newmaster, Spencer C. H. Barrett, Sean W. Graham & Spencer C.H. Barrett
Willows (Salix: Salicaceae) form a major ecological component of Holarctic floras, and consequently are an obvious target for a DNA-based identification system. We surveyed two to seven plastid genome regions (~3.8 kb; ~3% of the genome) from 71 Salix species across all five subgenera, to assess their performance as DNA barcode markers. Although Salix has a relatively high level of interspecific hybridization, this may not sufficiently explain the near complete failure of barcoding that we...

Data from: The gravity of pollination: integrating at-site features into spatial analysis of contemporary pollen movement.

Michelle F. DiLeo, Jenna C. Siu, Matthew K. Rhodes, Adriana López-Villalobos, Angela Redwine, Kelly Ksiazek & Rodney J. Dyer
Pollen-mediated gene flow is a major driver of spatial genetic structure in plant populations. Both individual plant characteristics and site-specific features of the landscape can modify the perceived attractiveness of plants to their pollinators and thus play an important role in shaping spatial genetic variation. Most studies of landscape-level genetic connectivity in plants have focused on the effects of inter-individual distance using spatial and increasingly ecological separation; yet have not incorporated individual plant characteristics or...

Data from: Efficacy of a probiotic bacterium to treat bats affected by the disease white-nose syndrome

Tina L. Cheng, Heather Mayberry, Liam P. McGuire, Joseph R. Hoyt, Kate E. Langwig, Hung Nguyen, Katy L. Parise, Jeffrey T. Foster, Craig K. R. Willis, Auston Marm Kilpatrick & Winifred F. Frick
The management of infectious diseases is an important conservation concern for a growing number of wildlife species. However, effective disease control in wildlife is challenging because feasible management options are often lacking. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an infectious disease of hibernating bats that currently threatens several North American species with extinction. Currently, no effective treatments exist for WNS. We conducted a laboratory experiment to test the efficacy of treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens, a bacterium that...

Data from: Ephemeral ecological speciation and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient

Asher D. Cutter & Jeremy C. Gray
The richness of biodiversity in the tropics compared to high latitude parts of the world forms one of the most globally conspicuous patterns in biology, and yet few hypotheses aim to explain this phenomenon in terms of explicit micro-evolutionary mechanisms of speciation and extinction. We link population genetic processes of selection and adaptation to speciation and extinction by way of their interaction with environmental factors to drive global scale macro-ecological patterns. High latitude regions are...

Data from: No consistent effects of humans on animal genetic diversity worldwide

Katie Millette, Vincent Fugère, Chloé Debyser, Ariel Greiner, Frédéric Chain & Andrew Gonzalez
Human impacts on genetic diversity are poorly understood yet critical to biodiversity conservation. We used 175,247 COI sequences collected between 1980 and 2016 to assess the global effects of land use and human density on the intraspecific genetic diversity of 17,082 species of birds, fishes, insects, and mammals. Human impacts on mtDNA diversity were taxon and scale-dependent, and were generally weak or non-significant. Spatial analyses identified weak latitudinal diversity gradients as well as negative effects...

Importance of spatio-temporal connectivity to maintain species experiencing range shifts

Jun-Long Huang, Marco Andrello, Alexandre Martensen, Santiago Saura, Dian-Feng Liu, Jian-Hua He & Marie-Josée Fortin
Climate change can affect the habitat resources available to species by changing habitat quantity, suitability and spatial configuration, which largely determine population persistence in the landscape. In this context, dispersal is a central process for species to track their niche. Assessments of the amount of reachable habitat (ARH) using static snap-shots do not account, however, for the temporal overlap of habitat patches that may enhance stepping-stone effects. Here, we quantified the impacts of climate change...

Data from: Using three-dimensional geometric morphometric and dental topographic analyses to infer the systematics and paleoecology of fossil treeshrews (Mammalia, Scandentia)

Keegan Selig, Eric Sargis, Stephen Chester & Mary Silcox
Treeshrews are small, Indomalayan mammals closely related to primates. Previously, three-dimensional geometric morphometric analyses were used to assess patterns of treeshrew lower second molar morphology, which showed that the position of molar landmarks covaries with intraordinal systematics. Another analysis used dental topographic metrics to test patterns of functional dental morphology and found that molar curvature, complexity, and relief were an effective means for examining patterns of variation in treeshrew dietary ecology. Here, we build on...

Expression atlas of Selaginella moellendorffii provides insights into the evolution of vasculature, secondary metabolism and roots

Camilla Ferrari, Devendra Shivhare, Bjoern Oest Hansen, Asher Pasha, Eddi Esteban, Nicholas J. Provart, Friedrich Kragler, Alisdair Fernie, Takayuki Tohge & Marek Mutwil
Selaginella moellendorffii is a representative of the lycophyte lineage and is studied to understand the evolution of land plant traits such as the vasculature, leaves, stems, roots, and secondary metabolism. However, only few studies investigated about the gene expression and transcriptional coordination of Selaginella genes, precluding us from understanding the evolution of transcriptional programs behind these traits. We present a gene expression atlas comprising all major organs, tissue types, and the diurnal gene expression profiles...

Habitat transitions alter the adaptive landscape and shape phenotypic evolution in needlefishes (Belonidae)

Matthew Kolmann, Michael D. Burns, Justin Y. K. Ng, Nathan R. Lovjoy & Devin D. Bloom
Habitat occupancy can have a profound influence on macroevolutionary dynamics, and a switch in major habitat type may alter the evolutionary trajectory of a lineage. In this study we investigate how evolutionary transitions between marine and freshwater habitats affect macroevolutionary adaptive landscapes, using needlefishes (Belonidae) as a model system. We examined the evolution of body shape and size in marine and freshwater needlefishes and tested for phenotypic change in response to transitions between habitats. Using...

Data from: Integrating over uncertainty in spatial scale of response within multispecies occupancy models yields more accurate assessments of community composition

Luke Frishkoff, D. Mahler & Marie-Josee Fortin
Species abundance and community composition are affected not only by the local environment, but also by broader landscape and regional context. Yet, determining the spatial scales at which landscapes affect species remains a persistent challenge, hindering our ability to understand how environmental gradients shape communities. This problem is amplified by data deficient species and imperfect species detection. Here, we present a Bayesian framework that allows uncertainty surrounding the “true” spatial scale of species’ responses (i.e.,...

Genetic structure and biogeographic history of the Bicknell’s Thrush/ Gray-cheeked Thrush species complex

Alyssa FitzGerald, Jason Weir, Joel Ralston, Ian Warkentin, Darroch Whitaker & Jeremy Kirchman
Abstract We examined species limits, admixture, and genetic structure among populations in the Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli)–Gray-cheeked Thrush (C. minimus) species complex to establish the geographic and temporal context of speciation in this group, which is a model system in ecology and a high conservation priority. We obtained mitochondrial ND2 sequences from 186 Bicknell’s Thrushes, 77 Gray-cheeked Thrushes, and 55 individuals of their closest relative, the Veery (C. fuscescens), and genotyped a subset of individuals...

Quality of advertisements for prescription drugs in family practice medical journals published in Australia, Canada, and the United States with different regulatory controls: a cross-sectional study

Dion Diep, Abnoos Mosleh-Shirazi & Joel Lexchin
OBJECTIVE: To assess if different forms of regulation lead to differences in the quality of journal advertisements. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty advertisements from family practice journals published from 2013-2015 were extracted for three countries with distinct regulatory pharmaceutical promotion systems: Australia, Canada, and the United States (US). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Advertisements under each regulatory system were compared concerning three domains: information included in the advertisement, references to scientific evidence, and pictorial appeals...

Cranial endocast of the stem lagomorph Megalagus and brain structure of basal Euarchontoglires

Lucja Fostowicz-Frelik, Sergi Lopez-Torres, Ornella Bertrand, Madlen Lang & Mary Silcox
Early lagomorphs are central to our understanding of how the brain evolved in Glires (rodents, lagomorphs and their kin) from basal members of Euarchontoglires (Glires + Euarchonta, the latter grouping primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Here we report the first virtual endocast of the fossil lagomorph Megalagus turgidus, from the Orella Member of the Brule Formation, early Oligocene, Nebraska, USA. The specimen represents one of the oldest nearly complete lagomorph skulls known. Primitive aspects of the...

Data from: Fine-scale habitat selection by sympatric Canada lynx and bobcat

Samantha Morin, Jeff Bowman, Robby Marrotte & Marie-Josée Fortin
The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and the bobcat (Lynx rufus) are closely related species with overlap at their range peripheries, but the factors that limit each species and the interactions between them are not well understood. Habitat selection is a hierarchical process, in which selection at higher orders (geographic range, home range) may constrain selection at lower orders (within the home range). Habitat selection at a very fine scale within the home range has been...

Data from: Experimental dominant plant removal results in contrasting assembly for dominant and non‐dominant plants

Carlos Alberto Arnillas & Marc W. Cadotte
Understanding why communities appear deterministically dominated by relatively few species is an age‐old debate in ecology. We hypothesised that the dominant and non‐dominant species in a community are governed by different assembly mechanisms where environmental conditions influence dominant species more than non‐dominant species. Further, dominant plants moderate the environment where non‐dominant species thrive, diminishing the influence of environmental filtering and increasing the influence of limiting similarity for non‐dominant species. We tested these hypotheses by removing...

Data from: Two decades of evolutionary changes in Brassica rapa in response to fluctuations in precipitation and severe drought

Elena Hamann, Arthur E. Weis & Steven J. Franks
As climate changes at unprecedented rates, understanding population responses is a major challenge. Resurrection studies can provide crucial insights into the contemporary evolution of species to climate change. We used a seed collection of two Californian populations of the annual plant Brassica rapa made over two decades of dramatic precipitation fluctuations, including increasingly severe droughts. We compared flowering phenology, other drought response traits, and seed production among four generations, grown under drought and control conditions,...

Data from: Herbivores and plant defenses affect selection on plant reproductive traits more strongly than pollinators

James S. Santangelo, Ken A. Thompson & Marc T. J. Johnson
Pollinators and herbivores can both affect the evolutionary diversification of plant reproductive traits. However, plant defenses frequently alter antagonistic and mutualistic interactions and therefore variation in plant defenses may alter patterns of herbivore- and pollinator-mediated selection on plant traits. We tested this hypothesis by conducting a common garden field experiment using 50 clonal genotypes of white clover (Trifolium repens) that varied in a Mendelian inherited chemical antiherbivore defense—the production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). To evaluate...

Data from: Cognitive approach to rehabilitation in children with hyperkinetic movement disorders post-DBS

Hortensia Gimeno, Richard G. Brown, Jean-Pierre Lin, Victoria Cornelius & Helene J. Polatajko
Objective: This proof-of-concept feasibility trial examined the potential of the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) ApproachTM to augment deep brain stimulation (DBS) outcomes in childhood-onset hyperkinetic movement disorders (HMD) including dystonia and dyskinetic cerebral palsy. Methods: Single case experimental design using multiple baseline as N-of-1 trial comprised of 10 intervention sessions, with replications across participants (n=10). Treatment focused on three participant-selected goals. Transfer was assessed on two additional untreated goals. Individuals enrolled were...

Data from: Soil microbes alter plant fitness under competition and drought

Connor Fitzpatrick, Zainab Mustafa & Joani Viliunas
Plants exist across varying biotic and abiotic environments, including variation in the composition of soil microbial communities. The ecological effects of soil microbes on plant communities are well known, whereas less is known about their importance for plant evolutionary processes. In particular, the net effects of soil microbes on plant fitness may vary across environmental contexts and among plant genotypes, setting the stage for microbially mediated plant evolution. Here we assess the effects of soil...

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