41 Works

Data from: Range-dependent flexibility in the acoustic field of view of echolocating porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

Danuta M. Wisniewska, John M. Ratcliffe, Kristian Beedholm, Christian B. Christensen, Mark Johnson, Jens C. Koblitz, Magnus Wahlberg & Peter M. Madsen
Toothed whales use sonar to detect, locate, and track prey. They adjust emitted sound intensity, auditory sensitivity and click rate to target range, and terminate prey pursuits with high-repetition-rate, low-intensity buzzes. However, their narrow acoustic field of view (FOV) is considered stable throughout target approach, which could facilitate prey escape at close-range. Here, we show that, like some bats, harbour porpoises can broaden their biosonar beam during the terminal phase of attack but, unlike bats,...

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of Rh2 opsins in birds demonstrate an episode of accelerated evolution in the New World warblers (Setophaga)

Natasha I. Bloch, Trevor D. Price & Belinda S. W. Chang
Low rates of sequence evolution associated with purifying selection can be interrupted by episodic changes in selective regimes. Visual pigments are a unique system in which we can investigate the functional consequences of genetic changes, therefore connecting genotype to phenotype in the context of natural and sexual selection pressures. We study the RH2 and RH1 visual pigments (opsins) across 22 bird species belonging to two ecologically convergent clades, the New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old...

Data from: Water availability as an agent of selection in introduced populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: impacts on flowering time evolution

Amanda J. Stock, Brechann V. McGoey & John R. Stinchcombe
Flowering is one of the most influential events in the life history of a plant and one of the main determinants of reproductive investment and lifetime fitness. It is also a highly complex trait controlled by dozens of genes. Understanding the selective pressures influencing time to flowering, and being able to reliably predict how it will evolve in novel environments, are unsolved challenges for plant evolutionary geneticists. Using the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, we...

Data from: Postcopulatory sexual selection is associated with accelerated evolution of sperm morphology

Melissah Rowe, Tomas Albrecht, Emily Rebecca Alison Cramer, Arild Johnsen, Terje Laskemoen, Jason T. Weir & Jan T. Lifjeld
Rapid diversification of sexual traits is frequently attributed to sexual selection, though explicit tests of this hypothesis remain limited. Spermatozoa exhibit remarkable variability in size and shape, and studies report a correlation between sperm morphology (sperm length and shape) and sperm competition risk or female reproductive tract morphology. However, whether postcopulatory processes (e.g. sperm competition and cryptic female choice) influence the speed of evolutionary diversification in sperm form is unknown. Using passerine birds, we quantified...

Data from: Persistent directional selection on body size and a resolution to the paradox of stasis

Njal Rollinson & Locke Rowe
Directional selection on size is common but often fails to result in micro-evolution in the wild. Similarly, macro-evolutionary rates in size are low relative to the observed strength of selection in nature. We show that many estimates of selection on size have been measured on juveniles, not adults. Further, parents influence juvenile size by adjusting investment per offspring. In light of these observations, we help resolve this paradox by suggesting that the observed upward selection...

Data from: Propagule pressure in the presence of uncertainty: extending the utility of proxy variables with hierarchical models

D. Andrew R. Drake, Oscar Casas-Monroy, Marten A. Koops & Sarah A. Bailey
1. Species invasions depend on the abundance and rate at which organisms are introduced to new localities, known as propagule pressure. Due to the challenges of measuring propagule pressure, proxy variables are often used; however, untested proxy variables may obscure the role of propagule pressure vs. ecological factors that facilitate invasion, leading to uncertainty about the invasion process and confounding management response. 2. To generate absolute estimates of propagule pressure and facilitate meaningful comparison among...

Data from: Dispersal mode mediates the effect of patch size and patch connectivity on metacommunity diversity

Natalie T. Jones, Rachel M. Germain, Tess N. Grainger, Aaron Hall, Lyn Baldwin, Benjamin Gilbert & Aaron M. Hall
1. Metacommunity theory predicts that increasing patch size and patch connectivity can alter local species diversity by affecting either colonization rates, extinction rates or both. Although species’ dispersal abilities or ‘dispersal mode’ (e.g. gravity-, wind- or animal-dispersed seeds) can mediate the effects of patch size and connectivity on diversity, these important factors are frequently overlooked in empirical metacommunity work. 2. We use a natural metacommunity of aspen stands within a grassland matrix to determine whether...

Data from: High speciation rate at temperate latitudes explains unusual diversity gradients in a clade of ectomycorrhizal fungi

Santiago Sanchez-Ramirez, Rampal S. Etienne & Jean-Marc Moncalvo
Understanding the patterns of biodiversity through time and space is a challenging task. However, phylogeny-based macroevolutionary models allow us to account and measure many of the processes responsible for diversity build-up, namely speciation and extinction. The general latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is a well-recognized pattern describing a decline in species richness from the equator pole-wards. Recent macroecological studies in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have shown that their LDG is shifted, peaking at temperate rather than tropical...

Data from: Genomic signature of successful colonization of Eurasia by the allopolyploid shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)

Amandine Cornille, Adriana Salcedo, Dmytro Kryvokhyzha, Sylvain Glémin, Kalle Holm, Stephen Wright & Martin Lascoux
Polyploidization is a dominant feature of flowering plant evolution. However, detailed genomic analyses of the inter-population diversification of polyploids following genome duplication are still in their infancy, mainly because of methodological limits, both in terms of sequencing and computational analyses. The shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) is one of the most common weed species in the world. It is highly self-fertilizing, and recent genomic data indicate that it is an allopolyploid, resulting from hybridization between the...

Data from: Molecular evolution of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 gene Nrf2 in Old World fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae)

Qiuyuan Yin, Lei Zhu, Di Liu, David M. Irwin, Shuyi Zhang & Yi-Hsuan Pan
Mammals developed antioxidant systems to defend against oxidative damage in their daily life. Enzymatic antioxidants and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWAs) constitute major parts of the antioxidant systems. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, encoded by the Nrf2 gene) is a central transcriptional regulator, regulating transcription, of many antioxidant enzymes. Frugivorous bats eat large amounts of fruits that contain high levels of LMWAs such as vitamin C, thus, a reliance on LMWAs might greatly reduce...

Data from: Paleocommunity analysis of the Burgess Shale Tulip Beds, Mount Stephen, British Columbia: comparison with the Walcott Quarry and implications for community variation in the Burgess Shale

Lorna J. O'Brien & Jean-Bernard Caron
The Tulip Beds locality on Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia) yields one of the most abundant and diverse (~10,000 specimens in 110 taxa) Burgess Shale fossil assemblages in the Canadian Rockies. Detailed semi quantitative and quantitative analyses of this assemblage suggest strong similarities with the Walcott Quarry on Fossil Ridge. Both assemblages are dominated by epibenthic, sessile, and suspension feeding taxa, mostly represented by arthropods and sponges and have comparable diversity patterns, despite...

Data from: A new family of Cambrian rhynchonelliformean brachiopods (Order Naukatida) with an aberrant coral-like morphology

Michael Streng, Aodhán D. Butler, John S. Peel, Russell J. Garwood & Jean-Bernard Caron
Tomteluva perturbata gen. et sp. nov. and Nasakia thulensis gen. et sp. nov., two new rhynchonelliformean brachiopod taxa, are described from carbonate beds from the lower middle Cambrian (Series 3, Stage 5) basinal Stephen Formation, Canada, and the upper lower Cambrian (Series 2, Stage 4) Henson Gletscher Formation, North Greenland, respectively. The two taxa are characterized by an unusual coral-like morphology typified by a high conical ventral valve with an anteriorly curved umbo and a...

Data from: Independent evolution of the sexes promotes amphibian diversification

Stephen P. De Lisle & Locke Rowe
Classic ecological theory predicts that the evolution of sexual dimorphism constrains diversification by limiting morphospace available for speciation. Alternatively, sexual selection may lead to the evolution of reproductive isolation and increased diversification. We test contrasting predictions of these hypotheses by examining the relationship between sexual dimorphism and diversification in amphibians. Our analysis shows that the evolution of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is associated with increased diversification and speciation, contrary to the ecological theory. Further, this...

Data from: Evolution of sexual dimorphism in phenotypic covariance structure in Phymata

David Punzalan & Locke Rowe
Sexual dimorphism is a consequence of both sex-specific selection and potential constraints imposed by a shared genetic architecture underlying sexually homologous traits. However, genetic architecture is expected to evolve to mitigate these constraints, allowing the sexes to approach their respective optimal mean phenotype. In additon, sex-specific selection is expected to generate sexual dimorphism of trait covariance structure (e.g. the phenotypic covariance matrix, P) but previous empirical work has not fully addressed this prediction. We compared...

Data from: Fungal endophytes of Festuca rubra increase in frequency following long-term exclusion of rabbits

James S. Santangelo, Nash E. Turley & Marc T. J. Johnson
Plant-fungal endophyte interactions are common in nature and they can shape the ecology of plants. Vertically transmitted endophytes are hypothesized to serve as mutualists, protecting plants from herbivores. If this hypothesis is true then we expect endophytes to be most abundant in the presence of herbivores and least abundant in their absence, assuming endophytes incur a cost to their host. We tested this prediction by studying the effects of intense rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) grazing on...

Data from: Hard and soft selection on phenology through seasonal shifts in the general and social environments: a study on plant emergence time

Arthur E. Weis, Kyle M. Turner, Bergita Petro, Emily J. Austen & Susana M. Wadgymar
The timing of transition out of one life history phase determines where in the seasonal succession of environments the next phase is spent. Shifts in the general environment (e.g., seasonal climate) affect the expected fitness for particular transition dates. Variation in transition date also leads to temporal variation in the social environment. For instance, early transition may confer a competitive advantage over later individuals. If so, the social environment will impose frequency- and density-dependent selection...

Registration Year

  • 2015
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  • University of Toronto
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  • Royal Ontario Museum
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  • London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
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