77 Works

Data from: Effects of niche overlap on co-existence, fixation, and invasion in a population of two interacting species

Matthew Badali & Anton Zilman
Synergistic and antagonistic interactions in multi-species populations - such as resource sharing and competition - result in remarkably diverse behaviors in populations of interacting cells, such as in soil or human microbiomes, or clonal competition in cancer. The degree of inter- and intra-specific interaction can often be quantified through the notion of an ecological "niche". Typically, weakly interacting species that occupy largely distinct niches result in stable mixed populations, while strong interactions and competition for...

Raw data from: Consumer-resource interactions along urbanization gradients drive natural selection

Colin Bonner
Urbanization is an important component of global change. Urbanization affects species interactions, but the evolutionary implications are rarely studied. We investigate the evolutionary consequences of a common pattern: the loss of high trophic-level species in urban areas. Using a gall-forming fly, Eurosta solidaginis, and its natural enemies that select for opposite gall sizes, we test for patterns of enemy loss, selection, and local adaptation along five urbanization gradients. Eurosta declined in urban areas, as did...

Spatial heterogeneity in soil pyrogenic carbon mediates tree growth and physiology following wildfire

Nigel Gale & Sean Thomas
Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is a ubiquitous legacy of wildfire in terrestrial soils, yet how it affects the growth and function of regenerating plants has received little research attention. We examined responses to a natural gradient of PyC deposition five years following a severe fire in a northern boreal forest, based on measurements of growth (height, basal area increment, and leader extension), physiological performance (Fv/Fm), and foliar nutrition (foliar C, N, P, K, Mg) of Pinus...

Data for: Thermal habitat of brook trout in lakes of different size

Darren Smith, Don Jackson & Mark Ridgway
We assessed thermal habitat use of lake-dwelling Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in 39 lakes of varying size with short-set duration, stratified-random netting surveys in Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada. Temperature at capture depth was determined from vertical temperature profiles and used as a proxy of Brook Trout temperature selection. Almost all Brook Trout observations fit within their aerobic scope, indicating that our approach adequately captured the distribution of body temperature for this species. However, we...

Maximum carboxylation rate estimation with chlorophyll content as a proxy of rubisco content

Xuehe Lu, Weimin Ju, Jing Li, Holly Croft, Jing M. Chen, Yiqi Luo, Hua Yu & Haijing Hu
The maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) is a key parameter in determining the plant photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area. However, most terrestrial biosphere models currently treat Vcmax as constants changing only with plant functional types, leading to large uncertainties in modelled carbon fluxes. Vcmax is tightly linked with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Here we investigated the relationship between leaf chlorophyll content and Rubisco (Chl-Rub) within a winter wheat paddock. With chlorophyll as a proxy of Rubisco,...

Morning glory species co-occurrence is associated with asymmetrically decreased and cascading reproductive isolation

Kate Ostevik, Joanna Rifkin, Hanhan Xia & Mark Rausher
Hybridization between species can affect the strength of the reproductive barriers that separate those species. Two extensions of this effect are: (1) the expectation that asymmetric hybridization or gene flow will have asymmetric effects on reproductive barrier strength and (2) the expectation that local hybridization will affect only local reproductive barrier strength and could therefore alter within-species compatibility. We tested these hypotheses in a pair of morning glory species that exhibit asymmetric gene flow from...

Data for: Coevolution fails to maintain genetic variation in a host-parasite model with constant finite population size

Ailene MacPherson, Matthew Keeling & Sarah Otto
Coevolutionary negative frequency-dependent selection has been hypothesized to maintain genetic variation in host and parasites. Despite the extensive literature pertaining to host-parasite coevolution, the dynamics of genetic variation has not been examined in a matching-alleles model (MAM) with a finite population size relative to the expectation under neutral genetic drift alone. The dynamics of the MA coevolution in an infinite population, in fact, suggests that genetic variation in these coevolving populations behaves neutrally. By comparing...

Population and community-level rarity have opposing effects on pollinator visitation and seed set

Kaitlyn Brown & Benjamin Gilbert
When can small, isolated populations overcome the negative consequences of rarity? Despite considerable effort to understand threats to rare species, few studies consider how community context alters these threats. Plant-pollinator interactions offer the opportunity to test the effect of community context on rare species success, as plant-pollinator dynamics are thought to be influenced by neighboring plants, both through competition for pollinators (reducing success in small populations) and attraction of potential pollinators (increasing success in small...

Data for: Tunable self-cleaving ribozymes for modulating gene expression in eukaryotic systems

Thomas Jacobsen, Gloria Yi, Hadel Al Asafen, Ashley Jermusyk, Chase Beisel & Gregory Reeves
Advancements in the field of synthetic biology have been possible due to the development of genetic tools that are able to regulate gene expression. However, the current toolbox of gene regulatory tools for eukaryotic systems have been outpaced by those developed for simple, single-celled systems. Here, we engineered a set of gene regulatory tools by combining self-cleaving ribozymes with various upstream competing sequences that were designed to disrupt ribozyme self-cleavage. As a proof-of-concept, we were...

Data from: Functional and phylogenetic diversity explain different components of diversity effects on biomass production

Shurong Zhou, Mengjiao Huang, Xiang Liu & Marc W. Cadotte
The Anthropocene is defined by human-driven environmental change, with one consequence being the modern dramatic decline in biodiversity globally. This is especially worrisome given the long-acknowledged causal linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and the delivery of ecosystem services. However, the exact mechanisms driving biodiversity- ecosystem function (BEF) relationships remain unclear, specifically the linkages between species differences, measured by trait and phylogenetic distances, and how interactions, such as competitive inequality and stable coexistence via niche...

Environmental DNA (eDNA) from multiple pathogens is elevated near active Atlantic salmon farms

Dylan Shea
The spread of infection from reservoir host populations is a key mechanism for disease emergence and extinction risk and is a management concern for salmon aquaculture and fisheries. Using a quantitative environmental DNA methodology, we assessed pathogen eDNA in relation to salmon farms in coastal British Columbia, Canada, by testing for 39 species of salmon pathogens (viral, bacterial, and eukaryotic) in 134 marine environmental samples at 58 salmon farm sites (both active and inactive) over...

Criteria for defining interictal epileptiform discharges in EEG: a clinical validation study

Mustafa Aykut Kural, Lene Duez, Vibeke Sejer Hansen, Pål Gunnar Larsson, Stefan Rampp, Reinhard Schulz, Hatice Tankisi, Richard Wennberg, Bo Bibby, Michael Scherg & Sandor Beniczky
Objective: To define and validate criteria for accurate identification of EEG interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) using: (a) the six sensor space criteria proposed by the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN), and, (b) a novel source space method. Criteria yielding high specificity are needed because EEG “over-reading” is a common cause of epilepsy misdiagnosis. Methods: Seven raters reviewed EEG segments containing sharp waveforms from 100 patients with and without epilepsy. Clinical diagnosis gold standard was...

Primary detection records for aquatic nonindigenous species in global estuarine and marine ecosystems and the Great Lakes

Sarah Bailey, Lyndsay Brown, Marnie Campbell, João Canning-Clode, James Carlton, Nuno Castro, Paula Chainho, Farrah Chan, Joel Creed, Amelia Curd, John Darling, Paul Fofonoff, Bella Galil, Chad Hewitt, Graeme Inglis, Inti Keith, Nicholas Mandrak, Agnese Marchini, Cynthia McKenzie, Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Henn Ojaveer, Larissa Pires-Teixeira, Tamara Robinson, Gregory Ruiz, Kimberley Seaward … & Aibin Zhan
Aim The introduction of aquatic non-indigenous species (ANS) has become a major driver for global changes in species biogeography. We examined spatial patterns and temporal trends of ANS detections since 1965 to inform conservation policy and management. Location Global Methods We assembled an extensive dataset of first records of detection of ANS (1965-2015) across 49 aquatic ecosystems, including the i) year of first collection, ii) population status and iii) potential pathway(s) of introduction. Data were...

Data from: Predators can influence the host-parasite dynamics of their prey via non-consumptive effects

Nicolette Zukowski, Devin Kirk, Kiran Wadhawan, Dylan Shea, Denon Start & Martin Krkosek
Ecological communities are partly structured by indirect interactions, where one species can indirectly affect another by altering its interactions with a third species. In the absence of direct predation, non-consumptive effects of predators on prey have important implications for subsequent community interactions. To better understand these interactions, we used a Daphnia-parasite-predator cue system to evaluate if predation risk affects Daphnia responses to a parasite. We investigated the effects of predator cues on two aspects of...

WiDS (Women in Data Science) Datathon 2020: ICU Mortality Prediction

Meredith Lee, Jesse Raffa, Marzyeh Ghassemi, Tom Pollard, Sharada Kalanidhi, Omar Badawi, Karen Matthys & Leo Anthony Celi
WiDS (Women in Data Science) Datathon 2020: ICU Mortality Prediction focuses on patient health through data from MIT’s GOSSIS (Global Open Source Severity of Illness Score) initiative. Brought to you by the Global WiDS team, the West Big Data Innovation Hub, and the WiDS Datathon Committee, this year’s datathon is launching on Kaggle: bit.ly/WiDSdatathon2020kaggle.

Recovery after the Rupture

Aarzoo Singh
The notion of home and belonging, specifically in the context of South Asian postcolonial diasporas, is connected to past traumas of colonization and displacement. This paper addresses how trauma, displacement, and colonialism can be understood through and with material culture, and how familial objects and items emit and/ or carry within them, emotional narratives. I turn to the affective currency that emit and are transferred on and down from objects, by diasporic subjects, to access...

Where New Words Are Born: Distributional Semantic Analysis of Neologisms and Their Semantic Neighborhoods

Maria Ryskina, Ella Rabinovich, Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick, David R. Mortensen & Yulia Tsvetkov

Screening the Sigma LOPAC®1280 library of compounds for protective effects against cisplatin-induced oto- and nephrotoxicity

Jaime Wertman, Nicole Melong, Matthew Stoyek, Olivia Piccolo, Stewart Langley, Benno Orr, Shelby Steele, Babak Razaghi & Jason Berman
Dose-limiting toxicities for cisplatin administration, including ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity, impact the clinical utility of this effective chemotherapy agent and lead to lifelong complications, particularly in pediatric cancer survivors. Using a two-pronged drug screen employing the zebrafish lateral line as an in vivo readout for ototoxicity and kidney cell-based nephrotoxicity assay, we screened 1280 compounds and identified 22 that were both oto- and nephroprotective. Of these, dopamine and L-mimosine, a plant-based amino acid active in the...

Maps of northern peatland extent, depth, carbon storage and nitrogen storage

Gustaf Hugelius, Julie Loisel, Sarah Chadburn, Robert B. Jackson, Miriam Jones, Glen MacDonald, Maija Marushchak, David Olefeldt, Maara Packalen, Matthias B. Siewert, Claire Treat, Merritt Turestsky, Carolina Voigt & Zicheng Yu
This dataset is grids of peatland extent, peat depth, peatland organic carbon storage, peatland total nitrogen storage and approximate extent of ombrotrophic/minerotrophic peatlands. The grids are geotiff files in 10 km pixel resolution projected in the World Azimuthal Equidistant projection. Note that the peat depth grid shows potential peat depth everywhere,also where there is no peatland cover. For files on peatland organic carbon, total nitrogen extent and extent of ombrotrophic/minerotrophic peatlands, there are separate files...

Data from: Oecanthus nigricornis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) as the first known host of Stylogaster neglecta (Diptera: Conopidae)

Erik Etzler, William D. Brown, Luc F. Bussière & Darryl T. Gwynne
The conopid fly Stylogaster neglecta Williston (Diptera: Conopidae) is a parasitoid with no known host. We report this species as the first recorded dipteran parasitoid of Oecanthus nigricornis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) (black-horned tree crickets). We reared field-collected O. nigricornis juveniles over several months in 2017 and found that larval S. neglecta emerged from them during late July into August. We estimated the incubation period for S. neglecta larvae to be around 30 days based on...

Data from: Paleoclimatic evolution as the main driver of current genomic diversity in the widespread and polymorphic Neotropical songbird Arremon taciturnus

Nelson Buainain, Roberta Canton, Gabriela Zuquim, Hanna Tuomisto, Tomas Hrbek, Hiromitsu Sato & Camila Ribas
Several factors have been proposed as drivers of species diversification in the Neotropics, including environmental heterogeneity, the development of drainage systems and historical changes in forest distribution due to climatic oscillations. Here, we investigate which drivers contributed to the evolutionary history and current patterns of diversity of a polymorphic songbird (Arremon taciturnus) that is widely distributed in Amazonian and Atlantic forests as well as in Cerrado gallery and seasonally-dry forests. We use genomic, phenotypic and...

Data from: Sampling schemes and drift can bias admixture proportions inferred by STRUCTURE

Ken Toyama, Pierre-André Crochet & Raphaël Leblois
The interbreeding of individuals coming from genetically differentiated but incompletely isolated populations can lead to the formation of admixed populations, having important implications in ecology and evolution. In this simulation study, we evaluate how individual admixture proportions estimated by the software structure are quantitatively affected by different factors. Using various scenarios of admixture between two diverging populations, we found that unbalanced sampling from parental populations may seriously bias the inferred admixture proportions; moreover, proportionally large...

Data from: Invasive dominance and resident diversity: unpacking the impact of plant invasion on biodiversity and ecosystem function

Stuart Livingstone, Marney Isaac & Marc Cadotte
Plant invasions have consistently been shown to cause significant reductions in the diversity of recipient plant communities; an effect that can cascade through ecosystems to impact the stocks and flows of nutrients and energy as well as the diversity of higher trophic levels. However, the manner in which invasive plants alter ecosystem functioning and trophic interactions is highly variable can occur through the direct effects of the invader’s abundance and its indirect effects via changes...

S. neglecta parasitism in O. nigricornis: 2018 collection

Erik Etzler
In July 2018, we collected O. nigricornis crickets in southern Ontario (Canada) and New York State (United States of America): from the Koffler Scientific Reserve (coded as K or site 2) (King City Ontario, 44.03°N, 79.53°W), rare Charitable Research Reserve (coded as R or site 4) (Cambridge Ontario, 43.38°N, 80.39°W), the University of Toronto at Mississauga (coded as M or site 3) (43.55°N, 79.66°W), and the Edmund Niles Huyck Preserve and Biological Research Station (coded...

Exploring whole-genome duplicate gene retention with complex genetic interaction analysis

Elena Kuzmin, Benjamin VanderSluis, Alex N. Nguyen Ba, Wen Wang, Elizabeth N. Koch, Matej Usaj, Anton Khmelinskii, Mojca Mattiazzi Usaj, Jolanda Van Leeuwen, Oren Kraus, Amy Tresenrider, Michael Pryszlak, Ming-Che Hu, Brenda Varriano, Michael Costanzo, Michael Knop, Alan Moses, Chad L. Myers, Brenda J. Andrews & Charles Boone
Whole-genome duplication has played a central role in genome evolution of many organisms, including the human genome. Most duplicated genes are eliminated and factors that influence the retention of persisting duplicates remain poorly understood. Here, we describe a systematic complex genetic interaction analysis with yeast paralogs derived from the whole-genome duplication event. Mapping digenic interactions for a deletion mutant of each paralog and trigenic interactions for the double mutant provides insight into their roles and...

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  • 2020

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  • University of Toronto
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  • University of British Columbia
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of Alberta
  • University of Queensland
  • Royal Ontario Museum
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Warwick