20 Works

Data from: Sensitivity of the distribution of mutational fitness effects to environment, genetic background, and adaptedness: a case study with Drosophila

Alethea D. Wang, Nathaniel Philip Sharp & Aneil F. Agrawal
Heterogeneity in the fitness effects of individual mutations has been found across different environmental and genetic contexts. Going beyond effects on individual mutations, how is the distribution of selective effects, f(s), altered by changes in genetic and environmental context? In this study, we examined changes in the major features of f(s) by estimating viability selection on 36 individual mutations in Drosophila melanogaster across two different environments in two different genetic backgrounds that were either adapted...

Data from: Rapid evolution of larval life history, adult immune function and flight muscles in a poleward moving damselfly

Lieven Therry, Viktor Nilsson-Örtman, Dries Bonte & Robby Stoks
Although a growing number of studies have documented the evolution of adult dispersal-related traits at the range edge of poleward-expanding species, we know little about evolutionary changes in immune function or traits expressed by nondispersing larvae. We investigated differentiation in larval (growth and development) and adult traits (immune function and flight-related traits) between replicated core and edge populations of the poleward-moving damselfly Coenagrion scitulum. These traits were measured on individuals reared in a common garden...

Data from: Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia-1 laboratory strains through comparative genomics.

Chitong Rao, Hadas Benhabib & Alexander W. Ensminger
Over 20 years ago, two groups independently domesticated Legionella pneumophila from a clinical isolate of bacteria collected during the first recognized outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease (at the 1976 American Legion’s convention in Philadelphia). These two laboratory strains, JR32 and Lp01, along with their derivatives, have been disseminated to a number of laboratories around the world and form the cornerstone of much of the research conducted on this important pathogen to date. Nevertheless, no exhaustive examination...

Data from: Antibiotics and the risk of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI): a meta-analysis

K. A. Brown, Nagham Khanafer, Nick Daneman & David N. Fisman
The rising incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) could be reduced by lowering exposures to high risk antibiotics. The objective of this study was to determine the association between antibiotic class and the risk of CDI in the community setting. EMBASE and PubMed were queried without restriction to date or language. Comparative observational studies and RCTs considering the impact of antibiotic exposures on CDI risk among non-hospitalized populations were considered. We estimated pooled odds ratios...

Data from: The condition dependency of fitness in males and females: the fitness consequences of juvenile diet assessed in environments differing in key adult resources

Andrea E. Zikovitz & Aneil F. Agrawal
Variation in environmental or genetic quality leads to phenotypic variation in condition, but how much variation in fitness is created by this variation in condition? Using Drosophila melanogaster, we manipulated condition via alternative larval diets and then tested several key factors predicted to influence how much variation in fitness results from differences in condition. Specifically, we were interested in whether male and female fitness are affected equally by condition and whether the strength of selection...

Data from: New Middle Cambrian bivalved arthropod from the Burgess Shale (British Columbia, Canada)

David A. Legg & Jean-Bernard Caron
The morphology of two new bivalved arthropods, Loricicaris spinocaudatus gen. et sp. nov. and Nereocaris briggsi sp. nov. from the middle Cambrian (Series 3, Stage 5) Burgess Shale Formation (Collins Quarry locality on Mount Stephen, Yoho National Park, British Columbia, Canada), is described. The material was originally assigned to the genus Branchiocaris, but exhibits distinctive character combinations meriting its assignment to other taxa. Loricicaris spinocaudatus possesses an elongate and spinose abdomen comparable to the contemporaneous...

Data from: Rapid adaptation to climate facilitates range expansion of an invasive plant

Robert I. Colautti & Spencer C.H. Barrett
Adaptation to climate, evolving over contemporary time scales, could facilitate rapid range expansion across environmental gradients. Here, we examine local adaptation along a climatic gradient in the North American invasive plant Lythrum salicaria. We show that the evolution of earlier flowering is adaptive at the northern invasion front where it increases fitness as much as, or more than, the effects of enemy release and the evolution of increased competitive ability. However, early flowering decreases investment...

Data from: Diplostigmaty in plants: a novel mechanism that provides reproductive assurance

Jonathan Kissling & Spencer C. H. Barrett
Differentiation of female sexual organs in flowering plants is rare, and contrasts with the wide range of male reproductive strategies. An unusual example involves diplostigmaty, the possession of spatially and temporally distinct stigmas in Sebaea (Gentianaceae). Here, the single pistil within a flower has an apical stigma, as occurs in most flowering plants, but also a secondary stigma that occurs mid-way down the style, which is physically discrete and receptive several days after the apical...

Data from: Ontogeny, morphology and taxonomy of the soft-bodied Cambrian ‘mollusc’ Wiwaxia

Martin R. Smith
The soft-bodied Cambrian organism Wiwaxia poses a taxonomic conundrum. Its imbricated dorsal scleritome suggests a relationship with the polychaete annelid worms, whereas its mouthparts and naked ventral surface invite comparison with the molluscan radula and foot. 476 new and existing specimens from the 505-Myr-old Burgess Shale cast fresh light on Wiwaxia's sclerites and scleritome. My observations illuminate the diversity within the genus and demonstrate that Wiwaxia did not undergo discrete moult stages; rather, its scleritome...

Data from: A novel integrative method for measuring body condition in ecological studies based on physiological dysregulation

Emmanuel Milot, Alan A. Cohen, François Vézina, Deborah M. Buehler, Kevin D. Matson, Theunis Piersman & Theunis Piersma
1. The body condition of free-ranging animals affects their response to stress, decisions, ability to fulfil vital needs and, ultimately, fitness. However, this key attribute in ecology remains difficult to assess, and there is a clear need for more integrative measures than the common univariate proxies. 2. We propose a systems biology approach that positions individuals along a gradient from a ‘normal/optimal’ to ‘abnormal/suboptimal’ physiological state based on Mahalanobis distance computed from physiological biomarkers. We...

Data from: Stability and phylogenetic correlation in gut microbiota: lessons from ants and apes

Jon G. Sanders, Scott Powell, Daniel J. C. Kronaue, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, Megan E. Fredrickson, Naomi E. Pierce, Daniel J. C. Kronauer & Megan E. Frederickson
Correlation between gut microbiota and host phylogeny could reflect codiversification over shared evolutionary history or a selective environment that is more similar in related hosts. These alternatives imply substantial differences in the relationship between host and symbiont, but can they be distinguished based on patterns in the community data themselves? We explored patterns of phylogenetic correlation in the distribution of gut bacteria among species of turtle ants (genus Cephalotes), which host a dense gut microbial...

Data from: Landscape genetics of leaf-toed geckos in the tropical dry forest of northern Mexico

Christopher Blair, Victor H. Jiménez Arcos, Fausto R. Mendez De La Cruz & Robert W. Murphy
Habitat fragmentation due to both natural and anthropogenic forces continues to threaten the evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. This is of particular concern in tropical regions that are experiencing elevated rates of habitat loss. Although less well-studied than tropical rain forests, tropical dry forests (TDF) contain an enormous diversity of species and continue to be threatened by anthropogenic activities including grazing and agriculture. However, little is known about the processes that shape genetic connectivity...

Data from: Directed dispersal by rotational shepherding supports landscape genetic connectivity in a calcareous grassland plant

Yessica Rico, Rolf Holderegger, Hans Juergen Boehmer & Helene H. Wagner
Directed dispersal by animal vectors has been found to have large effects on the structure and dynamics of plant populations adapted to frugivory. Yet, empirical data are lacking on the potential of directed dispersal by rotational grazing of domestic animals to mediate gene flow across the landscape. Here, we investigated the potential effect of large-flock shepherding on landscape-scale genetic structure in the calcareous grassland plant Dianthus carthusianorum, whose seeds lack morphological adaptations to dispersal to...

Data from: Dispersal, niche breadth, and population extinction/colonization ratios predict range size in North American dragonflies

Shannon J. McCauley, Christopher J. Davis, Earl E. Werner, & Michael S. Robeson
1. Species’ range sizes are shaped by fundamental differences in species’ ecological and evolutionary characteristics, and understanding the mechanisms determining range size can shed light on the factors responsible for generating and structuring biological diversity. Moreover, because geographic range size is associated with a species’ risk of extinction and their ability to respond to global changes in climate and land use, understanding these mechanisms has important conservation implications. 2. Despite hypotheses that dispersal behaviour is...

Data from: Incomplete specimens in geometric morphometric analyses

Jessica H. Arbour & Caleb M. Brown
1.The analysis of morphological diversity frequently relies on the use of multivariate methods for characterizing biological shape. However, many of these methods are intolerant of missing data, which can limit the use of rare taxa and hinder the study of broad patterns of ecological diversity and morphological evolution. This study applied a mutli-dataset approach to compare variation in missing data estimation and its effect on geometric morphometric analysis across taxonomically-variable groups, landmark position and sample...

Data from: Population structure of the oldest known macroscopic communities from Mistaken Point, Newfoundland

Simon A. F. Darroch, Marc Laflamme & Matthew E. Clapham
The presumed affinities of the Terminal Neoproterozoic Ediacara biota have been much debated. However, even in the absence of concrete evidence for phylogenetic affinity, numerical paleoecological approaches can be effectively used to make inferences about organismal biology, the nature of biotic interactions, and life history. Here, we examine the population structure of three Ediacaran rangeomorph taxa (Fractofusus, Beothukis, and Pectinofrons), and one non-rangeomorph taxon (Thectardis) across five fossil surfaces around the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland, through...

Data from: Evolutionarily stable sex ratios and mutation load

Josh Hough, Simone Immler, Spencer C. H. Barrett & Sarah P. Otto
Frequency-dependent selection should drive dioecious populations toward a 1:1 sex ratio, but biased sex ratios are widespread, especially among plants with sex chromosomes. Here, we develop population genetic models to investigate the relationships between evolutionarily stable sex ratios, haploid selection, and deleterious mutation load. We confirm that when haploid selection acts only on the relative fitness of X and Y-bearing pollen and the sex ratio is controlled by the maternal genotype, seed sex ratios evolve...

Data from: Density triggers maternal hormones that increase adaptive offspring growth in a wild mammal

Ben Dantzer, Amy E. M. Newman, Rudy Boonstra, Rupert Palme, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries & Andrew G. McAdam
Spruce cone and squirrel density dataData used to investigate how previous year spruce cones and food-supplementation affected red squirrel density. All data collected in Kluane, Yukon, Canada.Spruce cone and density data.csvTable S2 Results - neonate mass and growth rateData used for results shown in Table 2. Only neonate mass and offspring growth data. All data collected in Kluane, Yukon, Canada.Table S2 - neonate mass and growth rate.csvTable S2-S3 ResultsData for results shown in Table S2...

Data from: Nectocaridid ecology, diversity, and affinity: early origin of a cephalopod-like body plan

Martin Ross Smith
Nectocaridids are soft-bodied early to middle Cambrian organisms known from Burgess Shale-type deposits in Canada, China, and Australia. Originally described as unrelated species, they have recently been interpreted as a clade; their flexible tentacles, camera-type eyes, lateral fins, internal gills, axial cavity, and funnel point to a relationship with the cephalopods. However, aspects of this reinterpretation, including the relevance of the group to cephalopod evolution, have been called into question. Here, I examine new and...

Data from: Estimating uncertainty in multivariate responses to selection

John R. Stinchcombe, Anna K. Simonsen, Mark W. Blows & Mark. W. Blows
Predicting the responses to natural selection is one of the key goals of evolutionary biology. Two of the challenges in fulfilling this goal have been the realization that many estimates of natural selection might be highly biased by environmentally induced covariances between traits and fitness, and that many estimated responses to selection do not incorporate or report uncertainty in the estimates. Here we describe the application of a framework that blends the merits of the...

Registration Year

  • 2013
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
    20

Affiliations

  • University of Toronto
    20
  • Royal Ontario Museum
    3
  • Ghent University
    1
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    1
  • Université de Sherbrooke
    1
  • University of California System
    1
  • University of Queensland
    1
  • University of Neuchâtel
    1
  • George Washington University
    1
  • University of Groningen
    1