38 Works

Data from: Condition dependence of female choosiness in a field cricket

Kevin A. Judge, Janice J. Ting & Darryl T. Gwynne
Females generally choose mates that produce the loudest, brightest or most elaborate sexual displays, and these costly male displays are predicted to be condition dependent. However, mate choice itself is a costly behaviour also expected to be condition dependent. Male fall field crickets, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, produce a conspicuous long-distance calling song that attracts females and is condition dependent. In this study, we tested the condition dependence of female preferences (preference function and choosiness) for male...

Data from: Tropical trees in a wind-exposed island ecosystem: height-diameter allometry and size at onset of maturity

Sean C. Thomas, Adam R. Martin & Erin E. Mycroft
1. Tropical tree species adapted to high wind environments might be expected to differ systematically in terms of stem allometry and life-history patterns, as compared with species found in less windy forests. We quantified height-diameter (H-D) allometries and relative size at onset of maturity (RSOM) for rainforest tree and tree fern species native to Dominica, West Indies, an island that experiences some of the highest average wind speeds pantropically. 2. H-D allometries for 17 Dominican...

Data from: The effect of parasites on sex differences in selection

Nathaniel P. Sharp & Crystal M. Vincent
The life history strategies of males and females are often divergent, creating the potential for sex differences in selection. Deleterious mutations may be subject to stronger selection in males, owing to sexual selection, which can improve the mean fitness of females and reduce mutation load in sexual populations. However, sex differences in selection might also maintain sexually antagonistic genetic variation, creating a sexual conflict load. The overall impact of separate sexes on fitness is unclear,...

Data from: Ontogenetic changes in genetic variances of age-dependent plasticity along a latitudinal gradient

Viktor Nilsson-Örtman, Bjorn Rogell, Robby Stoks & Frank Johansson
The expression of phenotypic plasticity may differ among life stages of the same organism. Age-dependent plasticity can be important for adaptation to heterogeneous environments, but this has only recently been recognized. Whether age-dependent plasticity is a common outcome of local adaptation and whether populations harbor genetic variation in this respect remains largely unknown. To answer these questions, we estimated levels of additive genetic variation in age-dependent plasticity in six species of damselflies sampled from 18...

Data from: Evolution of the vertebrate goose-type lysozyme gene family

David M. Irwin
Background: Lysozyme g is an antibacterial enzyme that was first found in the eggs of some birds, but recently has been found in additional species, including non-vertebrates. Some previously characterized lysozyme g sequences are suggested to have altered secretion potential and enzymatic activity, however the distribution of these altered sequences is unknown. Duplicated copies of the lysozyme g gene exist in some species; however, the origins of the duplicates and their roles in altered function...

Data from: Alate susceptibility in ants

Eddie K. H. Ho & Megan E. Frederickson
Pathogens are predicted to pose a particular threat to eusocial insects because infections can spread rapidly in colonies with high densities of closely related individuals. In ants, there are two major castes: workers and reproductives. Sterile workers receive no direct benefit from investing in immunity, but can gain indirect fitness benefits if their immunity aids the survival of their fertile siblings. Virgin reproductives (alates), on the other hand, may be able to increase their investment...

Data from: Quantitative genetic variance and multivariate clines in the Ivyleaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederacea

Amanda J. Stock, Brandon E. Campitelli & John R. Stinchcombe
Clinal variation is commonly interpreted as evidence of adaptive differentiation, although clines can also be produced by stochastic forces. Understanding whether clines are adaptive therefore requires comparing clinal variation to background patterns of genetic differentiation at presumably neutral markers. Although this approach has frequently been applied to single traits at a time, we have comparatively fewer examples of how multiple correlated traits vary clinally. Here, we characterize multivariate clines in the Ivyleaf morning glory, examining...

Data from: The gravity of pollination: integrating at-site features into spatial analysis of contemporary pollen movement.

Michelle F. DiLeo, Jenna C. Siu, Matthew K. Rhodes, Adriana López-Villalobos, Angela Redwine, Kelly Ksiazek & Rodney J. Dyer
Pollen-mediated gene flow is a major driver of spatial genetic structure in plant populations. Both individual plant characteristics and site-specific features of the landscape can modify the perceived attractiveness of plants to their pollinators and thus play an important role in shaping spatial genetic variation. Most studies of landscape-level genetic connectivity in plants have focused on the effects of inter-individual distance using spatial and increasingly ecological separation; yet have not incorporated individual plant characteristics or...

Data from: Understanding the spectacular failure of DNA barcoding in willows (Salix): Does this result from a trans-specific selective sweep?

Diana M. Percy, George W. Argus, Quentin C. Cronk, Aron J. Fazekas, Prasad R. Kesanakurti, Kevin S. Burgess, Brian C. Husband, Steven G. Newmaster, Spencer C. H. Barrett, Sean W. Graham & Spencer C.H. Barrett
Willows (Salix: Salicaceae) form a major ecological component of Holarctic floras, and consequently are an obvious target for a DNA-based identification system. We surveyed two to seven plastid genome regions (~3.8 kb; ~3% of the genome) from 71 Salix species across all five subgenera, to assess their performance as DNA barcode markers. Although Salix has a relatively high level of interspecific hybridization, this may not sufficiently explain the near complete failure of barcoding that we...

Data from: Adaptive landscape and functional diversity of Neotropical cichlids: implications for the ecology and evolution of Cichlinae (Cichlidae; Cichliformes)

Jessica H. Arbour & Hernan López-Fernández
Morphological, lineage and ecological diversity can vary substantially even among closely related lineages. Factors that influence morphological diversification, especially in functionally relevant traits, can help to explain the modern distribution of disparity across phylogenies and communities. Multivariate axes of feeding functional morphology from 75 species of Neotropical cichlid and a stepwise-AIC algorithm were used to estimate the adaptive landscape of functional morphospace in Cichlinae. Adaptive landscape complexity and convergence, as well as the functional diversity...

Data from: Interactive effects of competition and social environment on the expression of sexual dimorphism

Stephen P. De Lisle & Locke Rowe
The expression of sexual dimorphism is expected to be influenced by the acquisition of resources available to allocate to trait growth, combined with sex-specific patterns of resource allocation. Resource acquisition in the wild may be mediated by a variety of ecological factors, such as the density of interspecific competitors. Allocation may in turn depend on social contexts, such as sex ratio, that alter the payoff for investment in sexual traits. How these factors interact to...

Data from: Heterostyly promotes disassortative pollination and reduces sexual interference in Darwin’s primroses: evidence from experimental studies

Barbara Keller, James D. Thomson & Elena Conti
Different strategies to reduce selfing and promote outcrossing have evolved in hermaphroditic flowers. Heterostyly, a complex floral polymorphism that occurs in at least 27 families of angiosperms, is hypothesized to achieve both goals by optimizing cross-pollination (via disassortative pollen transfer) and restricting gamete wastage to autogamy (via the reduction of sexual interference between male and female organs). In heterostylous flowers, the reciprocal positioning of sexual organs in different morphs and the pollen incompatibility-system within flower...

Data from: Prepupal building behavior in Drosophila melanogaster and its evolution under resource and time constraints

Sunitha Narasimha, Sylvain Kolly, Marla B. Sokolowski, Kawecki Tadeusz J., Roshan K. Vijendravarma & Tadeusz J. Kawecki
Structures built by animals are a widespread and ecologically important ‘extended phenotype’. While its taxonomic diversity has been well described, factors affecting short-term evolution of building behavior within a species have received little experimental attention. Here we describe how, given the opportunity, wandering Drosophila melanogaster larvae often build long tunnels in agar substrates and embed their pupae within them. These embedded larvae are characterized by a longer egg-to-pupariation developmental time than larvae that pupate on...

Data from: Implicit racial attitudes influence perceived emotional intensity on other-race faces

Qiandong Wang, Guowei Chen, Zhaoquan Wang, Chao S. Hu, Xiaoqing Hu & Genyue Fu
An ability to accurately perceive and evaluate out-group members' emotions plays a critical role in intergroup interactions. Here we showed that Chinese participants' implicit attitudes toward White people bias their perception and judgment of emotional intensity of White people's facial expressions such as anger, fear and sadness. We found that Chinese participants held pro-Chinese/anti-White implicit biases that were assessed in an evaluative implicit association test (IAT). Moreover, their implicit biases positively predicted the perceived intensity...

Data from: Automated identification of social interaction criteria in Drosophila melanogaster

Jonathan Schneider & Joel D. Levine
The study of social behaviour within groups has relied on fixed definitions of an ‘interaction’. Criteria used in these definitions often involve a subjectively defined cut-off value for proximity, orientation and time (e.g. courtship, aggression and social interaction networks) and the same numerical values for these criteria are applied to all of the treatment groups within an experiment. One universal definition of an interaction could misidentify interactions within groups that differ in life histories, study...

Data from: Managing anabolic steroids in pre-hibernating Arctic ground squirrels: obtaining their benefits and avoiding their costs

Rudy Boonstra, Kaiguo Mo & Douglas Ashley Monks
Androgens have benefits, such as promoting muscle growth, but also significant costs, including suppression of immune function. In many species, these trade-offs in androgen action are reflected in regulated androgen production, which is typically highest only in reproductive males. However, all non-reproductive Arctic ground squirrels, irrespective of age and sex, have high levels of androgens prior to hibernating at sub-zero temperatures. Androgens appear to be required to make muscle in summer, which, together with lipid,...

Data from: Simultaneous pulsed flowering in a temperate legume: causes and consequences of multimodality in the shape of floral display schedules

Susana M. Wadgymar, Emily J. Austen, Matthew N. Cumming & Arthur E. Weis
1. In plants, the temporal pattern of floral displays, or display schedules, delimits an individual's mating opportunities. Thus, variation in the shape of display schedules can affect the degree of population synchrony and the strength of phenological assortative mating by flowering onset date. A good understanding of the mechanisms regulating the timing of flowering onset has been developed, but we know less about factors influencing subsequent patterns of floral display. 2. We observed unusual multimodal...

Data from: The interactive effects of competition and predation risk on dispersal in an insect.

Celina B. Baines, Shannon J. McCauley & Locke Rowe
Dispersal dynamics have significant consequences for ecological and evolutionary processes. Previous work has demonstrated that dispersal can be context-dependent. However, factors affecting dispersal are typically considered in isolation, despite the probability that individuals make dispersal decisions in response to multiple, possibly interacting factors. We examined whether two ecological factors, predation risk and intraspecific competition, have interactive effects on dispersal dynamics. We performed a factorial experiment in mesocosms using backswimmers (Notonecta undulata), flight-capable, semi-aquatic insects. Emigration...

Data from: Standing genetic variation in host preference for mutualist microbial symbionts

Anna K. Simonsen & John R. Stinchcombe
Many models of mutualisms show that mutualisms are unstable if hosts lack mechanisms enabling preferential associations with mutualistic symbiotic partners over exploitative partners. Despite the theoretical importance of mutualism-stabilizing mechanisms, we have little empirical evidence to infer their evolutionary dynamics in response to exploitation by non-beneficial partners. Using a model mutualism—the interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing soil symbionts—we tested for quantitative genetic variation in plant responses to mutualistic and exploitative symbiotic rhizobia in controlled greenhouse...

Data from: Cross-scale interactions and the distribution-abundance relationship

Earl E. Werner, Christopher Davis, David K. Skelly, Rick A. Relyea, Michael F. Benard, Shannon J. McCauley & Christopher J. Davis
Positive interspecific relationships between local abundance and extent of regional distribution are among the most ubiquitous patterns in ecology. Although multiple hypotheses have been proposed, the mechanisms underlying distribution-abundance (d-a) relationships remain poorly understood. We examined the intra- and interspecific distribution-abundance relationships for a metacommunity of 13 amphibian species sampled for 15 consecutive years. Mean density of larvae in occupied ponds was positively related to number of ponds occupied by species; employing the fraction of...

Data from: Genome skimming by shotgun sequencing helps resolve the phylogeny of a pantropical tree family

Pierre-Jean G. Malé, Léa Bardon, Guillaume Besnard, Eric Coissac, Frédéric Delsuc, Julien Engel, Emeline Lhuillier, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Alexandra Tinaut & Jérôme Chave
Whole genome sequencing is helping generate robust phylogenetic hypotheses for a range of taxonomic groups that were previously recalcitrant to classical molecular phylogenetic approaches. As a case study, we performed a shallow shotgun sequencing of eight species in the tropical tree family Chrysobalanaceae to retrieve large fragments of high-copy number DNA regions and test the potential of these regions for phylogeny reconstruction. We were able to assemble the nuclear ribosomal cluster (nrDNA), the complete plastid...

Data from: Acute, delayed and chronic remote ischemic conditioning is associated with downregulation of mTOR and enhanced autophagy signaling

Sagar Rohailla, Nadia A. Clarizia, Michel Sourour, Wesam Sourour, Nitai Gelber, Can Wei, Jing Li, Andrew N. Redington & Nadia Clarizia
Background - Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), induced by brief periods of limb ischemia has been shown to decrease acute myocardial injury and chronic responses after acute coronary syndromes. While several signaling pathways have been implicated, our understanding of the cardioprotection and its underlying mediators and mechanisms remains incomplete. In this study we examine the effect of RIC on pro- autophagy signaling as a possible mechanism of benefit. Methods and Results - We examined the role...

Data from: Experimental test of plant defense evolution in four species using long-term rabbit exclosures

Teresa J. Didiano, Nash E. Turley, Georg Everwand, Hanno Schaefer, Michael J. Crawley & Marc T. J. Johnson
Plant defense traits have evolved over macro- and microevolutionary timescales in response to herbivores. Although a number of studies have investigated the evolutionary impacts of herbivores over short timescales, few studies have experimentally examined what defense traits most commonly evolve and whether multiple coexisting species exhibit similar evolutionary responses to herbivores. We addressed these questions using a long-term experiment at Silwood Park, England, United Kingdom, where we excluded rabbits from 38 grassland plots for <1...

Data from: Genomic support for a moa-tinamou clade and adaptive morphological convergence in flightless ratites

Allan J. Baker, Oliver Haddrath, John D. McPherson & Alison Cloutier
One of the most startling discoveries in avian molecular phylogenetics is that the volant tinamous are embedded in the flightless ratites, but this topology remains controversial because recent morphological phylogenies place tinamous as the closest relative of a monophyletic ratite clade. Here, we integrate new phylogenomic sequences from 1,448 nuclear DNA loci totalling almost one million base pairs from the extinct little bush moa, Chilean tinamou and emu with available sequences from ostrich, elegant crested...

Data from: Experimental evidence that evolutionarily diverse assemblages result in higher productivity

Marc W. Cadotte
There is now ample experimental evidence that speciose assemblages are more productive and provide a greater amount of ecosystem services than depauperate ones. However, these experiments often conclude that there is a higher probability of including complementary species combinations in assemblages with more species, and lack a priori prediction about which species combinations maximize function. Here I report the results of the first experiment that manipulates the evolutionary relatedness of constituent plant species across a...

Registration Year

  • 2014
    38

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    38

Affiliations

  • University of Toronto
    38
  • Royal Ontario Museum
    4
  • Imperial College London
    3
  • Northwestern University
    2
  • Uppsala University
    2
  • Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology
    1
  • Columbus State University
    1
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    1
  • Columbia University
    1
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    1