57 Works

Data from: Antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits

Kenneth A. Thompson, Marc T. J. Johnson & Ken A. Thompson
While many studies demonstrate that herbivores alter selection on plant reproductive traits, little is known about whether antiherbivore defenses affect selection on these traits. We hypothesized that antiherbivore defenses could alter selection on reproductive traits by altering trait expression through allocation trade-offs, or by altering interactions with mutualists and/or antagonists. To test our hypothesis, we used white clover, Trifolium repens, which has a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide—a potent antiherbivore defense. We...

Data from: Examination of a historic collection of isolated cranial and appendicular hadrosaurid material from the lower Kirtland Formation of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico

Mateusz Wosik & Merrilee F. Guenther
The Field Museum of Natural History collection contains several isolated hadrosaurid specimens collected by Charles H. Sternberg from the lower Kirtland Formation of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, that have been previously overlooked. Cranial elements described herein consist of a dentary and three jugals while appendicular material is limited to two humeri and two pubes. Many of the specimens preserve taxonomically informative characters that show strong affinities with Kritosaurini but are distinct from Kritosaurus...

Data from: Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study

Luz Boyero, Richard Pearson, Cang Hui, Mark Gessner, Javier Perez, Markos Alexandrou, Manuel Graça, Bradley Cardinale, Ricardo Albariño, M. Arunachalam, Leon Barmuta, Andrew Boulton, Andreas Bruder, Marcos Callisto, Eric Chauvet, Russell Death, David Dudgeon, Andrea Encalada, Veronica Ferreira, Ricardo Figueroa, Alex Flecker, , Julie Helson, Tomoya Iwata, Tajang Jinggut … & Catherine Yule
Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, have high rates of carbon dioxide evasion and they contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and...

Data from: SNPs across time and space: population genomic signatures of founder events and epizootics in the House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)

Allison J. Shultz, Allan J. Baker, Geoffrey E. Hill, Paul M. Nolan & Scott V. Edwards
Identifying genomic signatures of natural selection can be challenging against a background of demographic changes such as bottlenecks and population expansions. Here, we disentangle the effects of demography from selection in the House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) using samples collected before and after a pathogen-induced selection event. Using ddRADseq, we genotyped over 18,000 SNPs across the genome in native pre-epizootic western US birds, introduced birds from Hawaii and the eastern United States, post-epizootic eastern birds, and...

Data from: Limited gene dispersal and spatial genetic structure as stabilizing factors in an ant-plant mutualism

Pierre-Jean G. Malé, Céline Leroy, Pierre Humblot, Alain Dejean, Angélique Quilichini & Jérôme Orivel
Comparative studies of the population genetics of closely associated species are necessary to properly understand the evolution of these relationships because gene flow between populations affects the partners' evolutionary potential at the local scale. As a consequence (at least for antagonistic interactions), asymmetries in the strength of the genetic structures of the partner populations can result in one partner having a co-evolutionary advantage. Here, we assess the population genetic structure of partners engaged in a...

Data from: Distinctive fungal communities in an obligate African ant-plant mutualism

Christopher C.M. Baker, Dino J. Martins, Julianne N. Pelaez, Johan P.J. Billen, Anne Pringle, Megan E. Frederickson, Naomi E. Pierce, Christopher C. M. Baker & Johan P. J. Billen
Three ant species nest obligately in the swollen-thorn domatia of the African ant-plant Vachellia (Acacia) drepanolobium, a model system for the study of ant-defence mutualisms and species coexistence. Here we report on the characteristic fungal communities generated by these ant species in their domatia. First, we describe behavioural differences between the ant species when presented with a cultured fungal isolate in the laboratory. Second, we use DNA metabarcoding to show that each ant species has...

Data from: Experimental insights on the function of ancillary pollen and stigma polymorphisms in plants with heteromorphic incompatibility

Joana Costa, Sílvia Castro, João Loureiro, Spencer C.H. Barrett & Spencer C. H. Barrett
Most heterostylous plants possess a reciprocal arrangement of stigmas and anthers (reciprocal herkogamy), heteromorphic self-incompatibility and ancillary polymorphisms of pollen and stigmas. The topographical complementarity hypothesis proposes that ancillary polymorphisms function in the rejection of incompatible pollen thus promoting disassortative pollination. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating patterns of pollen transfer and capture in populations of dimorphic Armeria maritima and A. pubigera and distylous Limonium vulgare (Plumbaginaceae), and by studying pollen adherence and germination...

Data from: Multiple mutualist effects on genomewide expression in the tripartite association between Medicago truncatula, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi

Michelle E. Afkhami & John R. Stinchcombe
While all species interact with multiple mutualists, the fitness consequences and molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions remain largely unknown. We combined factorial ecological experiments with genomewide expression analyses to examine the phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of model legume Medicago truncatula to rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi. We found synergistic effects of these mutualists on plant performance and examined unique features of plant gene expression responses to multiple mutualists. There were genomewide signatures of mutualists and multiple...

Data from: Convergent evolution of sperm gigantism and the developmental origins of sperm size variability in Caenorhabditis nematodes

Anne Vielle, Nicolas Callemeyn-Torre, Clotilde Gimond, Nausicaa Poullet, Jeremy C. Gray, Asher D. Cutter & Christian Braendle
Sperm cells provide essential, if usually diminutive, ingredients to successful sexual reproduction. Despite this conserved function, sperm competition and coevolution with female traits can drive spectacular morphological change in these cells. Here, we characterize four repeated instances of convergent evolution of sperm gigantism in Caenorhabditis nematodes using phylogenetic comparative methods on 26 species. Species at the extreme end of the 50-fold range of sperm-cell volumes across the genus have sperm capable of comprising up to...

Data from: A stochastic neuronal model predicts random search behaviors at multiple spatial scales in C. elegans

William M. Roberts, Steven B. Augustine, Kristy J. Lawton, Theodore H. Lindsay, Tod R. Thiele, Eduardo J. Izquierdo, Serge Faumont, Rebecca A. Lindsay, Matthew Cale Britton, Navin Pokala, Cornelia I. Bargmann & Shawn R. Lockery
Random search is a behavioral strategy used by organisms from bacteria to humans to locate food that is randomly distributed and undetectable at a distance. We investigated this behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, an organism with a small, well-described nervous system. Here we formulate a mathematical model of random search abstracted from the C. elegans connectome and fit to a large-scale kinematic analysis of C. elegans behavior at submicron resolution. The model predicts behavioral...

Data from: The Red Queen lives: epistasis between linked resistance loci

César M. J. A. Metzger, Pepijn Luijckx, Gilberto Bento, Mahendra Mariadassou & Dieter Ebert
A popular theory explaining the maintenance of genetic recombination (sex) is the Red Queen Theory. This theory revolves around the idea that time-lagged negative frequency-dependent selection by parasites favors rare host genotypes generated through recombination. Although the Red Queen has been studied for decades, one of its key assumptions has remained unsupported. The signature host-parasite specificity underlying the Red Queen, where infection depends on a match between host and parasite genotypes, relies on epistasis between...

Data from: Diverse mechanisms of metaeffector activity in an intracellular bacterial pathogen, Legionella pneumophila

Malene L. Urbanus, Andrew T. Quaile, Peter J. Stogios, Mariya Morar, Chitong Rao, Rosa Di Leo, Elena Evdokimova, Mandy Lam, Christina Oatway, Marianne E. Cuff, Jerzy Osipiuk, Karolina M. Michalska, Boguslaw P. Nocek, Mikko Taipale, Alexei Savchenko, Alexander Ensminger & Alexander W Ensminger
Pathogens deliver complex arsenals of translocated effector proteins to host cells during infection, but the extent to which these proteins are regulated once inside the eukaryotic cell remains poorly defined. Among all bacterial pathogens, Legionella pneumophila maintains the largest known set of translocated substrates, delivering over 300 proteins to the host cell via its Type IVB, Icm/Dot translocation system. Backed by a few notable examples of effector–effector regulation in L. pneumophila, we sought to define...

Data from: Copulation with immature females increases male fitness in cannibalistic widow spiders

M. Daniela Biaggio, Iara Sandomirsky, Yael Lubin, Ally R. Harari, Maydianne C.B. Andrade & Maydianne C. B. Andrade
Copulatory cannibalism of male ‘widow’ spiders (genus Latrodectus) is a model example of the extreme effects of sexual selection, particularly in L. hasselti and L. geometricus where males typically facilitate cannibalism by females and mate only once. We show that these males can increase their reproductive success by copulating with final-instar, immature females after piercing the female's exoskeleton to access her newly developed sperm storage organs. Females retain sperm through their final moult and have...

Data from: Both morph- and species-dependent asymmetries affect reproductive barriers between heterostylous species

Barbara Keller, Jurriaan M. De Vos, Alexander N. Schmidt-Lebuhn, James D. Thomson & Elena Conti
The interaction between floral traits and reproductive isolation is crucial to explaining the extraordinary diversity of angiosperms. Heterostyly, a complex floral polymorphism that optimizes outcrossing, evolved repeatedly and has been shown to accelerate diversification in primroses, yet its potential influence on isolating mechanisms remains unexplored. Furthermore, the relative contribution of pre- versus postmating barriers to reproductive isolation is still debated. No experimental study has yet evaluated the possible effects of heterostyly on pre- and postmating...

Data from: A global genetic interaction network maps a wiring diagram of cellular function

Michael Costanzo, Benjamin VanderSluis, Elizabeth N. Koch, Anastasia Baryshnikova, Carles Pons, Guihong Tan, Wen Wang, Matej Usaj, Julia Hanchard, Susan D. Lee, Vicent Pelechano, Erin B. Styles, Maximilian Billmann, Jolanda Van Leeuwen, Nydia Van Dyk, Zhen-Yuan Lin, Elena Kuzmin, Justin Nelson, Jeff S. Piotrowski, Tharan Srikumar, Sondra Bahr, Yiqun Chen, Raamesh Deshpande, Christoph F. Kurat, Sheena C. Li … & Charles Boone
INTRODUCTION: Genetic interactions occur when mutations in two or more genes combine to generate an unexpected phenotype. An extreme negative or synthetic lethal genetic interaction occurs when two mutations, neither lethal individually, combine to cause cell death. Conversely, positive genetic interactions occur when two mutations produce a phenotype that is less severe than expected. Genetic interactions identify functional relationships between genes and can be harnessed for biological discovery and therapeutic target identification. They may also...

Data from: Woodstoich III: integrating tools of nutritional geometry and ecological stoichiometry to advance nutrient budgeting and the prediction of consumer-driven nutrient recycling

Erik Sperfeld, Halvor M. Halvorson, Matthew Malishev, Fiona J. Clissold & Nicole D. Wagner
Within the last two decades, ecological stoichiometry (ES) and nutritional geometry (NG, also known as geometric framework for nutrition) have delivered novel insights into core questions of nutritional ecology. These two nutritionally explicit frameworks differ in the ‘nutrient currency’ used and the focus of their past research; behavioural feeding strategies in NG, mainly investigating terrestrial organisms, and trophic ecology in ES, mainly in aquatic settings. However, both NG and ES have developed in explaining patterns...

Data from: Agreements between industry and academia on publication rights: a retrospective study of protocols and publications of randomized clinical trials

Benjamin Kasenda, Erik Von Elm, John J. You, Anette Blümle, Yuki Tomonaga, Ramon Saccilotto, Alain Amstutz, Theresa Bengough, Joerg J. Meerpohl, Mihaela Stegert, Kelechi K. Olu, Kari A. O. Tikkinen, Ignacio Neumann, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Markus Faulhaber, Sohail M. Mulla, Dominik Mertz, Elie A. Akl, Dirk Bassler, Jason W. Busse, Ignacio Ferreira-González, Francois Lamontagne, Alain Nordmann, Viktoria Gloy, Heike Raatz … & Matthias Briel
Background: Little is known about publication agreements between industry and academic investigators in trial protocols and the consistency of these agreements with corresponding statements in publications. We aimed to investigate (i) the existence and types of publication agreements in trial protocols, (ii) the completeness and consistency of the reporting of these agreements in subsequent publications, and (iii) the frequency of co-authorship by industry employees. Methods and Findings: We used a retrospective cohort of randomized clinical...

Data from: Relating Ediacaran fronds

Thomas Alexander Dececchi, Guy M. Narbonne, Carolyn Greentree & Marc Laflamme
Ediacaran fronds are key components of terminal-Proterozoic ecosystems. They represent one of the most widespread and common body forms ranging across all major Ediacaran fossil localities and time slices postdating the Gaskiers glaciation, but uncertainty over their phylogenetic affinities has led to uncertainty over issues of homology and functional morphology between and within organisms displaying this ecomorphology. Here we present the first large-scale, multigroup cladistic analysis of Ediacaran organisms, sampling 20 ingroup taxa with previously...

Data from: Spatially cascading effect of perturbations in experimental meta-ecosystems

Eric Harvey, Isabelle Gounand, Pravin Ganesanandamoorthy & Florian Altermatt
Ecosystems are linked to neighbouring ecosystems not only by dispersal, but also by the movement of subsidy. Such subsidy couplings between ecosystems have important landscape-scale implications because perturbations in one ecosystem may affect community structure and functioning in neighbouring ecosystems via increased/decreased subsidies. Here, we combine a general theoretical approach based on harvesting theory and a two-patch protist meta-ecosystem experiment to test the effect of regional perturbations on local community dynamics. We first characterized the...

Data from: Ediacaran distributions in space and time: testing assemblage concepts of earliest macroscopic body fossils

Thomas H. Boag, Simon A. F. Darroch & Marc Laflamme
The mid-late Ediacaran Period (~579–541 Ma) is characterized by globally distributed marine soft-bodied organisms of unclear phylogenetic affinities colloquially called the “Ediacara biota.” Despite an absence of systematic agreement, previous workers have tested for underlying factors that may control the occurrence of Ediacaran macrofossils in space and time. Three taxonomically distinct “assemblages,” termed the Avalon, White Sea, and Nama, were identified and informally incorporated into Ediacaran biostratigraphy. After ~15 years of new fossil discoveries and...

Data from: The effect of leaf shape on the thermoregulation and frost tolerance of an annual vine, Ipomoea hederacea (Convolvulaceae)

Brandon E. Campitelli, Amanda J. Gorton, Katherine L. Ostevik & John R. Stinchcombe
Premise of study: Leaf shape is predicted to have important ecophysiological consequences; for example, theory predicts that lobed leaves should track air temperature more closely than their entire-margined counterparts. Hence, leaf-lobing may be advantageous during cold nights (∼0°C) when there is the risk of damage by radiation frost (a phenomenon whereby leaves fall below air temperature because of an imbalance between radiational heat loss and convective heat gain). Methods: Here, we test whether radiation frost...

Data from: Testing potential selective agents acting on leaf shape in Ipomoea hederacea: predictions based on an adaptive leaf shape cline

Brandon E. Campitelli & John R. Stinchcombe
Leaf shape is a highly variable phenotype, and is likely influenced by many sources of selection. Ipomoea hederacea exhibits an adaptive latitudinal cline in leaf shape, which is controlled by a single Mendelian locus: lobed individuals dominate the north with entire-shaped individuals mostly in the south. We test if the following candidate selective agents, suggested by the literature, are responsible for the cline: differential insect herbivory, genetic correlations with other clinal traits like flowering time...

Data from: Dispersal and diversity in experimental metacommunities: linking theory and practice

Tess Nahanni Grainger & Benjamin Gilbert
There has been a recent rise in the number of experiments investigating the effect of dispersal on diversity, with many of the predictions for these tests derived from metacommunity theory. Despite the promise of linking observed relationships between dispersal and diversity to underlying metacommunity processes, empirical studies have faced challenges in providing robust tests of theory. We review experimental studies that have tested how dispersal affects metacommunity diversity to determine why shortcomings emerge, and to...

Data from: Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment

Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Peter B. Reich, Eric M. Lind, Lauren L. Sullivan, Eric W. Seabloom, Laura Yahdjian, Andrew S. MacDougall, Lara G. Reichmann, Juan Alberti, Selene Báez, Jonathan D. Bakker, Marc W. Cadotte, Maria C. Caldeira, Enrique J. Chaneton, Carla M. D'Antonio, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Oscar Iribarne, Kevin P. Kirkman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Andrew D. B. Leakey … & Elizabeth T. Borer
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variability and climate average conditions on the success of native and non-native plant species using experimental nutrient manipulations replicated at 32 grassland sites on four continents. We hypothesized that effects of...

Data from: Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings

Nuno Rodrigues Faria, Raimunda Do Socorro Da Silva Azevedo, Moritz U. G. Kraemer, Renato Souza, Mariana Sequetin Cunha, Sarah C. Hill, Julien Thezé, Michael B. Bonsall, Thomas A. Bowden, Ilona Rissanen, Iray Maria Rocco, Juliana Silva Nogueira, Adriana Yurika Maeda, Fernanda Giseli Da Silva Vasami, Fernando Luiz De Lima Macedo, Akemi Suzuki, Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro Cruz, Bruno Tardeli Diniz, Daniele Barbosa De Almeida Medeiros, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues, Alice Louize Nunes Queiroz, Eliana Vieira Pinto Da Silva, Daniele Freitas Henriques, Elisabeth Salbe Travassos Da Rosa … & Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos
Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Toronto
  • University of Minnesota
  • Monash University
  • University of Zurich
  • Harvard University
  • University of the Basque Country
  • University of Washington
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
  • University of Toulouse
  • Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries