61 Works

Data from: Integrating continuous stocks and flows into state-and-transition simulation models of landscape change

Colin J. Daniel, Benjamin M. Sleeter, Leonardo Frid & Marie-Josée Fortin
1.State-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) provide a general framework for forecasting landscape dynamics, including projections of both vegetation and land-use/land-cover (LULC) change. The STSM method divides a landscape into spatially-referenced cells and then simulates the state of each cell forward in time, as a discrete-time stochastic process using a Monte Carlo approach, in response to any number of possible transitions. A current limitation of the STSM method, however, is that all of the state variables must...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: How do seasonality, substrate, and management history influence macrofungal fruiting assemblages in a central Amazonian Forest?

Dirce Leimi Komura, Jean-Marc Moncalvo, Cristian S. Dambros, Larissa S. Bento, Maria A. Neves & Charles E. Zartman
Worldwide, fungal richness peaks in tropical forest biomes where they are the primary drivers of decomposition. Understanding how environmental and anthropogenic factors influence tropical macrofungal fruiting patterns should provide insight as to how, for example, climate change and deforestation may impact their long-term demographic stability and evolutionary potential. However, in Amazonia no studies have yet to disentangle the effects of substrate, seasonality and forest history on phenology. Here, we quantitate spatial and temporal variation in...

Data from: Ecological causes and consequences of flower color polymorphism in a self-pollinating plant (Boechera stricta)

Priya Vaidya, Ansley McDurmon, Emily Mattoon, Michaela Keefe, Lauren Carley, Cheng-Ruei Lee, Robin Bingham & Jill T. Anderson
Intraspecific variation in flower color is often attributed to pollinator-mediated selection, yet this mechanism cannot explain flower color polymorphisms in self-pollinating species. Indirect selection mediated via biotic and abiotic stresses could maintain flower color variation in these systems. The selfing forb, Boechera stricta, typically displays white flowers, but some individuals produce purple flowers. We quantified environmental correlates of flower color in natural populations. To disentangle plasticity from genotypic variation, we performed a multiyear field experiment...

Data from: Fitness change in relation to mutation number in spontaneous mutation accumulation lines of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Susanne A. Kraemer, Katharina B. Böndel, Robert W. Ness, Peter David Keightley & Nick Colegrave
Although all genetic variation ultimately stems from mutations, their properties are difficult to study directly. Here, we used multiple mutation accumulation (MA) lines derived from five genetic backgrounds of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that have been previously subjected to whole genome sequencing to investigate the relationship between the number of spontaneous mutations and change in fitness from a non-evolved ancestor. MA lines were on average less fit than their ancestors and we detected a...

Data from: Environmental complexity and the purging of deleterious alleles

Amardeep Singh, Aneil F. Agrawal & Howard D. Rundle
Sexual interactions among adults can generate selection on both males and females with genome-wide consequences. Sexual selection through males is one component of this selection that has been argued to play an important role in purging deleterious alleles. A common technique to assess the influence of sexual selection is by a comparison of experimental evolution under enforced monogamy vs. polygamy. Mixed results from past studies may be due to the use of highly simplified lab...

Data from: Linking resource availability and heterogeneity to understorey species diversity through succession in boreal forest of Canada

Praveen Kumar, H.Y.H. Chen, S.C Thomas, Chander Shahi, Sean C. Thomas & Han Y. H. Chen
Understorey vegetation hosts the majority of species diversity and contributes greatly to ecosystem functioning in natural systems. Although patterns of understorey abundance, species diversity and composition associated with forest stand development are well researched, mechanisms driving these patterns remain largely speculative. We sampled fire origin stands of varying stand ages and overstorey compositions on mesic sites of the boreal forest of Canada and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to link time since fire (stand age),...

Data from: Spatial detection of outlier loci with Moran eigenvector maps (MEM)

Helene H. Wagner, Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira & Brenna R. Forester
The spatial signature of microevolutionary processes structuring genetic variation may play an important role in the detection of loci under selection. However, the spatial location of samples has not yet been used to quantify this. Here, we present a new two-step method of spatial outlier detection at the individual and deme levels using the power spectrum of Moran eigenvector maps (MEM). The MEM power spectrum quantifies how the variation in a variable, such as the...

Data from: Species colonisation, not competitive exclusion, drives community overdispersion over long-term succession

Shao-Peng Li, Marc W. Cadotte, Scott J. Meiners, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Lin Jiang & Wen-Sheng Shu
Ecological communities often transition from phylogenetic and functional clustering to overdispersion over succession as judged by space-for-time substitution studies. Such a pattern has been generally attributed to the increase in competitive exclusion of closely related species with similar traits through time, although colonisation and extinction have rarely been examined. Using 44 years of uninterrupted old-field succession in New Jersey, USA, we confirmed that phylogenetic and functional clustering decreased as succession unfolded, but the transition was...

Data from: Aging asexual lineages and the evolutionary maintenance of sex

Eddie Ka Ho Ho & Aneil F. Agrawal
Finite populations of asexual and highly selfing species suffer from a reduced efficacy of selection. Such populations are thought to decline in fitness over time due to accumulating slightly deleterious mutations or failing to adapt to changing conditions. These within-population processes that lead non-recombining species to extinction may help maintain sex and outcrossing through species level selection. Although inefficient selection is proposed to elevate extinction rates over time, previous models of species selection for sex...

Data from: Incorporating uncertainty into forest management planning: timber harvest, wildfire and climate change in the boreal forest

Colin J. Daniel, Michael T. Ter-Mikaelian, B. Mike Wotton, Bronwyn Rayfield & Marie-Josée Fortin
In an effort to ensure the sustainability of their forests, boreal forest managers often use forest planning models to make future projections of timber supply and other key services, such as habitat for wildlife. Projecting the fate of these services has proven to be challenging, however, as major uncertainties exist regarding the principal drivers of boreal ecosystem dynamics, including the future spatial and temporal distribution of wildfire and timber harvesting. Existing forest planning models are...

Data from: 8-way randomized controlled trial of doxylamine, pyridoxine and dicyclomine for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: restoration of unpublished information

Navindra Persaud & Rujun Zhang
Objectives: We report information about an unpublished 1970s study (“8-way” Bendectin Study) that aimed to evaluate the relative therapeutic efficacy of doxylamine, pyridoxine, and dicyclomine in the management of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. We are publishing the trial's findings according to the restoring invisible and abandoned trials (RIAT) initiative because the trial was never published. Design: Double blinded, multi-centred, randomized placebo-controlled study. Setting: 14 clinics in the United States. Participants: 2308 patients in the...

Data from: How spatial release from masking may fail to function in a highly directional auditory system

Norman Lee & Andrew C. Mason
Spatial release from masking (SRM) occurs when spatial separation between a signal and masker decreases masked thresholds. The mechanically-coupled ears of Ormia ochracea are specialized for hyperacute directional hearing, but the possible role of SRM, or whether such specializations exhibit limitations for sound source segregation, is unknown. We recorded phonotaxis to a cricket song masked by band-limited noise. With a masker, response thresholds increased and localization was diverted away from the signal and masker. Increased...

Data from: The influence of range-wide plant genetic variation on soil invertebrate communities

Connor R. Fitzpatrick, Anna V. Mikhailitchenko, Daniel N. Anstett & Marc T. J. Johnson
Plant genetic variation can have far-reaching effects on associated communities and ecosystems. Heritable variation in ecologically relevant plant traits is often non-randomly distributed across a species’ range and can exhibit geographic clines. In the event of range expansions and migration, previously unfamiliar genotypes may have large impacts on resident communities and ecosystems due to the introduction of novel and heritable phenotypic variation. Here we test the hypothesis that geographic origin of a focal plant genotype...

Data from: An ant–plant mutualism through the lens of cGMP-dependent kinase genes

Pierre-Jean G. Malé, Kyle M. Turner, Manjima Doha, Ina Anreiter, Aaron M. Allen, Marla B. Sokolowski & Megan E. Frederickson
In plant–animal mutualisms, how an animal forages often determines how much benefit its plant partner receives. In many animals, foraging behaviour changes in response to foraging gene expression or activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) that foraging encodes. Here, we show that this highly conserved molecular mechanism affects the outcome of a plant–animal mutualism. We studied the two PKG genes of Allomerus octoarticulatus, an Amazonian ant that defends the ant–plant Cordia nodosa against herbivores....

Data from: Nod factors potentiate auxin signaling for transcriptional regulation and lateral root formation in Medicago truncatula

Violaine Herrbach, Ximena Chirinos, David Rengel, Kokoévi Agbevenou, Rémy Vincent, Stephanie Pateyron, Stéphanie Huguet, Sandrine Balzergue, Asher Pasha, Nicholas Provart, Clare Gough & Sandra Bensmihen
Nodulation (Nod) factors (NFs) are symbiotic molecules produced by rhizobia that are essential for establishment of the rhizobium–legume endosymbiosis. Purified NFs can stimulate lateral root formation (LRF) in Medicago truncatula, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Using a combination of reporter constructs, pharmacological and genetic approaches, we show that NFs act on early steps of LRF in M. truncatula, independently of the ethylene signaling pathway and of the cytokinin receptor MtCRE1, but...

Data from: Fitness consequences of occasional outcrossing in a functionally asexual plant (Oenothera biennis)

John L. Maron, Marc T. J. Johnson, Amy P. Hastings & Anurag A. Agrawal
Many clonal organisms occasionally outcross, but the long-term consequences of such infrequent events are often unknown. During five years, representing three to five plant generations, we followed 16 experimental field populations of the forb, Oenothera biennis, originally planted with the same 18 original genotypes. Oenothera biennis usually self-fertilizes, which due to its genetic system (Permanent Translocation Heterozygosity), results in seeds that are clones of the maternal plant. However, rare outcrossing produces genetically novel offspring (but...

Data from: Widespread generalist clones are associated with range and niche expansion in allopolyploids of Pacific Northwest Hawthorns (Crataegus L.)

Jennifer M. Coughlan, S. Han, Saša Stefanović & Timothy A. Dickinson
Range and niche expansion are commonly associated with transitions to asexuality, polyploidy, and hybridity (allopolyploidy) in plants. The ability of asexual polyploids to colonize novel habitats may be due to widespread generalist clones, multiple ecologically specialized clones, or may be a neutral byproduct of multiple, independent origins of asexual polyploids throughout the range. We have quantified niche size and divergence for hawthorns of the Pacific Northwest using data from herbarium vouchers with known cytotypes. We...

Data from: Fear and lethality in snowshoe hares: the deadly effects of non-consumptive predation risk

Kirsty J. MacLeod, Charles J. Krebs, Rudy Boonstra & Michael J. Sheriff
Predators play a critical, top-down role in shaping ecosystems, driving prey population and community dynamics. Traditionally, studies of predator-prey interactions have focused on direct effects of predators, namely the killing of prey. More recently, the non-consumptive effects of predation risk are being appreciated; e.g., the Ecology of Fear. Prey responses to predation risk can be morphological, behavioural, and physiological, and are assumed to come at a cost to prey fitness. However, few studies have examined...

Data from: Herbivores safeguard plant diversity by reducing variability in dominance

Brent Mortensen, Brent Danielson, Stan W. Harpole, Juan Alberti, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Marc W. Cadotte, John M. Dwyer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Pablo Luis Peri, Eric W. Seabloom & W. Stanley Harpole
1. Reductions in community evenness can lead to local extinctions as dominant species exclude subordinate species; however, herbivores can prevent competitive exclusion by consuming otherwise dominant plant species, thus increasing evenness. While these predictions logically result from chronic, gradual reductions in evenness, rapid, temporary pulses of dominance may also reduce species richness. Short pulses of dominance can occur as biotic or abiotic conditions temporarily favor one or a few species, manifested as increased temporal variability...

Data from: Trait-mediated community assembly: distinguishing the signatures of biotic and abiotic filters

Deirdre Loughnan & Benjamin Gilbert
Conflicting hypotheses predict how traits mediate species establishment and community assembly. Traits of newly establishing individuals are predicted to converge, or be more similar to the resident, preexisting community, when the biotic or abiotic environment favors a single best phenotype, but are predicted to diverge when trait differences reduce competitive interactions. We tested these competing hypotheses using transplant seedlings in an old-field environment, and assessed the contribution of inter- and intra-specific transplant trait variation to...

Data from: Epistatic interactions influence terrestrial-marine functional shifts in cetacean rhodopsin

Sarah Z. Dungan & Belinda S. W. Chang
Like many aquatic vertebrates, whales have blue-shifting spectral tuning substitutions in the dim-light visual pigment, rhodopsin, that are thought to increase photosensitivity in underwater environments. We have discovered that known spectral tuning substitutions also have surprising epistatic effects on another function of rhodopsin, the kinetic rates associated with light-activated intermediates. By using absorbance spectroscopy and fluorescence-based retinal release assays on heterologously expressed rhodopsin, we assessed both spectral and kinetic differences between cetaceans (killer whale) and...

Data from: Plant sex alters Allee effects in aggregating plant parasites

Denon Start & Benjamin Gilbert
Species interactions are central to our understanding of population dynamics. While density typically strengthens competition, reducing absolute fitness, Allee effects can reverse this pattern, increasing fitness with density. Allee effects emerge in host-parasite systems when higher parasite densities dilute immune responses or increase resource-mobilization. The optimal density of individuals in these systems should be influenced by how host quality alters the rates at which facilitative and competitive effects change across densities. We tested these ideas...

Data from: Inference of facultative mobility in the enigmatic Ediacaran organism Parvancorina

Simon A.F. Darroch, Imran A. Rahman, Brandt Gibson, Rachel A. Racicot, Marc Laflamme & Simon A. F. Darroch
Establishing how Ediacaran organisms moved and fed is critical to deciphering their ecological and evolutionary significance, but has long been confounded by their non-analogue body plans. Here, we use computational fluid dynamics to quantitatively analyze water flow around the Ediacaran taxon Parvancorina, thereby testing between competing models for feeding mode and mobility. The results show that flow was not distributed evenly across the organism, but was directed towards localized areas; this allows us to reject...

Data from: Ant-plant mutualism: a dietary by-product of a tropical ant's macronutrient requirements

Lina M. Arcila Hernández, Jon G. Sanders, Gabriel A. Miller, Alison Ravenscraft & Megan E. Frederickson
Many arboreal ants depend on myrmecophytic plants for both food and shelter; in return, these ants defend their host plants against herbivores, which are often insects. Ant-plant and other mutualisms do not necessarily involve the exchange of costly rewards or services; they may instead result from by-product benefits, or positive outcomes that do not entail a cost for one or both partners. Here, we examined whether the plant-ant Allomerus octoarticulatus pays a short-term cost to...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    61

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    61

Affiliations

  • University of Toronto
    61
  • University of British Columbia
    5
  • Duke University
    4
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    3
  • University of Edinburgh
    3
  • University of Montana
    2
  • Royal Ontario Museum
    2
  • University of Windsor
    2
  • McGill University
    2
  • McMaster University
    2