41 Works

Data from: A large new leanchoiliid from the Burgess Shale and the influence of inapplicable states on stem arthropod phylogeny

Cédric Aria, Jean-Bernard Caron & Robert Gaines
Characterized by atypical frontalmost appendages, leanchoiliids are early arthropods whose phylogenetic placement has been much debated. Morphological interpretations have differed, some of which concern critical characters such as the number of eyes and head appendages, but methodological approaches also have diverged. Here, we describe a new leanchoiliid, Yawunik kootenayi gen. et sp. nov., based on 42 specimens from the newly discovered Marble Canyon locality of the Burgess Shale (Kootenay National Park, British Columbia; middle Cambrian)....

Data from: Simulation assisted analysis of the intrinsic stiffness for short DNA molecules imaged with scanning atomic force microscopy

Haowei Wang & Joshua N. Milstein
Studying the mechanical properties of short segments of dsDNA can provide insight into various biophysical phenomena, from DNA looping to the organization of nucleosomes. Scanning atomic force microscopy (AFM) is able to acquire images of single DNA molecules with near-basepair resolution. From many images, one may use equilibrium statistical mechanics to quantify the intrinsic stiffness (or persistence length) of the DNA. However, this approach is highly dependent upon both the correct microscopic polymer model and...

Data from: What drives selection on flowering time? An experimental manipulation of the inherent correlation between genotype and environment

Emily J. Austen & Arthur E. Weis
The optimal timing of the seasonal switch from somatic growth to reproduction can depend on an individual's condition at reproduction, the quality of the environment in which it will reproduce, or both. In annual plants, vegetative size (a function of age at flowering) affects resources available for seed production, while exposure to mutualists, antagonists, and abiotic stresses in the environment (functions of Julian date of flowering), influences success in converting resources into offspring. The inherent...

Data from: Loss of GD1-positive Lactobacillus correlates with inflammation in human lungs with COPD

Marc A. Sze, Soraya Utokaparch, W. Mark Elliott, James C. Hogg & Richard G. Hegele
Objectives: The present study assesses the relationship between contents of GD1 (glycerol dehydratase)-positive Lactobacillus, presence of Lactobacillus and the inflammatory response measured in host lung tissue in mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesise that there will be a loss of GD1 producing Lactobacillus with increasing severity of COPD and that GD1 has anti-inflammatory properties. Setting: Secondary care, 1 participating centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Participants: 74 individuals who donated non-cancerous...

Data from: Investigation of parallel radiofrequency transmission for the reduction of heating in long conductive leads in 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging

Clare E. McElcheran, Benson Yang, Laleh Golenstani-Rad & Simon J. Graham
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is increasingly used to treat a variety of brain diseases by sending electrical impulses to deep brain nuclei through long, electrically conductive leads. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients pre- and post-implantation is desirable to target and position the implant, to evaluate possible side-effects and to examine DBS patients who have other health conditions. Although MRI is the preferred modality for pre-operative planning, MRI post-implantation is limited due to the risk...

Data from: Hybridization in headwater regions, and the role of rivers as drivers of speciation in Amazonian birds

Jason T. Weir, Maya S. Faccio, Paola Pulido-Santacruz, Alfredo Barrera-Guzmán & Alexandre Aleixo
Many understory birds and other groups form genetically differentiated subspecies or closely related species on opposite sides of major rivers of Amazonia, but are proposed to come into geographic contact in headwater regions where narrower river widths may present less of a dispersal barrier. Whether such forms hybridize in headwater regions is generally unknown, but has important implications to our understanding of the role of rivers as drivers of speciation. We used a dataset of...

Data from: Selection towards different adaptive optima drove the early diversification of locomotor phenotypes in the radiation of Neotropical geophagine cichlids

Viviana Astudillo-Clavijo, Jessica H. Arbour & Hernán López-Fernández
Background: Simpson envisaged a conceptual model of adaptive radiation in which lineages diversify into "adaptive zones" within a broad adaptive landscape. However only a handful of studies have actually investigated the adaptive landscape and its implication for our interpretation of the underlying mechanisms of phenotypic evolution. In fishes the evolution of locomotor phenotypes may represent an important dimension of ecomorphological diversification during an adaptive radiation given its implications for feeding and habitat use. Neotropical geophagine...

Data from: Dispersal mode mediates the effect of patch size and patch connectivity on metacommunity diversity

Natalie T. Jones, Rachel M. Germain, Tess N. Grainger, Aaron Hall, Lyn Baldwin, Benjamin Gilbert & Aaron M. Hall
1. Metacommunity theory predicts that increasing patch size and patch connectivity can alter local species diversity by affecting either colonization rates, extinction rates or both. Although species’ dispersal abilities or ‘dispersal mode’ (e.g. gravity-, wind- or animal-dispersed seeds) can mediate the effects of patch size and connectivity on diversity, these important factors are frequently overlooked in empirical metacommunity work. 2. We use a natural metacommunity of aspen stands within a grassland matrix to determine whether...

Data from: Tolerance to deer herbivory and resistance to insect herbivores in the common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis)

Adriana Puentes & Marc T. J. Johnson
The evolution of plant defence in response to herbivory will depend on the fitness effects of damage, availability of genetic variation, and potential ecological and genetic constraints on defence. Here we examine the potential for evolution of tolerance to deer herbivory in Oenothera biennis while simultaneously considering resistance to natural insect herbivores. We examined: i) the effects of deer damage on fitness; ii) the presence of genetic variation in tolerance and resistance; iii) selection on...

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of Rh2 opsins in birds demonstrate an episode of accelerated evolution in the New World warblers (Setophaga)

Natasha I. Bloch, Trevor D. Price & Belinda S. W. Chang
Low rates of sequence evolution associated with purifying selection can be interrupted by episodic changes in selective regimes. Visual pigments are a unique system in which we can investigate the functional consequences of genetic changes, therefore connecting genotype to phenotype in the context of natural and sexual selection pressures. We study the RH2 and RH1 visual pigments (opsins) across 22 bird species belonging to two ecologically convergent clades, the New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old...

Data from: Gametic selection, developmental trajectories, and extrinsic heterogeneity in Haldane's rule

Joanna D. Bundus, Ravin Alaei & Asher D. Cutter
Deciphering the genetic and developmental causes of the disproportionate rarity, inviability and sterility of hybrid males, Haldane's rule, is important for understanding the evolution of reproductive isolation between species. Moreover, extrinsic and pre-zygotic factors can contribute to the magnitude of intrinsic isolation experienced between species with partial reproductive compatibility. Here we use the nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and C. nigoni to quantify the sensitivity of hybrid male viability to extrinsic temperature and developmental timing, and test...

Data from: Postcopulatory sexual selection is associated with accelerated evolution of sperm morphology

Melissah Rowe, Tomas Albrecht, Emily Rebecca Alison Cramer, Arild Johnsen, Terje Laskemoen, Jason T. Weir & Jan T. Lifjeld
Rapid diversification of sexual traits is frequently attributed to sexual selection, though explicit tests of this hypothesis remain limited. Spermatozoa exhibit remarkable variability in size and shape, and studies report a correlation between sperm morphology (sperm length and shape) and sperm competition risk or female reproductive tract morphology. However, whether postcopulatory processes (e.g. sperm competition and cryptic female choice) influence the speed of evolutionary diversification in sperm form is unknown. Using passerine birds, we quantified...

Data from: Persistent directional selection on body size and a resolution to the paradox of stasis

Njal Rollinson & Locke Rowe
Directional selection on size is common but often fails to result in micro-evolution in the wild. Similarly, macro-evolutionary rates in size are low relative to the observed strength of selection in nature. We show that many estimates of selection on size have been measured on juveniles, not adults. Further, parents influence juvenile size by adjusting investment per offspring. In light of these observations, we help resolve this paradox by suggesting that the observed upward selection...

Data from: Propagule pressure in the presence of uncertainty: extending the utility of proxy variables with hierarchical models

D. Andrew R. Drake, Oscar Casas-Monroy, Marten A. Koops & Sarah A. Bailey
1. Species invasions depend on the abundance and rate at which organisms are introduced to new localities, known as propagule pressure. Due to the challenges of measuring propagule pressure, proxy variables are often used; however, untested proxy variables may obscure the role of propagule pressure vs. ecological factors that facilitate invasion, leading to uncertainty about the invasion process and confounding management response. 2. To generate absolute estimates of propagule pressure and facilitate meaningful comparison among...

Data from: Stress and the microbiome: linking glucocorticoids to bacterial community dynamics in wild red squirrels

Mason R. Stothart, Colleen B. Bobbie, Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde, Rudy Boonstra, Rupert Palme, Nadia C. S. Mykytczuk & Amy E. M. Newman
Bacterial diversity within animals is emerging as an essential component of health, but it is unknown how stress may influence the microbiome. We quantify a proximate link between the oral microbiome and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity using faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) in wild red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Not only was bacterial diversity lower at higher levels of FGM, but also between capture periods a change in bacterial relative abundance was related to an increase in...

Data from: Range-dependent flexibility in the acoustic field of view of echolocating porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

Danuta M. Wisniewska, John M. Ratcliffe, Kristian Beedholm, Christian B. Christensen, Mark Johnson, Jens C. Koblitz, Magnus Wahlberg & Peter M. Madsen
Toothed whales use sonar to detect, locate, and track prey. They adjust emitted sound intensity, auditory sensitivity and click rate to target range, and terminate prey pursuits with high-repetition-rate, low-intensity buzzes. However, their narrow acoustic field of view (FOV) is considered stable throughout target approach, which could facilitate prey escape at close-range. Here, we show that, like some bats, harbour porpoises can broaden their biosonar beam during the terminal phase of attack but, unlike bats,...

Data from: High speciation rate at temperate latitudes explains unusual diversity gradients in a clade of ectomycorrhizal fungi

Santiago Sanchez-Ramirez, Rampal S. Etienne & Jean-Marc Moncalvo
Understanding the patterns of biodiversity through time and space is a challenging task. However, phylogeny-based macroevolutionary models allow us to account and measure many of the processes responsible for diversity build-up, namely speciation and extinction. The general latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is a well-recognized pattern describing a decline in species richness from the equator pole-wards. Recent macroecological studies in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have shown that their LDG is shifted, peaking at temperate rather than tropical...

Data from: Population variation reveals independent selection towards small body size in Chinese Debao pony

Adiljan Kader, Yan Li, Kunzhe Dong, David M. Irwin, Qianjun Zhao, Xiaohong He, Jianfeng Liu, Yabin Pu, Neena Amatya Gorkhali, Xuexue Liu, Lin Jiang, Xiangchen Li, Weijun Guan, Yaping Zhang, Dong-Dong Wu & Yuehui Ma
Body size, one of the most important quantitative traits under evolutionary scrutiny, varies considerably among species and among populations within species. Revealing the genetic basis underlying this variation is very important, particularly in humans where there is a close relationship with diseases and in domestic animals as the selective patterns are associated with improvements in production traits. The Debao pony is a horse breed with small body size that is unique to China; however, it...

Data from: Vervet monkeys use paths consistent with context-specific spatial movement heuristics

Julie A. Teichroeb
Animal foraging routes are analogous to the computationally demanding “traveling salesman problem” (TSP), where individuals must find the shortest path among several locations before returning to the start. Humans approximate solutions to TSPs using simple heuristics or “rules of thumb,” but our knowledge of how other animals solve multidestination routing problems is incomplete. Most nonhuman primate species have shown limited ability to route plan. However, captive vervets were shown to solve a TSP for six...

Data from: Genomic signature of successful colonization of Eurasia by the allopolyploid shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)

Amandine Cornille, Adriana Salcedo, Dmytro Kryvokhyzha, Sylvain Glémin, Kalle Holm, Stephen Wright & Martin Lascoux
Polyploidization is a dominant feature of flowering plant evolution. However, detailed genomic analyses of the inter-population diversification of polyploids following genome duplication are still in their infancy, mainly because of methodological limits, both in terms of sequencing and computational analyses. The shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) is one of the most common weed species in the world. It is highly self-fertilizing, and recent genomic data indicate that it is an allopolyploid, resulting from hybridization between the...

Data from: Water availability as an agent of selection in introduced populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: impacts on flowering time evolution

Amanda J. Stock, Brechann V. McGoey & John R. Stinchcombe
Flowering is one of the most influential events in the life history of a plant and one of the main determinants of reproductive investment and lifetime fitness. It is also a highly complex trait controlled by dozens of genes. Understanding the selective pressures influencing time to flowering, and being able to reliably predict how it will evolve in novel environments, are unsolved challenges for plant evolutionary geneticists. Using the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, we...

Data from: Visual ecology of true lemurs suggests a cathemeral origin for the primate cone opsin polymorphism

Kim Valenta, Melissa Edwards, Radoniaina R. Rafaliarison, Steig E. Johnson, Sheila M. Holmes, Kevin A. Brown, Nathaniel J. Dominy, Shawn M. Lehman, Esteban J. Parra & Amanda D. Melin
In contrast to the majority of primates, which exhibit dedicated diurnality or nocturnality, all species of Eulemur are cathemeral. Color vision, in particular, is strongly affected by the spectral composition and intensity of ambient light, and the impact of activity period on the evolution of primate color vision is actively debated. We studied three groups of wild brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar over a one-year span. We also used non-invasive fecal...

Data from: No evidence that sex and transposable elements drive genome size variation in evening primroses

J. Arvid Ågren, Stephan Greiner, Marc T. J. Johnson & Stephen I. Wright
Genome size varies dramatically across species, but despite an abundance of attention there is little agreement on the relative contributions of selective and neutral processes in governing this variation. The rate of sex can potentially play an important role in genome size evolution because of its effect on the efficacy of selection and transmission of transposable elements. Here, we used a phylogenetic comparative approach and whole genome sequencing to investigate the contribution of sex and...

Data from: Quantitative genetic variance in experimental fly populations evolving with or without environmental heterogeneity

Yuheng Huang, John R. Stinchcombe & Aneil F. Agrawal
Heterogeneous environments are typically expected to maintain more genetic variation in fitness within populations than homogeneous environments. However, the accuracy of this claim depends on the form of heterogeneity as well as the genetic basis of fitness traits and how similar the assay environment is to the environment of past selection. Here we measure quantitative genetic variance for three traits important for fitness using replicated experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster evolving under four selective regimes:...

Data from: Impaired T Cell Responsiveness to Interleukin-6 in Hematological Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis

Jose F. Camargo, Alyajahan Bhimji, Deepali Kumar, Rupert Kaul, Rhea Pavan, Andre Schuh, Matthew Seftel, Jeffrey H. Lipton, Vikas Gupta, Atul Humar & Shahid Husain
Invasive mold infections (IMI) are among the most devastating complications following chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with high mortality rates. Yet, the molecular basis for human susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis (IA) and mucormycosis remain poorly understood. Herein, we aimed to characterize the immune profile of individuals with hematological malignancies (n = 18) who developed IMI during the course of chemotherapy or HSCT, and compared it to that of hematological patients who had no...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Toronto
  • Royal Ontario Museum
  • Aarhus University
  • University College London
  • University of Ottawa
  • University Health Network
  • Uppsala University
  • Pomona College
  • London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine