471 Works

Data from: New material and systematic re-evaluation of Medusaceratops lokii (Dinosauria: Ceratopsidae) from the Judith River Formation (Campanian, Montana)

Kentaro Chiba, Michael J. Ryan, Federico Fanti, Mark A. Loewen & David C. Evans
Medusaceratops lokii is an enigmatic taxon of ceratopsid represented by partial parietals from the Mansfield bonebed in the Campanian Judith River Formation, Montana. Originally, all ceratopsid material collected from this bonebed was referred to the centrosaurine ceratopsid Albertaceratops, but subsequently two parietals were designated the types of the chasmosaurine, M. lokii, in part, because they were interpreted to have three epiparietals bilaterally. Here we describe new material from the bonebed that allows a systematic revision...

Data from: Inference of facultative mobility in the enigmatic Ediacaran organism Parvancorina

Simon A.F. Darroch, Imran A. Rahman, Brandt Gibson, Rachel A. Racicot, Marc Laflamme & Simon A. F. Darroch
Establishing how Ediacaran organisms moved and fed is critical to deciphering their ecological and evolutionary significance, but has long been confounded by their non-analogue body plans. Here, we use computational fluid dynamics to quantitatively analyze water flow around the Ediacaran taxon Parvancorina, thereby testing between competing models for feeding mode and mobility. The results show that flow was not distributed evenly across the organism, but was directed towards localized areas; this allows us to reject...

Data from: Using simulations to evaluate Mantel-based methods for assessing landscape resistance to gene flow

Katherine A. Zeller, Tyler G. Creech, Katie L. Millette, Rachel S. Crowhurst, Robert A. Long, Helene H. Wagner, Niko Balkenhol & Erin L. Landguth
Mantel-based tests have been the primary analytical methods for understanding how landscape features influence observed spatial genetic structure. Simulation studies examining Mantel-based approaches have highlighted major challenges associated with the use of such tests and fueled debate on when the Mantel test is appropriate for landscape genetics studies. We aim to provide some clarity in this debate using spatially explicit, individual-based, genetic simulations to examine the effects of the following on the performance of Mantel-based...

Data from: Assembly and ecological function of the root microbiome across angiosperm plant species

Connor R. Fitzpatrick, Julia Copeland, Pauline W. Wang, David S. Guttman, Peter M. Kotanen & Marc T. J. Johnson
Across plants and animals, host-associated microbial communities play fundamental roles in host nutrition, development, and immunity. The factors that shape host–microbiome interactions are poorly understood, yet essential for understanding the evolution and ecology of these symbioses. Plant roots assemble two distinct microbial compartments from surrounding soil: the rhizosphere (microbes surrounding roots) and the endosphere (microbes within roots). Root-associated microbes were key for the evolution of land plants and underlie fundamental ecosystem processes. However, it is...

Data from: Genetic basis to hybrid inviability is more complex than hybrid male sterility in Caenorhabditis nematodes

Joanna D. Bundus, Donglin Wang & Asher D. Cutter
Hybrid male sterility often evolves before female sterility or inviability of hybrids, implying that the accumulation of divergence between separated lineages should lead hybrid male sterility to have a more polygenic basis. However, experimental evidence is mixed. Here, we use the nematodes Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens to characterize the underlying genetic basis of asymmetric hybrid male sterility and hybrid inviability. We demonstrate that hybrid male sterility is consistent with a simple genetic basis, involving...

Data from: Cooperation and coexpression: how coexpression networks shift in response to multiple mutualists

Sathvik X. Palakurty, John R. Stinchcombe & Michelle E. Afkhami
A mechanistic understanding of community ecology requires tackling the nonadditive effects of multispecies interactions, a challenge that necessitates integration of ecological and molecular complexity-- namely moving beyond pairwise ecological interaction studies and the ‘gene at a time’ approach to mechanism. Here, we investigate the consequences of multispecies mutualisms for the structure and function of genome-wide coexpression networks for the first time, using the tractable and ecologically-important interaction between legume Medicago truncatula, rhizobia, and mycorrhizal fungi....

Data from: The causes of selection on flowering time through male fitness in a hermaphroditic annual plant

Emily J. Austen & Arthur E. Weis
Flowering is a key life history event whose timing almost certainly affects both male and female fitness, but tests of selection on flowering time through male fitness are few. Such selection may arise from direct effects of flowering time, and indirect effects through covariance between flowering time and the environment experienced during reproduction. To isolate these intrinsically correlated associations, we staggered planting dates of Brassica rapa families with known flowering times, creating populations in which...

Data from: Examination of a historic collection of isolated cranial and appendicular hadrosaurid material from the lower Kirtland Formation of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico

Mateusz Wosik & Merrilee F. Guenther
The Field Museum of Natural History collection contains several isolated hadrosaurid specimens collected by Charles H. Sternberg from the lower Kirtland Formation of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, that have been previously overlooked. Cranial elements described herein consist of a dentary and three jugals while appendicular material is limited to two humeri and two pubes. Many of the specimens preserve taxonomically informative characters that show strong affinities with Kritosaurini but are distinct from Kritosaurus...

Data from: Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study

Luz Boyero, Richard Pearson, Cang Hui, Mark Gessner, Javier Perez, Markos Alexandrou, Manuel Graça, Bradley Cardinale, Ricardo Albariño, M. Arunachalam, Leon Barmuta, Andrew Boulton, Andreas Bruder, Marcos Callisto, Eric Chauvet, Russell Death, David Dudgeon, Andrea Encalada, Veronica Ferreira, Ricardo Figueroa, Alex Flecker, , Julie Helson, Tomoya Iwata, Tajang Jinggut … & Catherine Yule
Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, have high rates of carbon dioxide evasion and they contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and...

Data from: Plant invasion alters trait composition and diversity across habitats

Darwin S. Sodhi, Stuart W. Livingstone, Marta Carboni & Marc W. Cadotte
Increased globalization has accelerated the movement of species around the world. Many of these non-native species have the potential to profoundly alter ecosystems. The mechanisms underpinning this impact are often poorly understood, and traits are often overlooked when trying to understand and predict the impacts of species invasions on communities. We conducted an observational field experiment in Canada’s first National Urban Park, where we collected trait data for seven different functional traits across an abundance...

Data from: The role of ecology, neutral processes and antagonistic coevolution in an apparent sexual arms race

Jennifer C. Perry, Colin J. Garroway & Locke Rowe
Some of the strongest examples of a sexual ‘arms race’ come from observations of correlated evolution in sexually antagonistic traits among populations. However, it remains unclear whether these cases truly represent sexually antagonistic coevolution; alternatively, ecological or neutral processes might also drive correlated evolution. To investigate these alternatives, we evaluated the contributions of intersex genetic correlations, ecological context, neutral genetic divergence and sexual coevolution in the correlated evolution of antagonistic traits among populations of Gerris...

Data from: Non-random loss of phylogenetically distinct rare species degrades phylogenetic diversity in semi-natural grasslands

Kei Uchida, Masayoshi K. Hiraiwa & Marc W. Cadotte
1. Although biodiversity loss is a critically important topic, our understanding of how both land abandonment and land-use intensification in semi-natural grasslands alters the community diversity and assembly mechanisms is very limited. Large-scale economic drivers of land-use change might inadvertently result in the loss of vulnerable species and reduce ecosystem services provisioning. 2. In this study, we assessed non-random community change by examining patterns of low-abundance species loss, and community assembly in semi-natural grasslands due...

Data from: SNPs across time and space: population genomic signatures of founder events and epizootics in the House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)

Allison J. Shultz, Allan J. Baker, Geoffrey E. Hill, Paul M. Nolan & Scott V. Edwards
Identifying genomic signatures of natural selection can be challenging against a background of demographic changes such as bottlenecks and population expansions. Here, we disentangle the effects of demography from selection in the House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) using samples collected before and after a pathogen-induced selection event. Using ddRADseq, we genotyped over 18,000 SNPs across the genome in native pre-epizootic western US birds, introduced birds from Hawaii and the eastern United States, post-epizootic eastern birds, and...

Data from: Limited gene dispersal and spatial genetic structure as stabilizing factors in an ant-plant mutualism

Pierre-Jean G. Malé, Céline Leroy, Pierre Humblot, Alain Dejean, Angélique Quilichini & Jérôme Orivel
Comparative studies of the population genetics of closely associated species are necessary to properly understand the evolution of these relationships because gene flow between populations affects the partners' evolutionary potential at the local scale. As a consequence (at least for antagonistic interactions), asymmetries in the strength of the genetic structures of the partner populations can result in one partner having a co-evolutionary advantage. Here, we assess the population genetic structure of partners engaged in a...

Data from: Distinctive fungal communities in an obligate African ant-plant mutualism

Christopher C.M. Baker, Dino J. Martins, Julianne N. Pelaez, Johan P.J. Billen, Anne Pringle, Megan E. Frederickson, Naomi E. Pierce, Christopher C. M. Baker & Johan P. J. Billen
Three ant species nest obligately in the swollen-thorn domatia of the African ant-plant Vachellia (Acacia) drepanolobium, a model system for the study of ant-defence mutualisms and species coexistence. Here we report on the characteristic fungal communities generated by these ant species in their domatia. First, we describe behavioural differences between the ant species when presented with a cultured fungal isolate in the laboratory. Second, we use DNA metabarcoding to show that each ant species has...

Data from: Experimental insights on the function of ancillary pollen and stigma polymorphisms in plants with heteromorphic incompatibility

Joana Costa, Sílvia Castro, João Loureiro, Spencer C.H. Barrett & Spencer C. H. Barrett
Most heterostylous plants possess a reciprocal arrangement of stigmas and anthers (reciprocal herkogamy), heteromorphic self-incompatibility and ancillary polymorphisms of pollen and stigmas. The topographical complementarity hypothesis proposes that ancillary polymorphisms function in the rejection of incompatible pollen thus promoting disassortative pollination. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating patterns of pollen transfer and capture in populations of dimorphic Armeria maritima and A. pubigera and distylous Limonium vulgare (Plumbaginaceae), and by studying pollen adherence and germination...

Data from: Multiple mutualist effects on genomewide expression in the tripartite association between Medicago truncatula, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi

Michelle E. Afkhami & John R. Stinchcombe
While all species interact with multiple mutualists, the fitness consequences and molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions remain largely unknown. We combined factorial ecological experiments with genomewide expression analyses to examine the phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of model legume Medicago truncatula to rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi. We found synergistic effects of these mutualists on plant performance and examined unique features of plant gene expression responses to multiple mutualists. There were genomewide signatures of mutualists and multiple...

Data from: Convergent evolution of sperm gigantism and the developmental origins of sperm size variability in Caenorhabditis nematodes

Anne Vielle, Nicolas Callemeyn-Torre, Clotilde Gimond, Nausicaa Poullet, Jeremy C. Gray, Asher D. Cutter & Christian Braendle
Sperm cells provide essential, if usually diminutive, ingredients to successful sexual reproduction. Despite this conserved function, sperm competition and coevolution with female traits can drive spectacular morphological change in these cells. Here, we characterize four repeated instances of convergent evolution of sperm gigantism in Caenorhabditis nematodes using phylogenetic comparative methods on 26 species. Species at the extreme end of the 50-fold range of sperm-cell volumes across the genus have sperm capable of comprising up to...

Data from: Experimental evidence that evolutionarily diverse assemblages result in higher productivity

Marc W. Cadotte
There is now ample experimental evidence that speciose assemblages are more productive and provide a greater amount of ecosystem services than depauperate ones. However, these experiments often conclude that there is a higher probability of including complementary species combinations in assemblages with more species, and lack a priori prediction about which species combinations maximize function. Here I report the results of the first experiment that manipulates the evolutionary relatedness of constituent plant species across a...

Data from: A targeted next-generation sequencing toolkit for exon-based cichlid phylogenomics

Katriina L. Ilves & Hernán López-Fernández
Cichlid fishes (family Cichlidae) are models for evolutionary and ecological research. Massively parallel sequencing approaches have been successfully applied to study relatively recent diversification in groups of African and Neotropical cichlids, but such technologies have yet to be used for addressing larger scale phylogenetic questions of cichlid evolution. Here we describe a process for identifying putative single-copy exons from five African cichlid genomes and sequence the targeted exons for a range of divergent (> tens...

Data from: Assessment of plasma proteomics biomarker’s ability to distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules

Gerard A. Silvestri, Nichole T. Tanner, Paul Kearney, Anil Vachani, Pierre P. Massion, Alexander Porter, Steven C. Springmeyer, Kenneth C. Fang, David Midthun, Peter J. Mazzone, D. Madtes, J. Landis, A. Levesque, K. Rothe, M. Balaan, B. Dimitt, B. Fortin, N. Ettinger, A. Pierre, L. Yarmus, K. Oakjones-Burgess, N. Desai, Z. Hammoud, A. Sorenson, R. Murali … & F. Allison
Background: Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge, with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of cancer (pCA) ≤ 50%. Methods: A prospective, multicenter observational trial of 685 patients with 8- to 30-mm lung nodules was conducted. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative abundance of two...

Data from: Ant-plant mutualism: a dietary by-product of a tropical ant's macronutrient requirements

Lina M. Arcila Hernández, Jon G. Sanders, Gabriel A. Miller, Alison Ravenscraft & Megan E. Frederickson
Many arboreal ants depend on myrmecophytic plants for both food and shelter; in return, these ants defend their host plants against herbivores, which are often insects. Ant-plant and other mutualisms do not necessarily involve the exchange of costly rewards or services; they may instead result from by-product benefits, or positive outcomes that do not entail a cost for one or both partners. Here, we examined whether the plant-ant Allomerus octoarticulatus pays a short-term cost to...

Data from: Faunal overview of the Mud Hill locality from the early Permian Vale Formation of Taylor County, Texas

Bryan M. Gee, Steve J. Rosscoe, Diane Scott, Judie Ostlien & Robert R. Reisz
The Texas red beds represent one of the richest series of early Permian deposits in the world. In particular, the Clear Fork Group has produced a diverse assemblage of temnospondyls, early reptiles, and synapsids. However, most of this material has been sourced from the oldest member, the Arroyo Formation, and the understanding of the paleoecosystem of the younger Vale and Choza Formations is less well-resolved. Here we present a new Vale locality, the first vertebrate-bearing...

Data from: Thermal niche evolution across replicated Anolis lizard adaptive radiations

Alex R. Gunderson, D. Luke Mahler & Manuel Leal
Elucidating how ecological and evolutionary mechanisms interact to produce and maintain biodiversity is a fundamental problem in evolutionary ecology. We investigate this issue by focusing on how physiological evolution affects performance and species coexistence along the thermal niche axis in replicated radiations of Anolis lizards, groups best known for resource partitioning based on morphological divergence. We find repeated divergence in thermal physiology within these radiations, and that this divergence significantly affects performance within natural thermal...

Data from: Geographic patterns and pollination ecotypes in Claytonia virginica

Alison J. Parker, Neal M. Williams & James D. Thomson
Geographical variation in pollinators visiting a plant can produce plant populations adapted to local pollinator environments. We documented two markedly different pollinator climates for the spring ephemeral wildflower Claytonia virginica: in more northern populations, the pollen-specialist bee Andrena erigeniae dominated, but in more southern populations, A. erigeniae visited rarely and the bee-fly Bombylius major dominated. Plants in the northern populations experience faster pollen depletion than plants in southern populations. We also measured divergent pollen-related plant...

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