41 Works

Data from: Hybridization in headwater regions, and the role of rivers as drivers of speciation in Amazonian birds

Jason T. Weir, Maya S. Faccio, Paola Pulido-Santacruz, Alfredo Barrera-Guzmán & Alexandre Aleixo
Many understory birds and other groups form genetically differentiated subspecies or closely related species on opposite sides of major rivers of Amazonia, but are proposed to come into geographic contact in headwater regions where narrower river widths may present less of a dispersal barrier. Whether such forms hybridize in headwater regions is generally unknown, but has important implications to our understanding of the role of rivers as drivers of speciation. We used a dataset of...

Data from: Selection towards different adaptive optima drove the early diversification of locomotor phenotypes in the radiation of Neotropical geophagine cichlids

Viviana Astudillo-Clavijo, Jessica H. Arbour & Hernán López-Fernández
Background: Simpson envisaged a conceptual model of adaptive radiation in which lineages diversify into "adaptive zones" within a broad adaptive landscape. However only a handful of studies have actually investigated the adaptive landscape and its implication for our interpretation of the underlying mechanisms of phenotypic evolution. In fishes the evolution of locomotor phenotypes may represent an important dimension of ecomorphological diversification during an adaptive radiation given its implications for feeding and habitat use. Neotropical geophagine...

Data from: Loss of GD1-positive Lactobacillus correlates with inflammation in human lungs with COPD

Marc A. Sze, Soraya Utokaparch, W. Mark Elliott, James C. Hogg & Richard G. Hegele
Objectives: The present study assesses the relationship between contents of GD1 (glycerol dehydratase)-positive Lactobacillus, presence of Lactobacillus and the inflammatory response measured in host lung tissue in mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesise that there will be a loss of GD1 producing Lactobacillus with increasing severity of COPD and that GD1 has anti-inflammatory properties. Setting: Secondary care, 1 participating centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Participants: 74 individuals who donated non-cancerous...

Data from: A large new leanchoiliid from the Burgess Shale and the influence of inapplicable states on stem arthropod phylogeny

Cédric Aria, Jean-Bernard Caron & Robert Gaines
Characterized by atypical frontalmost appendages, leanchoiliids are early arthropods whose phylogenetic placement has been much debated. Morphological interpretations have differed, some of which concern critical characters such as the number of eyes and head appendages, but methodological approaches also have diverged. Here, we describe a new leanchoiliid, Yawunik kootenayi gen. et sp. nov., based on 42 specimens from the newly discovered Marble Canyon locality of the Burgess Shale (Kootenay National Park, British Columbia; middle Cambrian)....

Data from: Simulation assisted analysis of the intrinsic stiffness for short DNA molecules imaged with scanning atomic force microscopy

Haowei Wang & Joshua N. Milstein
Studying the mechanical properties of short segments of dsDNA can provide insight into various biophysical phenomena, from DNA looping to the organization of nucleosomes. Scanning atomic force microscopy (AFM) is able to acquire images of single DNA molecules with near-basepair resolution. From many images, one may use equilibrium statistical mechanics to quantify the intrinsic stiffness (or persistence length) of the DNA. However, this approach is highly dependent upon both the correct microscopic polymer model and...

Data from: What drives selection on flowering time? An experimental manipulation of the inherent correlation between genotype and environment

Emily J. Austen & Arthur E. Weis
The optimal timing of the seasonal switch from somatic growth to reproduction can depend on an individual's condition at reproduction, the quality of the environment in which it will reproduce, or both. In annual plants, vegetative size (a function of age at flowering) affects resources available for seed production, while exposure to mutualists, antagonists, and abiotic stresses in the environment (functions of Julian date of flowering), influences success in converting resources into offspring. The inherent...

Data from: Investigation of parallel radiofrequency transmission for the reduction of heating in long conductive leads in 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging

Clare E. McElcheran, Benson Yang, Laleh Golenstani-Rad & Simon J. Graham
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is increasingly used to treat a variety of brain diseases by sending electrical impulses to deep brain nuclei through long, electrically conductive leads. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients pre- and post-implantation is desirable to target and position the implant, to evaluate possible side-effects and to examine DBS patients who have other health conditions. Although MRI is the preferred modality for pre-operative planning, MRI post-implantation is limited due to the risk...

Data from: Impaired T Cell Responsiveness to Interleukin-6 in Hematological Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis

Jose F. Camargo, Alyajahan Bhimji, Deepali Kumar, Rupert Kaul, Rhea Pavan, Andre Schuh, Matthew Seftel, Jeffrey H. Lipton, Vikas Gupta, Atul Humar & Shahid Husain
Invasive mold infections (IMI) are among the most devastating complications following chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with high mortality rates. Yet, the molecular basis for human susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis (IA) and mucormycosis remain poorly understood. Herein, we aimed to characterize the immune profile of individuals with hematological malignancies (n = 18) who developed IMI during the course of chemotherapy or HSCT, and compared it to that of hematological patients who had no...

Data from: No evidence that sex and transposable elements drive genome size variation in evening primroses

J. Arvid Ågren, Stephan Greiner, Marc T. J. Johnson & Stephen I. Wright
Genome size varies dramatically across species, but despite an abundance of attention there is little agreement on the relative contributions of selective and neutral processes in governing this variation. The rate of sex can potentially play an important role in genome size evolution because of its effect on the efficacy of selection and transmission of transposable elements. Here, we used a phylogenetic comparative approach and whole genome sequencing to investigate the contribution of sex and...

Data from: Quantitative genetic variance in experimental fly populations evolving with or without environmental heterogeneity

Yuheng Huang, John R. Stinchcombe & Aneil F. Agrawal
Heterogeneous environments are typically expected to maintain more genetic variation in fitness within populations than homogeneous environments. However, the accuracy of this claim depends on the form of heterogeneity as well as the genetic basis of fitness traits and how similar the assay environment is to the environment of past selection. Here we measure quantitative genetic variance for three traits important for fitness using replicated experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster evolving under four selective regimes:...

Data from: Visual ecology of true lemurs suggests a cathemeral origin for the primate cone opsin polymorphism

Kim Valenta, Melissa Edwards, Radoniaina R. Rafaliarison, Steig E. Johnson, Sheila M. Holmes, Kevin A. Brown, Nathaniel J. Dominy, Shawn M. Lehman, Esteban J. Parra & Amanda D. Melin
In contrast to the majority of primates, which exhibit dedicated diurnality or nocturnality, all species of Eulemur are cathemeral. Color vision, in particular, is strongly affected by the spectral composition and intensity of ambient light, and the impact of activity period on the evolution of primate color vision is actively debated. We studied three groups of wild brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar over a one-year span. We also used non-invasive fecal...

Data from: Cerebral white matter lesions and affective episodes correlate in male individuals with bipolar disorder

Armin Birner, Stephan Seiler, Nina Lackner, Susanne A. Bengesser, Robert Queissner, Frederike T. Fellendorf, Martina Platzer, Stefan Ropele, Christian Enzinger, Petra Schwingenschuh, Harald Mangge, Lukas Pirpamer, Hannes Deutschmann, Roger S. McIntyre, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer, Bernd Reininghaus & Eva Z. Reininghaus
Background: Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) have been found in normal aging, vascular disease and several neuropsychiatric conditions. Correlations of WML with clinical parameters in BD have been described, but not with the number of affective episodes, illness duration, age of onset and Body Mass Index in a well characterized group of euthymic bipolar adults. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the associations between bipolar course of illness parameters and WML measured with volumetric analysis. Methods:...

Data from: The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) statement: methods for arriving at consensus and developing reporting guidelines

Stuart G. Nicholls, Pauline Quach, Erik Von Elm, Astrid Guttmann, David Moher, Irene Petersen, Henrik T. Sørensen, Liam Smeeth, Sinéad M. Langan & Eric I. Benchimol
Objective: Routinely collected health data, collected for administrative and clinical purposes, without specific a priori research questions, are increasingly used for observational, comparative effectiveness, health services research, and clinical trials. The rapid evolution and availability of routinely collected data for research has brought to light specific issues not addressed by existing reporting guidelines. The aim of the present project was to determine the priorities of stakeholders in order to guide the development of the REporting...

Data from: Dissecting molecular evolution in the highly diverse plant clade Caryophyllales using transcriptome sequencing

Ya Yang, Michael J. Moore, Samuel F. Brockington, Douglas E. Soltis, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Eric J. Carpenter, Yong Zhang, Li Chen, Zhixiang Yan, Yinlong Xie, Rowan F. Sage, Sarah Covshoff, Julian M. Hibberd, Matthew N. Nelson & Stephen A. Smith
Many phylogenomic studies based on transcriptomes have been limited to “single-copy” genes due to methodological challenges in homology and orthology inferences. Only a relatively small number of studies have explored analyses beyond reconstructing species relationships. We sampled 69 transcriptomes in the hyperdiverse plant clade Caryophyllales and 27 outgroups from annotated genomes across eudicots. Using a combined similarity- and phylogenetic tree-based approach, we recovered 10,960 homolog groups, where each was represented by at least eight ingroup...

Data from: Parasitism and the expression of sexual dimorphism

Stephen P. De Lisle & Locke Rowe
Although a negative covariance between parasite load and sexually selected trait expression is a requirement of few sexual selection models, such a covariance may be a general result of life-history allocation trade-offs. If both allocation to sexually selected traits and to somatic maintenance (immunocompetence) are condition dependent, then in populations where individuals vary in condition, a positive covariance between trait expression and immunocompetence, and thus a negative covariance between trait and parasite load, is expected....

Data from: The causes of selection on flowering time through male fitness in a hermaphroditic annual plant

Emily J. Austen & Arthur E. Weis
Flowering is a key life history event whose timing almost certainly affects both male and female fitness, but tests of selection on flowering time through male fitness are few. Such selection may arise from direct effects of flowering time, and indirect effects through covariance between flowering time and the environment experienced during reproduction. To isolate these intrinsically correlated associations, we staggered planting dates of Brassica rapa families with known flowering times, creating populations in which...

Data from: In and out of refugia: historical patterns of diversity and demography in the North American Caesar’s mushroom species complex

Santiago Sánchez-Ramirez, Rodham E. Tulloss, Laura Guzmán-Davalos, Joaquín Cifuentes-Blanco, Ricardo Valenzuela, Arturo Estrada-Torres, Felipe Ruán-Soto, Raúl Díaz-Moreno, Nallely Hernández-Rico, Mariano Torres-Gómez, Hugo León & Jean-Marc Moncalvo
Some of the effects of past climate dynamics on plant and animal diversity make-up have been relatively well studied, but to less extent in fungi. Pleistocene refugia are thought to harbor high biological diversity (i.e. phylogenetic lineages and genetic diversity), mainly as a product of increased reproductive isolation and allele conservation. In addition, high extinction rates and genetic erosion is expected in previously glaciated regions. Some of the consequences of past climate dynamics might involve...

Data from: Changing climate cues differentially alter zooplankton dormancy dynamics across latitudes

Natalie T. Jones & Benjamin Gilbert
1. In seasonal climates, dormancy is a common strategy that structures biodiversity and is necessary for the persistence of many species. Climate change will likely alter dormancy dynamics in zooplankton, the basis of aquatic food webs, by altering two important hatching cues: mean temperatures during the ice-free season, and mean day length when lakes become ice free. Theory suggests that these changes could alter diversity, hatchling abundances and phenology within lakes, and that these responses...

Data from: Analysis of iris surface features in populations of diverse ancestry

Melissa Edwards, David Cha, S. Krithika, Monique Johnson & Esteban J. Parra
There are many textural elements that can be found in the human eye, including Fuchs’ crypts, Wolfflin nodules, pigment spots, contraction furrows and conjunctival melanosis. Although iris surface features have been well-studied in populations of European ancestry, the worldwide distribution of these traits is poorly understood. In this paper, we develop a new method of characterizing iris features from photographs of the iris. We then apply this method to a diverse sample of East Asian,...

Data from: Simulation as a new tool to establish benchmark outcome measures in obstetrics

Matt M. Kurrek, Pamela Morgan, Steven Howard, Peter Kranke, Aaron Calhoun, Joshua Hui & Alex Kiss
Background: There are not enough clinical data from rare critical events to calculate statistics to decide if the management of actual events might be below what could reasonably be expected (i.e. was an outlier). Objectives: In this project we used simulation to describe the distribution of management times as an approach to decide if the management of a simulated obstetrical crisis scenario could be considered an outlier. Design: Twelve obstetrical teams managed 4 scenarios that...

Data from: Gametic selection, developmental trajectories, and extrinsic heterogeneity in Haldane's rule

Joanna D. Bundus, Ravin Alaei & Asher D. Cutter
Deciphering the genetic and developmental causes of the disproportionate rarity, inviability and sterility of hybrid males, Haldane's rule, is important for understanding the evolution of reproductive isolation between species. Moreover, extrinsic and pre-zygotic factors can contribute to the magnitude of intrinsic isolation experienced between species with partial reproductive compatibility. Here we use the nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and C. nigoni to quantify the sensitivity of hybrid male viability to extrinsic temperature and developmental timing, and test...

Data from: High speciation rate at temperate latitudes explains unusual diversity gradients in a clade of ectomycorrhizal fungi

Santiago Sanchez-Ramirez, Rampal S. Etienne & Jean-Marc Moncalvo
Understanding the patterns of biodiversity through time and space is a challenging task. However, phylogeny-based macroevolutionary models allow us to account and measure many of the processes responsible for diversity build-up, namely speciation and extinction. The general latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is a well-recognized pattern describing a decline in species richness from the equator pole-wards. Recent macroecological studies in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have shown that their LDG is shifted, peaking at temperate rather than tropical...

Data from: Propagule pressure in the presence of uncertainty: extending the utility of proxy variables with hierarchical models

D. Andrew R. Drake, Oscar Casas-Monroy, Marten A. Koops & Sarah A. Bailey
1. Species invasions depend on the abundance and rate at which organisms are introduced to new localities, known as propagule pressure. Due to the challenges of measuring propagule pressure, proxy variables are often used; however, untested proxy variables may obscure the role of propagule pressure vs. ecological factors that facilitate invasion, leading to uncertainty about the invasion process and confounding management response. 2. To generate absolute estimates of propagule pressure and facilitate meaningful comparison among...

Data from: Range-dependent flexibility in the acoustic field of view of echolocating porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

Danuta M. Wisniewska, John M. Ratcliffe, Kristian Beedholm, Christian B. Christensen, Mark Johnson, Jens C. Koblitz, Magnus Wahlberg & Peter M. Madsen
Toothed whales use sonar to detect, locate, and track prey. They adjust emitted sound intensity, auditory sensitivity and click rate to target range, and terminate prey pursuits with high-repetition-rate, low-intensity buzzes. However, their narrow acoustic field of view (FOV) is considered stable throughout target approach, which could facilitate prey escape at close-range. Here, we show that, like some bats, harbour porpoises can broaden their biosonar beam during the terminal phase of attack but, unlike bats,...

Data from: Stress and the microbiome: linking glucocorticoids to bacterial community dynamics in wild red squirrels

Mason R. Stothart, Colleen B. Bobbie, Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde, Rudy Boonstra, Rupert Palme, Nadia C. S. Mykytczuk & Amy E. M. Newman
Bacterial diversity within animals is emerging as an essential component of health, but it is unknown how stress may influence the microbiome. We quantify a proximate link between the oral microbiome and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity using faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) in wild red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Not only was bacterial diversity lower at higher levels of FGM, but also between capture periods a change in bacterial relative abundance was related to an increase in...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Toronto
  • Royal Ontario Museum
  • Aarhus University
  • University College London
  • University of Ottawa
  • University Health Network
  • Uppsala University
  • Pomona College
  • London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine