36 Works

The role of spines in anthropogenic seed dispersal on the Galápagos islands

Marc Johnson, Mae Johnson, Oscar Johnson & Reagan Johnson
Dispersal has important ecological and evolutionary consequences for populations, but understanding the role of specific traits in dispersal can be difficult and requires careful experimentation. Moreover, understanding how humans alter dispersal is an important question, especially on oceanic islands where anthropogenic disturbance through species introductions can dramatically alter native ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the functional role of spines in seed dispersal of the plant caltrop (Tribulus cistoidesL., Zygophyllaceae) by anthropogenic agents. We also...

Data from: Eulerian videography technology improves classification of sleep architecture in primates

Emilie M. Melvin, David R. Samson & Charles L. Nunn
Sleep is a critically important dimension of primate behavior, ecology, and evolution, yet primate sleep is under-studied because current methods of analyzing sleep are expensive, invasive, and time-consuming. In contrast to electroencephalography (EEG) and actigraphy, videography is a cost-effective and non-invasive method to study sleep architecture in animals. With video data, however, it is challenging to score subtle changes that occur in different sleep states, and technology has lagged behind innovations in EEG and actigraphy....

Species differences in phenology shape coexistence

Christopher Blackford, Rachel Germain & Benjamin Gilbert
Ecological theory produces opposing predictions about whether differences in the timing of life history transitions, or ‘phenology’, promote or limit coexistence. Phenological separation is predicted to create temporal niche differences, increasing coexistence, yet phenological separation could also competitively favour one species, increasing fitness differences and hindering coexistence. We experimentally manipulated relative germination timing, a critical phenological event, of two annual grass species, Vulpia microstachys and V. octoflora, to test these contrasting predictions. We parameterized a...

Data from: Plant invasion alters trait composition and diversity across habitats

Darwin S. Sodhi, Stuart W. Livingstone, Marta Carboni & Marc W. Cadotte
Increased globalization has accelerated the movement of species around the world. Many of these non-native species have the potential to profoundly alter ecosystems. The mechanisms underpinning this impact are often poorly understood, and traits are often overlooked when trying to understand and predict the impacts of species invasions on communities. We conducted an observational field experiment in Canada’s first National Urban Park, where we collected trait data for seven different functional traits across an abundance...

Data from: Non-random loss of phylogenetically distinct rare species degrades phylogenetic diversity in semi-natural grasslands

Kei Uchida, Masayoshi K. Hiraiwa & Marc W. Cadotte
1. Although biodiversity loss is a critically important topic, our understanding of how both land abandonment and land-use intensification in semi-natural grasslands alters the community diversity and assembly mechanisms is very limited. Large-scale economic drivers of land-use change might inadvertently result in the loss of vulnerable species and reduce ecosystem services provisioning. 2. In this study, we assessed non-random community change by examining patterns of low-abundance species loss, and community assembly in semi-natural grasslands due...

Data from: Applying modern coexistence theory to priority effects

Tess Nahanni Grainger, Andrew D. Letten, Benjamin Gilbert & Tadashi Fukami
Modern coexistence theory is increasingly used to explain how differences between competing species lead to coexistence versus competitive exclusion. Although research testing this theory has focused on deterministic cases of competitive exclusion, in which the same species always wins, mounting evidence suggests that competitive exclusion is often historically contingent, such that whichever species happens to arrive first excludes the other. Coexistence theory predicts that historically contingent exclusion, known as priority effects, will occur when large...

FragSAD: A database of diversity and species abundance distributions from habitat fragments

Jonathan M. Chase, Mario Liebergesell, Alban Sagouis, Felix May, Shane A. Blowes, Åke Berg, Enrico Bernard, Berry J. Brosi, Marc W. Cadotte, Luis Cayuela, Adriano G. Chiarello, Jean-François Cosson, Will Cresswell, Filibus Danjuma Dami, Jens Dauber, Christopher R. Dickman, Raphael K. Didham, David P. Edwards, Fabio Z. Farneda, Yoni Gavish, Thiago Gonçalves-Souza, Demetrio Luis Guadagnin, Mickaël Henry, Adrià López-Baucells, Heike Kappes … & Yaron Ziv
Habitat destruction is the single greatest anthropogenic threat to biodiversity. Decades of research on this issue have led to the accumulation of hundreds of data sets comparing species assemblages in larger, intact, habitats to smaller, more fragmented, habitats. Despite this, little synthesis or consensus has been achieved, primarily because of non‐standardized sampling methodology and analyses of notoriously scale‐dependent response variables (i.e., species richness). To be able to compare and contrast the results of habitat fragmentation...

Data from: Using text-mined trait data to test for cooperate-and-radiate co-evolution between ants and plants

Katrina M. Kaur, Pierre-Jean G. Male, Erik Spence, Crisanto Gomez & Megan E. Frederickson
Mutualisms may be “key innovations” that spur lineage diversification by augmenting niche breadth, geographic range, or population size, thereby increasing speciation rates or decreasing extinction rates. Whether mutualism accelerates diversification in both interacting lineages is an open question. Research suggests that plants that attract ant mutualists have higher diversification rates than non-ant associated lineages. We ask whether the reciprocal is true: does the interaction between ants and plants also accelerate diversification in ants, i.e. do...

Data from: Estimating the impact of divergent mating phenology between residents and migrants on the potential for gene flow

Colin Bonner, Nina A. Sokolov, Sally Erin Westover, Michelle Ho & Arthur E. Weis
Gene flow between populations can allow the spread of beneficial alleles and genetic diversity between populations, with importance to conservation, invasion biology, and agriculture. Levels of gene flow between populations vary not only with distance, but also with divergence in reproductive phenology. Since phenology is often locally adapted, arriving migrants may be reproductively out of synch with residents, which can depress realized gene flow. In flowering plants, the potential impact of phenological divergence on hybridization...

Data from: Molecular diet analysis finds an insectivorous desert bat community dominated by resource sharing despite diverse echolocation and foraging strategies

Rowena Gordon, Sally Ivens, Loren K. Ammerman, M. Brock Fenton, Joanne E. Littlefair, John M. Ratcliffe & Elizabeth L. Clare
Interspecific differences in traits can alter the relative niche use of species within the same environment. Bats provide an excellent model to study niche use because they have a wide variety of behavioural, acoustic and morphological traits that may lead to multi-species, functional groups. Predatory bats have been classified by their foraging location (edge, clutter, open space), ability to aerial hawk and/or substrate glean prey and echolocation call design and flexibility, all of which may...

Data from: Does body size predict the buzz-pollination frequencies used by bees?

Paul A De Luca, Stephen L Buchmann, Candace Galen, Andrew C Mason & Mario Vallejo-Marín
Body size is an important trait linking pollinators and plants. Morphological matching between pollinators and plants is thought to reinforce pollinator fidelity, as the correct fit ensures that both parties benefit from the interaction. We investigated the influence of body size in a specialized pollination system (buzz‐pollination) where bees vibrate flowers to release pollen concealed within poricidal stamens. Specifically, we explored how body size influences the frequency of buzz‐pollination vibrations. Body size is expected to...

Data from: The landscape genetic signature of pollination by trapliners: evidence from the tropical herb, Heliconia tortuosa

Felipe Torres-Vanegas, Adam S. Hadley, Urs G. Kormann, F. Andrew Jones, Matthew G. Betts & Helene H. Wagner
Animal-mediated pollination is essential for the maintenance of plant reproduction, especially in tropical ecosystems, where pollination networks have been thought to have highly generalized structures. However, accumulating evidence suggests that not all floral visitors provide equally effective pollination services, potentially reducing the number of realized pollinators and increasing the cryptic specialization of pollination networks. Thus, there is a need to understand how different functional groups of pollinators influence pollination success. Here we examined whether patterns...

Data from: The ecology and evolution of seed predation by Darwin's finches on Tribulus cistoides on the Galápagos Islands

Sofía Carvajal-Endara, Andrew P. Hendry, Nancy C. Emery, Corey P. Neu, Diego Carmona, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, T. Jonathan Davies, Jaime A. Chaves & Marc T. J Johnson
Predator-prey interactions play a key role in the evolution of species traits through antagonistic coevolutionary arms-races. The evolution of beak morphology in the Darwin’s finches in response to competition for seed resources is a classic example of evolution by natural selection. The seeds of Tribulus cistoides are an important food source for the largest ground finch species (Geospiza fortis, G. magnirostris, and G. conirostris) in dry months, and the hard spiny morphology of the fruits...

Data from: Conserving evolutionary history does not result in greater diversity over geological timescales

Juan Cantalapiedra, Tracy Aze, Marc Cadotte, Giulio Valentino Dalla Riva, Danwei Huang, Florent Mazel, Matthew Pennell, María Ríos & Arne Mooers
Alternative prioritization strategies have been proposed to safeguard biodiversity over macro-evolutionary timescales. The first prioritizes the most distantly related species (maximizing phylogenetic diversity) in the hopes of capturing at least some lineages that will successfully diversify into the future. The second prioritizes lineages that are currently speciating, in the hopes that successful lineages will continue to generate species into the future. These contrasting schemes also map onto contrasting predictions about the role of slow diversifiers...

Data from: Phylogeny matters: revisiting ‘a comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses’

Cylita Guy, Jeneni Thiagavel, Nicole Mideo & John M. Ratcliffe
Diseases emerging from wildlife have been the source of many major human outbreaks. Predicting key sources of these outbreaks requires an understanding of the factors that explain pathogen diversity in reservoir species. Comparative methods are powerful tools for understanding variation in pathogen diversity and rely on correcting for phylogenetic relatedness among reservoir species. We reanalyzed a previously published dataset, examining the relative effects of species’ traits on patterns of viral diversity in bats and rodents....

Data from: Threshold elemental ratios and the temperature dependence of herbivory in fishes

Eric K. Moody, Nathan K. Lujan, Katherine A. Roach & Kirk O. Winemiller
1. Herbivorous ectothermic vertebrates are more diverse and abundant at lower latitudes. While thermal constraints may drive this pattern, its underlying cause remains unclear. We hypothesized that this constraint stems from an inability to meet the elevated phosphorus demands of bony vertebrates feeding on P-poor plant material at cooler temperatures because low gross growth efficiency at warmer temperatures facilitates higher P ingestion rates. We predicted that dietary carbon:phosphorus (C:P) should exceed the threshold elemental ratio...

Data from: Ecological specialization in populations adapted to constant versus heterogeneous environments

Ao Wang, Amardeep Singh, Yuheng Huang & Aneil F. Agrawal
Populations vary in their degree of ecological specialization. An intuitive, but often untested, hypothesis is that populations evolving under greater environmental heterogeneity will evolve to be less specialized. How important is environmental heterogeneity in explaining among-population variation in specialization? We assessed juvenile viability of 20 Drosophila melanogaster populations evolving under one of four regimes: (i) a salt-enriched environment, (ii) a cadmium-enriched environment, (iii) a temporally varying environment, and (iv) a spatially varying environment. Juvenile viability...

Data from: Phenotype-by-environment interactions influence dispersal

Celina B. Baines, Ilia Maria C. Ferzoco & Shannon J. McCauley
1. Numerous studies have demonstrated that dispersal is dependent on both disperser phenotype and the local environment. However, there is substantial variability in the observed strength and direction of phenotype- and environment-dependent dispersal. This has been hypothesized to be the result of interactive effects among the multiple phenotypic and environmental factors that influence dispersal. 2. Here, our goal was to test the hypothesis that these interactions are responsible for generating variation in dispersal behaviour. 3....

Data from: Host traits and competitive ability jointly structure disease dynamics and community assembly

Devin Kirk, Dylan Shea & Denon Start
1. Parasitism and competition are both ubiquitous interactions in ecological communities. The ability of host species to interact directly via competition and indirectly through shared parasites suggests that host traits related to competition and parasitism are likely important in structuring communities and disease dynamics. Specifically, those host traits affecting competition and those mediating parasitism are often correlated either because of trade-offs (in resource acquisition or resource allocation) or condition-dependence; yet the consequences of these trait...

Data from: Genome-wide epigenetic isolation by environment in a widespread Anolis lizard

Ian Wang, Guinevere Wogan, Michael Yuan & D. Luke Mahler
Epigenetic changes can provide a pathway for organisms to respond to local environmental conditions by influencing gene expression. However, we still know little about the spatial distribution of epigenetic variation in natural systems, how it relates to the distribution of genetic variation and the environmental structure of the landscape, and the processes that generate and maintain it. Studies examining spatial patterns of genetic and epigenetic variation can provide valuable insights into how ecological and population...

Asynchronous Saturation of the Carbon Sink in African and Amazonian tropical forests

Wannes Hubau, Simon Lewis, Oliver Phillips, Kofi Kofi Affum-Baffoe, Hans Hans Beeckman, Aida Cuni-Sanchez, Corneille Ewango, Sophie Fauset, Douglas Sheil, Bonaventure Sonké, Martin Sullivan, Terry Sunderland, Sean Thomas, Katharine Abernethy, Stephen Adu-Bredu, Christian Amani, Timothy Baker, Lindsay Banin, Fidèle Baya, Serge Begne, Amy Bennett, Fabrice Benedet, Robert Bitariho & Yannick Bocko
Data and R-code from Hubau W et al. 2020. 'Asynchronous Saturation of the Carbon Sink in African and Amazonian tropical forests'. Nature 579, 80-87. 2020. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2035-0. ABSTRACT: Structurally intact tropical forests sequestered ~50% of global terrestrial carbon uptake over the 1990s and early 2000s, offsetting ~15% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions1-3. Climate-driven vegetation models typically predict that this tropical forest ‘carbon sink’ will continue for decades4,5. However, recent inventories of intact Amazonian forests show declining...

Data from: Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution

Torda Varga, Krisztina Krizsán, Csenge Földi, Bálint Dima, Marisol Sánchez-García, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Gergely J. Szöllősi, János G. Szarkándi, Viktor Papp, László Albert, William Andreopoulos, Claudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Kerrie W. Barry, Neale L. Bougher, Peter Buchanan, Bart Buyck, Viktória Bense, Pam Catcheside, Mansi Chovatia, Jerry Cooper, Wolfgang Dämon, Dennis Desjardin, Péter Finy, József Geml … & László G. Nagy
Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfill diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Seizure outcome of pediatric epilepsy surgery: systematic review and meta-analyses

Elysa Widjaja
Objective: This systematic review and meta-analyses assessed seizure outcome following pediatric epilepsy surgery. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane were searched for pediatric epilepsy surgery original research from 1990 to 2017. The outcome was seizure freedom at 12 months or longer follow-up. Using random effects models, the effect sizes for controlled studies, uncontrolled studies on surgery locations (temporal lobe [TL], extra-temporal lobe [ETL] or hemispheric surgery), pathologies, non-lesional epilepsy and incomplete resection were estimated. Meta-regression assessed...

Data from: Architectural constraints, male fertility variation and biased floral morph ratios in tristylous populations

Nicolay L. Da Cunha & Spencer C. H. Barrett
Tristyly is a genetic polymorphism in which populations are comprised of three floral morphs (mating types) differing reciprocally in sex-organ height. Intermorph (disassortative) mating governed by a trimorphic incompatibility system should result in 1:1:1 morph ratio at equilibrium, but both deterministic and stochastic processes can cause skewed morph ratios in tristylous populations. Here, we investigate mechanisms causing morph-ratio bias in Pontederia parviflora, an emergent aquatic native to tropical America. We compared reproductive traits among morphs...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    36

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    36

Affiliations

  • University of Toronto
    36
  • Federal University of São Carlos
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2
  • McGill University
    2
  • University of Leeds
    2
  • University of British Columbia
    2
  • Harvard University
    2
  • Royal Museum for Central Africa
    1
  • Oeko Institut
    1
  • University of Montana
    1