471 Works

Data from: Temporal population genetic structure in the pollen pool for flowering time: a field experiment with Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae)

Jennifer L. Ison & Arthur E. Weis
Premise of the study: Assortative mating by flowering time can cause temporal genetic structure in species with heritable flowering times. A strong temporal structure, when coupled with a seasonal shift in selection, may lead to adaptive temporal clines. We implemented a prospective and retrospective method to estimate the temporal genetic structure in the pollen pool of Brassica rapa. Methods: The prospective method uses flowering schedules to estimate the seasonal shift in the pollen donors’ phenotype....

Data from: Comparative impacts of aboveground and belowground enemies on an invasive thistle

Krystal A. Nunes & Peter M. Kotanen
1. Most research examining how herbivores and pathogens affect performance of invasive plants focuses on aboveground interactions. Although important, the role of belowground communities remains poorly understood, and the relative impact of aboveground and belowground interactions is still debated. As well, most studies of belowground interactions have been carried out in controlled environments, so little is known about the role of these interactions under natural conditions or how these relationships may change across a plant’s...

Data from: Symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria: nodulation and phylogenetic data across legume genera

Michelle E. Afkhami, D. Luke Mahler, Jean H. Burns, Marjorie G. Weber, Martin F. Wojciechowski, Janet Sprent & Sharon Y. Strauss
How species interactions shape global biodiversity and influence diversification is a central – but also data-hungry – question in evolutionary ecology. Microbially-based mutualisms are widespread and could cause diversification by ameliorating stress and thus allowing organisms to colonize and adapt to otherwise unsuitable habitats. Yet the role of these interactions in generating species diversity has received limited attention, especially across large taxonomic groups. In the massive angiosperm family Leguminosae, plants often associate with root-nodulating bacteria...

Data from: A new small captorhinid reptile from the lower Permian of Oklahoma and resource partitioning among small captorhinids in the Richards Spur fauna

Sean P. Modesto, Diane Scott & Robert R. Reisz
Two partial reptile skulls and six dentigerous fragments from the lower Permian Richards Spur locality of Oklahoma represent a new genus and species of small captorhinid reptile. Labidosauriscus richardi gen. et sp. nov. is distinguished from other captorhinids in the reduction of the height of the ridges forming the characteristic net-like, ridge-and-pit cranial sculpturing of captorhinids, and the superimposition of a system of finer pits and furrows over the primary ridge-and-pit cranial ornamentation. Labidosauriscus richardi...

Data from: Competition for mates and the improvement of nonsexual fitness

Li Yun, Patrick J. Chen, Kevin E. Kwok, Christopher S. Angell, Howard D. Rundle & Aneil F. Agrawal
Competition for mates can be a major source of selection, not just on secondary sexual traits but across the genome. Mate competition strengthens selection on males via sexual selection, which typically favours healthy, vigorous individuals and, thus, all genetic variants that increase overall quality. However, recent studies suggest another major effect of mate competition that could influence genome-wide selection: sexual harassment by males can drastically weaken selection on quality in females. Because of these conflicting...

Data from: Habitat connectivity is determined by the scale of habitat loss and dispersal strategy

Allan H. Edelsparre, Ashif Shahid & Mark J. Fitzpatrick
Understanding factors that ameliorate the impact of habitat loss is a major focus of conservation research. One key factor influencing species persistence and evolution is the ability to disperse across increasingly patchy landscapes. Here we ask whether interpatch distance (a proxy for habitat loss) and dispersal strategy can interact to form thresholds where connectivity breaks down. We assayed dispersal across a range of interpatch distances in fruit flies carrying allelic variants of a gene known...

Data from: The UBR-1 ubiquitin ligase regulates glutamate metabolism to generate coordinated motor pattern in Caenorhabditis elegans

Jysothna Chitturi, Wesley Hung, Anas M. Abdel Rahman, Min Wu, Maria A. Lim, John Calarco, Rene Baran, Xun Huang, James W. Dennis, Mei Zhen & Jyothsna Chitturi
UBR1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase best known for its ability to target protein degradation by the N-end rule. The physiological functions of UBR family proteins, however, remain not fully understood. We found that the functional loss of C. elegans UBR-1 leads to synchronized motor neuron activation, preventing body bending when animals generate reversal movements. This motor deficit is rescued by removing GOT-1, a transaminase that converts aspartate to glutamate. Both UBR-1 and GOT-1 are...

Data from: Sexual antagonism for resistance and tolerance to infection in Drosophila melanogaster

Crystal M. Vincent & Nathaniel P. Sharp
A critical task in evolutionary genetics is to explain the persistence of heritable variation in fitness-related traits such as immunity. Ecological factors can maintain genetic variation in immunity, but less is known about the role of other factors, such as antagonistic pleiotropy, on immunity. Sexually dimorphic immunity—with females often being more immune-competent—may maintain variation in immunity in dioecious populations. Most eco-immunological studies assess host resistance to parasites rather than the host's ability to maintain fitness...

Data from: Demonstrating the potential for dynamic auditory stimulation to contribute to motion sickness

Behrang Keshavarz, Lawrence J. Hettinger, Robert S. Kennedy & Jennifer L. Campos
Auditory cues can create the illusion of self-motion (vection) in the absence of visual or physical stimulation. The present study aimed to determine whether auditory cues alone can also elicit motion sickness and how auditory cues contribute to motion sickness when added to visual motion stimuli. Twenty participants were seated in front of a curved projection display and were exposed to a virtual scene that constantly rotated around the participant's vertical axis. The virtual scene...

Data from: Selection for pollen competitive ability in mixed-mating systems

Madeline Amanda Erzen Peters & Arthur E. Weis
Co-expression of genes in plant sporophytes and gametophytes allows correlated gametic and sporophytic selection. Theory predicts that, under outcrossing, an allele conferring greater pollen competitive ability should fix within a population unless antagonistic pleiotropy with the sporophyte stage is strong. However, under strong selfing, pollen competitiveness is immaterial as superior and inferior competitors are deposited on opposite stigmas, producing assortative competition. Because many plant species have mixed-mating systems, selfing should be critical in the spread...

Data from: Applying modern coexistence theory to priority effects

Tess Nahanni Grainger, Andrew D. Letten, Benjamin Gilbert & Tadashi Fukami
Modern coexistence theory is increasingly used to explain how differences between competing species lead to coexistence versus competitive exclusion. Although research testing this theory has focused on deterministic cases of competitive exclusion, in which the same species always wins, mounting evidence suggests that competitive exclusion is often historically contingent, such that whichever species happens to arrive first excludes the other. Coexistence theory predicts that historically contingent exclusion, known as priority effects, will occur when large...

Data from: Phylogenetic Congruence and Discordance Among One Morphological and Three Molecular Data Sets from Pontederiaceae

Sean W. Graham, Joshua R. Kohn, Brian R. Morton, James E. Eckenwalder & Spencer C.H. Barrett
A morphological data set and three sources of data from the chloroplast genome (two genes and a restriction-site survey) were used to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the Pickerelweed family Pontederiaceae. The chloroplast data are converging to a single tree, presumably the true chloroplast phylogeny of the family. Unrooted trees estimated from the three chloroplast data sets were identical or extremely similar in shape to each other, mostly robustly supported and there was no evidence...

Data from: Resistance to a bacterial parasite in the Crustacean Daphnia magna shows Mendelian segregation with dominance

Pepijn Luijckx, Harris Fienberg, David Duneau & Dieter Ebert
The influence of host and parasite genetic background on infection outcome is a topic of great interest because of its pertinence to theoretical issues in evolutionary biology. In the present study we use a classical genetics approach to examine the mode of inheritance of infection outcome in the crustacean Daphnia magna when exposed to the bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. In contrast to previous studies in this system we use a clone of P. ramosa, not...

Data from: A simulation–based evaluation of methods for inferring linear barriers to gene flow

Christopher Blair, Dana E. Weigel, Matthew Balazik, Annika T. H. Keeley, Faith M. Walker, Erin Landguth, Samuel Cushman, Melanie Murphy, Lisette Waits & Niko Balkenhol
Different analytical techniques used on the same data set may lead to different conclusions about the existence and strength of genetic structure. Therefore, reliable interpretation of the results from different methods depends on the efficacy and reliability of different statistical methods. In this paper we evaluate the performance of multiple analytical methods to detect the presence of a linear barrier dividing populations. We were specifically interested in determining if simulation conditions, such as dispersal ability...

Data from: Forward chemical genetic screens in Arabidopsis identify genes that influence sensitivity to the phytotoxic compound sulfamethoxazole

Darrell Desveaux, Karl J. Schreiber, Ryan S. Austin, Yunchen Gong, Jianfeng Zhang, Pauline Fung, Pauline W. Wang & David S. Guttman
BACKGROUND: The sulfanilamide family comprises a clinically important group of antimicrobial compounds which also display bioactivity in plants. While there is evidence that sulfanilamides inhibit folate biosynthesis in both bacteria and plants, the complete network of plant responses to these compounds remains to be characterized. As such, we initiated two forward genetic screens in Arabidopsis in order to identify mutants that exhibit altered sensitivity to sulfanilamide compounds. These screens were based on the growth phenotype...

Data from: Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia-1 laboratory strains through comparative genomics.

Chitong Rao, Hadas Benhabib & Alexander W. Ensminger
Over 20 years ago, two groups independently domesticated Legionella pneumophila from a clinical isolate of bacteria collected during the first recognized outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease (at the 1976 American Legion’s convention in Philadelphia). These two laboratory strains, JR32 and Lp01, along with their derivatives, have been disseminated to a number of laboratories around the world and form the cornerstone of much of the research conducted on this important pathogen to date. Nevertheless, no exhaustive examination...

Data from: Testing of the effect of missing data estimation and distribution in morphometric multivariate data analyses

Caleb Marshall Brown, Jessica H. Arbour & Donald A. Jackson
Missing data are an unavoidable problem in biological datasets and the performance of missing data deletion and estimation techniques in morphometric datasets are poorly understood. Here a novel method is used to measure the introduced error of multiple techniques on a representative sample. A large sample of extant crocodilian skulls was measured and analyzed with principal components analysis (PCA). Twenty-three different proportions of missing data were introduced into the dataset, estimated, analyzed, and compared to...

Data from: Carbon content of tree tissues: a synthesis

Sean C. Thomas & Adam R. Martin
Assessing the potential for forest carbon (C) capture and storage requires accurate assessments of C in live tree tissues. In the vast majority of local, regional, and global assessments, C content has been assumed to be 50% of tree biomass; however, recent studies indicate that this assumption is not accurate, with substantial variation in C content among tree species as well as among tissue types. Here we conduct a comprehensive literature review to present a...

Data from: Male-biased fitness effects of spontaneous mutations in Drosophila melanogaster

Nathaniel Philip Sharp & Aneil F. Agrawal
In populations with males and females, sexual selection may often represent a major component of overall selection. Sexual selection could act to eliminate deleterious alleles in concert with other forms of selection, thereby improving the fitness of sexual populations. Alternatively, the divergent reproductive strategies of the sexes could promote the maintenance of sexually-antagonistic variation, causing sexual populations to be less fit. The net impact of sexual selection on fitness is not well understood, due in...

Population and community-level rarity have opposing effects on pollinator visitation and seed set

Kaitlyn Brown & Benjamin Gilbert
When can small, isolated populations overcome the negative consequences of rarity? Despite considerable effort to understand threats to rare species, few studies consider how community context alters these threats. Plant-pollinator interactions offer the opportunity to test the effect of community context on rare species success, as plant-pollinator dynamics are thought to be influenced by neighboring plants, both through competition for pollinators (reducing success in small populations) and attraction of potential pollinators (increasing success in small...

Data for: Tunable self-cleaving ribozymes for modulating gene expression in eukaryotic systems

Thomas Jacobsen, Gloria Yi, Hadel Al Asafen, Ashley Jermusyk, Chase Beisel & Gregory Reeves
Advancements in the field of synthetic biology have been possible due to the development of genetic tools that are able to regulate gene expression. However, the current toolbox of gene regulatory tools for eukaryotic systems have been outpaced by those developed for simple, single-celled systems. Here, we engineered a set of gene regulatory tools by combining self-cleaving ribozymes with various upstream competing sequences that were designed to disrupt ribozyme self-cleavage. As a proof-of-concept, we were...

Data from: Functional and phylogenetic diversity explain different components of diversity effects on biomass production

Shurong Zhou, Mengjiao Huang, Xiang Liu & Marc W. Cadotte
The Anthropocene is defined by human-driven environmental change, with one consequence being the modern dramatic decline in biodiversity globally. This is especially worrisome given the long-acknowledged causal linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and the delivery of ecosystem services. However, the exact mechanisms driving biodiversity- ecosystem function (BEF) relationships remain unclear, specifically the linkages between species differences, measured by trait and phylogenetic distances, and how interactions, such as competitive inequality and stable coexistence via niche...

Data from: An updated gene atlas for maize reveals organ-specific and stress-induced genes

Genevieve M. Hoopes, John P. Hamilton, Joshua C. Wood, Eddi Esteban, Asher Pasha, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Nicholas J. Provart & C. Robin Buell
Maize(Zea mays L.), a model species for genetic studies, is one of the two most important crop species worldwide.The genome sequence of the reference genotype, B73, representative of the stiff stalk heterotic group was recently updated (AGPv4) using long‐read sequencing and optical mapping technology. To facilitate the use of AGPv4 and to enable functional genomic studies and association of genotype with phenotype, we determined expression abundances for replicated mRNA‐sequencing datasets from 79 tissues and five...

Data from: C4 anatomy can evolve via a single developmental change

Marjorie R. Lundgren, Luke T. Dunning, Jill K. Olofsson, Jose J. Moreno Villena, Jacques W. Bouvier, Tammy L. Sage, Roxana Khosravesh, Stefanie Sultmanis, Matt Stata, Brad S. Ripley, Maria S. Vorontsova, Guillaume Besnard, Claire Adams, Nicholas Cuff, Anthony Mapaura, Matheus E. Bianconi, Christine M. Long, Pascal-Antoine Christin, Colin P. Osborne, Roxana Khoshravesh & Jose J. Moreno-Villena
C4 photosynthesis boosts productivity in warm environments. Paradoxically, this complex physiological process evolved independently in numerous plant lineages, despite requiring specialized leaf anatomy. The anatomical modifications underlying C4 evolution have previously been evaluated through interspecific comparisons, which capture numerous changes besides those needed for C4 functionality. Here, we quantify the anatomical changes accompanying the transition between non-C4 and C4 phenotypes by sampling widely across the continuum of leaf anatomical traits in the grass Alloteropsis semialata....

Data from: Divergent selection on the biomechanical properties of stamens under wind and insect pollination

David Timerman, Spencer C.H. Barrett & Spencer C. H. Barrett
Wind pollination has evolved from insect pollination in numerous angiosperm lineages and is associated with a characteristic syndrome of morphological traits. The traits initiating transitions to wind pollination and the ecological drivers involved are poorly understood. Here, we examine this problem in Thalictrum pubescens, an ambophilous (insect and wind pollination) species that probably represents a transitional state in the evolution of wind pollination in some taxa. We investigated wind-induced pollen release by forced harmonic motion...

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