81 Works

Immigration status, ethnicity, and outcomes following ischemic stroke

Manav V. Vyas, Peter C. Austin, Jiming Fang, Andreas Laupacis, Frank L. Silver & Moira K. Kapral
Objective: To assess the association between immigration status and ethnicity and the outcomes of mortality and vascular event recurrence following ischemic stroke in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked administrative and clinical registry-based data from 2002 to 2018 and compared hazards of all-cause mortality and vascular event recurrence in immigrants and long-term residents using inverse probability of treatment weighting accounting for age, sex, income and comorbidities. We stratified analyses by...

Data for: Parasitism risk and infection alter host dispersal

Celina Baines, Salma Diab & Shannon McCauley
Dispersal determines the spatial dynamics of host-parasite assemblages, particularly during invasions and disease epidemics. The risk of parasitism may create an incentive for dispersal, but infection is expected to reduce dispersal ability, which may alter the host’s dispersal response to biotic stressors including population density. We measured the dispersal of the semi-aquatic insect, Notonecta undulata, in aquatic mesocosms in which we manipulated the presence of ectoparasitic Hydrachnidia mites and of infected conspecifics. We found that...

Data from: Hurricane effects on Neotropical lizards span geographic and phylogenetic scales

Colin Donihue, Alex Kowaleski, Jonathan Losos, Adam Algar, Simon Baeckens, Robert Buchkowski, Anne-Claire Fabre, Hannah Frank, Anthony Geneva, Graham Reynolds, James Stroud, Julián Velasco, Jason Kolbe, Luke Mahler & Anthony Herrel
Extreme climate events such as droughts, cold snaps, and hurricanes can be powerful agents of natural selection, producing acute selective pressures very different from the everyday pressures acting on organisms. However, it remains unknown whether these infrequent but severe disruptions are quickly erased by quotidian selective forces, or whether they have the potential to durably shape biodiversity patterns across regions and clades. Here, we show that hurricanes have enduring evolutionary impacts on the morphology of...

Plant diversity enhances rehabilitation of degraded lands by spurring plant-soil feedbacks

Pu Jia, Jie-Liang Liang, Sheng-Xiang Yang, Sheng-Chang Zhang, Jun Liu, Zhi-Wei Liang, Feng-Mei Li, Qing-Wei Zeng, Zhou Fang, Bin Liao, Wen-Sheng Shu, Marc Cadotte & Jin-Tian Li
Despite a rich history of theoretical and empirical work showing that increasing biodiversity results in higher ecosystem function, this research has not made a commensurate impact on the reclamation of degraded lands, where enhancing ecosystem function is of primary importance. 2. In this study, we manipulated plant diversity on heavily degraded mine lands and showed that increasing plant diversity greatly enhanced the reclamation of these lands. We found that high diversity assemblages were often associated...

Older, Wiser, and Fiercer: Perspectives of Middle-Aged and Older Men Who Have Sex with Men on their Resilience to the Risk and Impacts of HIV/AIDS

Renato M. Liboro, Charles Fehr, George Da Silva, Lori E. Ross, Paul A. Shuper, Francisco Ibanez-Carrasco, Andrew D. Eaton & Daniel Pugh
Roughly forty years since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be the population most at risk of, and most affected by, HIV/AIDS in Canada, the United States, and innumerable low to high income countries worldwide. Despite this, many MSM remain HIV-negative today, and among MSM living with HIV, many have not only survived the clinical and social impacts of HIV/AIDS, but have...

Five-years of ocrelizumab in relapsing multiple sclerosis: OPERA studies open-label extension

Stephen L Hauser, Ludwig Kappos, Douglas L Arnold, Amit Bar-Or, Bruno Brochet, Robert T Naismith, Anthony Traboulsee, Jerry S Wolinsky, Shibeshih Belachew, Harold Koendgen, Victoria Levesque, Marianna Manfrini, Fabian Model, Stanislas Hubeaux, Lahar Mehta & Xavier Montalban
Objective To assess over 3 years of follow-up, the effects of maintaining or switching to ocrelizumab (OCR) therapy on clinical and MRI outcomes and safety measures in the open-label extension (OLE) phase of the pooled OPERA studies in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Methods After 2 years of double-blind, controlled treatment, patients continued OCR (600 mg infusions every 24 weeks) or switched from interferon (IFN) β-1a (44 μg 3 times weekly) to OCR when entering the OLE...

Data from: Competition for access to mates predicts female-specific ornamentation and male investment in relative testis size

Rosalind Murray, Elizabeth J Herridge, Robert W Ness, R. Axel W. Wiberg & Luc F. Bussière
Sexually selected ornaments are highly variable and the factors that drive variation in ornament expression are not always clear. Rare instances of female-specific ornament evolution (such as in some dance fly species) are particularly puzzling. While some evidence suggests that such rare instances represent straightforward reversals of sexual selection intensity, the distinct nature of trade-offs between ornaments and offspring pose special constraints in females. To examine whether competition for access to mates generally favours heightened...

Supplementary Documentation - Epilepsy risk among survivors of intensive care unit hospitalization for sepsis

Tresah Antaya, Britney Allen, Lucie Richard, Salimah Shariff, Gustavo Saposnik & Jorge Burneo
Objective Our objectives were to determine if survivors of intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations with sepsis experience higher epilepsy risk than survivors of ICU hospitalizations without sepsis, and to identify sepsis survivors at highest risk. Methods We used linked, administrative healthcare databases to conduct a population-based, retrospective matched cohort study of adult Ontario residents discharged from an ICU between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015, identified using the Discharge Abstract Database. We used propensity...

Multivariate phenotypic divergence along an urbanization gradient

James Santangelo, L. Rivkin Ruth, Carole Advenard & Ken Thompson
A growing body of evidence suggests that natural populations can evolve to better tolerate the novel environmental conditions associated with urban areas. Invariably, studies of adaptive divergence in urban areas examine only one or a few traits at a time from populations residing only at the most extreme urban and nonurban habitats. Thus, whether urbanization is driving divergence in many traits simultaneously in a manner that varies with the degree of urbanization remains unclear. To...

Data from: Climate change increases predation risk for a keystone species of the boreal forest

Michael Peers, Yasmine Majchrzak, Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Rudy Boonstra, Murray Humphries, Thomas Jung, Alice Kenney, Charles Krebs, Dennis Murray & Stan Boutin
Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) form a keystone predator-prey cycle that has large impacts on the North-American boreal forest vertebrate community. Snowshoe hares and lynx are both well-suited for snowy winters, but climate change associated shifts in snow conditions could lower hare survival and alter cyclic dynamics. Using detailed monitoring of snowshoe hare cause-specific mortality, behaviour, and prevailing weather, we demonstrate that hare mortality risk is strongly influenced by variation in...

Clients’ and Coaches’ Perspectives of a Life Coaching Intervention for Parents with Overweight/Obesity

Shazya Karmali, Danielle S. Battram, Shauna M. Burke, Anita Cramp, Tara Mantler, Don Morrow, Victor Ng, Erin S. Pearson, Robert Petrella, Patricia Tucker & Jennifer D. Irwin

Data: Experimental evidence of warming-induced disease emergence and its prediction by a trait-based mechanistic model

Devin Kirk, Pepijn Luijckx, Natalie Jones, Leila Krichel, Clara Pencer, Peter Molnár & Martin Krkosek
Predicting the effects of seasonality and climate change on the emergence and spread of infectious disease remains difficult, in part because of poorly understood connections between warming and the mechanisms driving disease. Trait-based mechanistic models combined with thermal performance curves arising from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) have been highlighted as a promising approach going forward; however, this framework has not been tested under controlled experimental conditions that isolate the role of gradual temporal...

Tree mycorrhizal type mediates the strength of negative density dependence in temperate forests

Feng Jiang, Kai Zhu, Marc Cadotte & Guangze Jin
1. Recent plant-soil feedback experiments suggest that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree species experience stronger conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD) than ectomycorrhizal (EM) tree species. Yet how these findings inform our understanding of natural systems is limited because the roles of local soil conditions, light environments and tree species abundances in influencing CNDD for AM and EM species are not clear. 2. Here we examined seedling and sapling survival in two temperate old-growth forests (broadleaved pine...

Evolutionary stability, landscape heterogeneity, and human land-usage shape population genetic connectivity in the Cape Floristic Region biodiversity hotspot

Lindsay Miles, Brian Verrelli & Erica Tassone
As human-induced change eliminates natural habitats, it impacts genetic diversity and population connectivity for local biodiversity. The South African Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is the most diverse extratropical area for plant biodiversity, and much of its habitat is protected as a UNESCO World Heritage site. There has long been great interest in explaining the underlying factors driving this unique diversity, especially as much of the CFR is endangered by urbanization and other anthropogenic activity. Here,...

The list of vascular plants for the city of Toronto

Marc Cadotte
Urban areas have become epicenters for applied ecological and conservation research and policy. Yet, most urban areas have surprisingly little consolidated information about their biota, including species-at-risk and invasive species. I used multiple data sources to compile a list of vascular plants for the greater metropolitan Toronto region. This data not only includes taxonomic information, but also global and national status ranks, growth from, native status, threatened status, abundance estimates and year of first observation...

Data from: Functional and phylogenetic diversity explain different components of diversity effects on biomass production

Shurong Zhou, Mengjiao Huang, Xiang Liu & Marc W. Cadotte
The Anthropocene is defined by human-driven environmental change, with one consequence being the modern dramatic decline in biodiversity globally. This is especially worrisome given the long-acknowledged causal linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and the delivery of ecosystem services. However, the exact mechanisms driving biodiversity- ecosystem function (BEF) relationships remain unclear, specifically the linkages between species differences, measured by trait and phylogenetic distances, and how interactions, such as competitive inequality and stable coexistence via niche...

Data from: Effects of niche overlap on co-existence, fixation, and invasion in a population of two interacting species

Matthew Badali & Anton Zilman
Synergistic and antagonistic interactions in multi-species populations - such as resource sharing and competition - result in remarkably diverse behaviors in populations of interacting cells, such as in soil or human microbiomes, or clonal competition in cancer. The degree of inter- and intra-specific interaction can often be quantified through the notion of an ecological "niche". Typically, weakly interacting species that occupy largely distinct niches result in stable mixed populations, while strong interactions and competition for...

Criteria for defining interictal epileptiform discharges in EEG: a clinical validation study

Mustafa Aykut Kural, Lene Duez, Vibeke Sejer Hansen, Pål Gunnar Larsson, Stefan Rampp, Reinhard Schulz, Hatice Tankisi, Richard Wennberg, Bo Bibby, Michael Scherg & Sandor Beniczky
Objective: To define and validate criteria for accurate identification of EEG interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) using: (a) the six sensor space criteria proposed by the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN), and, (b) a novel source space method. Criteria yielding high specificity are needed because EEG “over-reading” is a common cause of epilepsy misdiagnosis. Methods: Seven raters reviewed EEG segments containing sharp waveforms from 100 patients with and without epilepsy. Clinical diagnosis gold standard was...

Population and community-level rarity have opposing effects on pollinator visitation and seed set

Kaitlyn Brown & Benjamin Gilbert
When can small, isolated populations overcome the negative consequences of rarity? Despite considerable effort to understand threats to rare species, few studies consider how community context alters these threats. Plant-pollinator interactions offer the opportunity to test the effect of community context on rare species success, as plant-pollinator dynamics are thought to be influenced by neighboring plants, both through competition for pollinators (reducing success in small populations) and attraction of potential pollinators (increasing success in small...

Data for: Tunable self-cleaving ribozymes for modulating gene expression in eukaryotic systems

Thomas Jacobsen, Gloria Yi, Hadel Al Asafen, Ashley Jermusyk, Chase Beisel & Gregory Reeves
Advancements in the field of synthetic biology have been possible due to the development of genetic tools that are able to regulate gene expression. However, the current toolbox of gene regulatory tools for eukaryotic systems have been outpaced by those developed for simple, single-celled systems. Here, we engineered a set of gene regulatory tools by combining self-cleaving ribozymes with various upstream competing sequences that were designed to disrupt ribozyme self-cleavage. As a proof-of-concept, we were...

Primary detection records for aquatic nonindigenous species in global estuarine and marine ecosystems and the Great Lakes

Sarah Bailey, Lyndsay Brown, Marnie Campbell, João Canning-Clode, James Carlton, Nuno Castro, Paula Chainho, Farrah Chan, Joel Creed, Amelia Curd, John Darling, Paul Fofonoff, Bella Galil, Chad Hewitt, Graeme Inglis, Inti Keith, Nicholas Mandrak, Agnese Marchini, Cynthia McKenzie, Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Henn Ojaveer, Larissa Pires-Teixeira, Tamara Robinson, Gregory Ruiz, Kimberley Seaward … & Aibin Zhan
Aim The introduction of aquatic non-indigenous species (ANS) has become a major driver for global changes in species biogeography. We examined spatial patterns and temporal trends of ANS detections since 1965 to inform conservation policy and management. Location Global Methods We assembled an extensive dataset of first records of detection of ANS (1965-2015) across 49 aquatic ecosystems, including the i) year of first collection, ii) population status and iii) potential pathway(s) of introduction. Data were...

Environmental DNA (eDNA) from multiple pathogens is elevated near active Atlantic salmon farms

Dylan Shea
The spread of infection from reservoir host populations is a key mechanism for disease emergence and extinction risk and is a management concern for salmon aquaculture and fisheries. Using a quantitative environmental DNA methodology, we assessed pathogen eDNA in relation to salmon farms in coastal British Columbia, Canada, by testing for 39 species of salmon pathogens (viral, bacterial, and eukaryotic) in 134 marine environmental samples at 58 salmon farm sites (both active and inactive) over...

Morning glory species co-occurrence is associated with asymmetrically decreased and cascading reproductive isolation

Kate Ostevik, Joanna Rifkin, Hanhan Xia & Mark Rausher
Hybridization between species can affect the strength of the reproductive barriers that separate those species. Two extensions of this effect are: (1) the expectation that asymmetric hybridization or gene flow will have asymmetric effects on reproductive barrier strength and (2) the expectation that local hybridization will affect only local reproductive barrier strength and could therefore alter within-species compatibility. We tested these hypotheses in a pair of morning glory species that exhibit asymmetric gene flow from...

Maximum carboxylation rate estimation with chlorophyll content as a proxy of rubisco content

Xuehe Lu, Weimin Ju, Jing Li, Holly Croft, Jing M. Chen, Yiqi Luo, Hua Yu & Haijing Hu
The maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) is a key parameter in determining the plant photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area. However, most terrestrial biosphere models currently treat Vcmax as constants changing only with plant functional types, leading to large uncertainties in modelled carbon fluxes. Vcmax is tightly linked with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Here we investigated the relationship between leaf chlorophyll content and Rubisco (Chl-Rub) within a winter wheat paddock. With chlorophyll as a proxy of Rubisco,...

Data for: Thermal habitat of brook trout in lakes of different size

Darren Smith, Don Jackson & Mark Ridgway
We assessed thermal habitat use of lake-dwelling Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in 39 lakes of varying size with short-set duration, stratified-random netting surveys in Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada. Temperature at capture depth was determined from vertical temperature profiles and used as a proxy of Brook Trout temperature selection. Almost all Brook Trout observations fit within their aerobic scope, indicating that our approach adequately captured the distribution of body temperature for this species. However, we...

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  • 2020

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  • University of Toronto
  • Stanford University
  • University of Alberta
  • McGill University
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of British Columbia
  • Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University
  • West China Hospital of Sichuan University
  • Zhejiang University
  • Southwest Medical University