63 Works

\"Where We Go One, We Go All\": QAnon and the Mediology of Witnessing

Daniel Adleman
When critics admonish their opponents for circulating mere conspiracy theories, they are disparaging them for subscribing to facile accounts of socio-historical phenomena that are more sophisticated and aleatory than such heavy-handed narratives apprehend. Unfortunately, this kind of disavowal has the unfortunate side-effect of precluding conspiracy theories from more serious philosophical consideration. Arguably the most notorious information age conspiracy theory of the moment is QAnon, a byzantine, messianic truther echo-system that has recently irrupted into mainstream...

Data from: Shade tree traits and microclimate modifications: Implications for pathogen management in biodiverse coffee agroforests

Stephanie Gagliardi, Jacques Avelino, Elias De Melo Virginio Filho & Marney Isaac
Diversified coffee agroforests modify microclimate conditions in comparison to monocultures, impacting the success of significant plant pathogens, such as Hemileia vastatrix, which causes coffee leaf rust (CLR). However, research is often limited to the dichotomous analysis of shaded agroforestry systems or unshaded monocultures, often overlooking the nuanced effect of shade tree trait diversity. Our study aims to determine the cumulative effects of shade tree canopy architectural characteristics and leaf functional traits in biodiverse agroforests on...

Clinician-researcher’s perspectives on clinical research during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sarah Silverberg, Lisa Puchalski-Ritchie, Nina Gobat, Alistair Nichol & Srinavas Murthy
Objectives: The outcome of well-performed clinical research is essential for evidence-based patient management during pandemics. However, conducting clinical research amidst a pandemic requires researchers to balance clinical and research demands. We seek to understand the values, experiences, and beliefs of physicians working at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in order to inform clinical research planning. We aim to understand whether pandemic settings affect physician comfort with research practices, and how physician experiences shape their...

Dietary and body mass reconstruction of the Miocene neotropical bat Notonycteris magdalenensis (Phyllostomidae) from La Venta, Colombia

Camilo López-Aguirre, Nicholas Czaplewski, Andrés Link, Masanaru Takai & Suzanne Hand
With 14 species recorded, the Miocene La Venta bat fauna is the most diverse bat palaeocommunity in South America. They include the oldest plant-visiting bat in the New World, and some of the earliest representatives of the extant families Phyllostomidae, Thyropteridae and Noctilionidae. La Venta’s Notonycteris magdalenensis is an extinct member of the subfamily Phyllostominae, a group of modern Neotropical animalivorous bats, and is commonly included in studies of the evolution of Neotropical bats, but...

Progressive neurochemical abnormalities in cognitive and motor subgroups of ALS: a prospective multicentre study

Daniel Ta, Abdullah Ishaque, Ojas Srivastava, Chris Hanstock, Peter Seres, Dean Eurich, Collin Luk, Hannah Briemberg, Richard Frayne, Angela Genge, Simon Graham, Lawrence Korngut, Lorne Zinman & Sanjay Kalra
Objective: To evaluate progressive cerebral degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by assessing alterations in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) ratios in the motor and prefrontal cortex within clinical subgroups of ALS. Methods: Seventy-six ALS patients and 59 healthy controls were enrolled a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study in the Canadian ALS Neuroimaging Consortium (CALSNIC). Participants underwent serial clinical evaluations and MRS at baseline, 4 and 8 months using a harmonized protocol across 5 centers. NAA ratios were quantified...

Adaptation across geographic ranges is consistent with strong selection in marginal climates and legacies of range expansion

Megan Bontrager, Takuji Usui, Julie Lee-Yaw, Daniel Anstett, Haley Branch, Anna Hargreaves, Christopher Muir & Amy Angert
Every species experiences limits to its geographic distribution. Some evolutionary models predict that populations at range edges are less well-adapted to their local environments due to drift, expansion load, or swamping gene flow from the range interior. Alternatively, populations near range edges might be uniquely adapted to marginal environments. In this study, we use a database of transplant studies that quantify performance at broad geographic scales to test how local adaptation, site quality, and population...

Sex-specific maternal programming of corticosteroid binding globulin by predator odour

Sameera Abuaish, Sophia Lavergne, Benjamin Hing, Sophie St-Cyr, Richard Spinieli, Rudy Boonstra & Patrick McGowan
Predation is a key organizing force in ecosystems. The threat of predation may act to program the endocrine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during development to prepare offspring for the environment they are likely to encounter. Such effects are typically investigated through measurement of corticosteroids (Cort). Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) plays a key role in regulating the bioavailability of Cort, with only free unbound Cort being biologically active. We investigated the effects of prenatal predator odour exposure (POE) in...

Behavioural, morphological, and life history shifts during invasive spread

Monica Mowery, Cor Vink, Andrew Mason & Maydianne Andrade
Invasive species are common around the world, but we still do not know which traits are most important for successfully establishing in new environments. Different stages of the invasion process, including transport, introduction, establishment, and spread, can act as selective filters for different combinations of phenotypic traits. Theoretical and empirical studies predict that invasive populations should have suites of behaviours that improve dispersal and spread, including higher boldness, dispersal propensity, and activity levels than native...

Ongoing production of low-fitness hybrids limits range overlap between divergent cryptic species

Else Mikkelsen & Darren Irwin
Contact zones between recently-diverged taxa provide opportunities to examine the causes of reproductive isolation and the processes that determine whether two species can coexist over a broad region. The Pacific Wren (Troglodytes pacificus) and Winter Wren (Troglodytes hiemalis) are two morphologically similar songbirds that started diverging about 4 million years ago, older than most sister species pairs of temperate songbirds. The ranges of these species come into narrow contact in western Canada, where the two...

Rwenzori colobus core unit SNA data - association scans between units, simple association index per dyad, male dispersal events, rainfall and food availability

Julie Teichroeb, Frances Adams, T. Jean Arseneau-Robar & Tyler Bonnell
1. Multi-level societies are complex, nested social systems where basic social groups (i.e., core units) associate in a hierarchical manner, allowing animals to adjust their group sizes in response to variables such as food availability, predation, or conspecific threat. These pressures fluctuate over time and examining the extent to which this variation affects the clustering of core units into different tiers may be instrumental in understanding the evolution of multi-level societies. 2. The goal of...

The Economic Value of Realized Volatility: Using High-Frequency Returns for Option Valuation

Peter Christoffersen, Bruno Feunou, Kris Jacobs & Nour Meddahi
Many studies have documented that daily realized volatility estimates based on intraday returns provide volatility forecasts that are superior to forecasts constructed from daily returns only. We investigate whether these forecasting improvements translate into economic value added. To do so we develop a new class of affine discrete-time option valuation models that use daily returns as well as realized volatility. We derive convenient closed-form option valuation formulas and we assess the option valuation properties using...

Option Valuation with Observable Volatility and Jump Dynamics

Peter Christoffersen, Bruno Feunou & Yoontae Jeon
Under very general conditions, the total quadratic variation of a jump-diffusion process can be decomposed into diffusive volatility and squared jump variation. We use this result to develop a new option valuation model in which the underlying asset price exhibits volatility and jump intensity dynamics. The volatility and jump intensity dynamics in the model are directly driven by model-free empirical measures of diffusive volatility and jump variation. Because the empirical measures are observed in discrete...

A Reference Library for Characterizing Protein Subcellular Localizations by Image-Based Machine Learning

David Andrews
Libraries composed of 789,011 and 523,319 optically validated reference confocal micrographs of 17 and 20 EGFP fusion proteins localized at key cell organelles as landmarks in murine and human cells were generated for assignment of subcellular localization in mammalian cells. For each image of individual cells, 160 morphology and statistical features were used to train a random forests classifier to automatically assign the localization of proteins and dyes in both cell types and to analyze...

A Reference Library for Characterizing Protein Subcellular Localizations by Image-Based Machine Learning

David Andrews
Libraries composed of 789,011 and 523,319 optically validated reference confocal micrographs of 17 and 20 EGFP fusion proteins localized at key cell organelles as landmarks in murine and human cells were generated for assignment of subcellular localization in mammalian cells. For each image of individual cells, 160 morphology and statistical features were used to train a random forests classifier to automatically assign the localization of proteins and dyes in both cell types and to analyze...

Impacts of COVID-19 on Work-Family Arrangements in South Korea: Empirical Findings and Policy Implications

Ito Peng & Jiweon Jun

Exceptional multifunctionality in the feeding apparatus of a mid-Cambrian radiodont

Joseph Moysiuk & Jean-Bernard Caron
Radiodonts (stem Euarthropoda) were ecologically diverse, but species generally displayed limited functional specialization of appendages along the body axis compared to crown group euarthropods. This is puzzling because such functional specialization is considered to have been an important driver of euarthropod ecological diversification. One way to circumvent this constraint could have been the functional specialization of different parts of the frontal appendages, known to have been ecologically important in radiodonts. This hypothesis has yet to...

On male harm: How it is measured and how it evolves in different environments

Howard D. Rundle, Li Yun & Aneil F. Agrawal
Males can harm the females they interact with, but populations/species vary widely in the occurrence and extent of harm. We consider the merits and limitations of two common approaches to investigating male harm and apply these to an experimental study of divergence in harm. Different physical environments can affect how the sexes interact, causing plastic and/or evolved changes in harm. If harmful male phenotypes are less likely to evolve in situations where females have more...

Data and code from: The evolution of developmental thresholds and reaction norms for age and size at maturity

Viktor Nilsson & Locke Rowe
Developing organisms typically mature earlier and at larger sizes in favorable growth conditions, while in rarer cases maturity is delayed. The rarer reaction norm is easily accommodated by general life history models, whereas the common pattern is not. Theory suggests that a solution to this paradox lies in the existence of developmental thresholds that define the minimum size at which maturation or metamorphosis can commence, and in the evolution of these threshold sizes in response...

The impact of a parent education workshop about children’s sensory processing differences on parental sense of competence

Amanda Cyr, Yassaman Salehi, Yani Hamdani & Moira Peña
Aims. This study aimed to: (1) examine the impact of a parent education workshop on the parental sense of competence (PSOC) of parents of children with sensory processing differences (SPD); and (2) explore parents’ perspectives regarding workshop content and delivery. Methods. This pilot study was a randomized waitlist-controlled trial. Parents were recruited from a neurodevelopmental assessment waitlist (for their children) and randomly selected to attend one of two identical workshops (two weeks apart). The workshops...

Environmental robustness of the global yeast genetic interaction network

Michael Costanzo, Jing Hou, Vincent Messier, Justin Nelson, Mahfuzur Rahman, Benjamin VanderSluis, Wen Wang, Carles Pons, Catherine Ross, Matej Ušaj, Bryan-Joseph San Luis, Emira Shuteriqi, Elizabeth N. Koch, Patrick Aloy, Chad L. Myers, Charles Boone & Brenda Andrews
Phenotypes associated with genetic variants can be altered by interactions with other genetic variants (GxG), with the environment (GxE), or both (GxGxE). Yeast genetic interactions have been mapped on a global scale, but the environmental influence on the plasticity of genetic networks has not been examined systematically. To assess environmental rewiring of genetic networks, we examined 14 diverse conditions and scored 30,000 functionally representative yeast gene pairs for dynamic, differential interactions. Different conditions revealed novel...

Allometry constrains the evolution of sexual dimorphism in Drosophila across 33 million years of divergence

Jacqueline Sztepanacz & David Houle
Sexual dimorphism is widely viewed as adaptive, reflecting the evolution of males and females towards divergent fitness optima. Its evolution, however, may often be constrained by the shared genetic architecture of the sexes, and by allometry. Here, we investigated the evolution of sexual size dimorphism, shape dimorphism, and their allometric relationship in the wings of 82 taxa in the family Drosophilidae that have been diverging for at least 33 million years. Shape dimorphism among species...

Dispersal and life history of brown widow spiders in dated invasive populations on two continents

Monica Mowery, Maydianne Andrade, Yael Lubin, Ally Harari & Andrew Mason
Theory and empirical work suggest that behaviours such as dispersal and exploration are predictors of invasive success, and that behaviours may shift predictably after invasive populations have established and spread. However, there are limited data on temporal patterns in the distribution of behavioural traits linked to the timeline of establishment of invasive species. We examine dispersal and exploration, along with life history traits that may be linked to behaviour, across multiple invasive populations of the...

Opposing community assembly patterns for dominant and non-dominant plant species in herbaceous ecosystems globally

Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Elizabeth Borer, Eric Seabloom, Juan Alberti, Selene Baez, Jonathon Bakker, Elizabeth Boughton, Yvonne Buckley, Miguel Bugalho, Ian Donohue, John Dwyer, Jennifer Firn, Riley Gridzak, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Aveliina Helm, Anke Jentsch, , Kimberly Komatsu, Lauri Laanisto, Ramesh Laungani, Rebecca McCulley, Joslin Moore, John Morgan, Pablo Peri … & Marc Cadotte
Biotic and abiotic factors interact with dominant plants —the locally most frequent or with the largest coverage— and non-dominant plants differently, partially because dominant plants modify the environment where non-dominant plants grow. For instance, if dominant plants compete strongly, they will deplete most resources, forcing non-dominant plants into a narrower niche space. Conversely, if dominant plants are constrained by the environment, they might not exhaust available resources but instead may ameliorate environmental stressors that usually...

Decaying Words: The Metaphor of Evolution in Language Becomes Literal in a Canadian Forest

Joseph Wilson
In 2009, two Canadian poets Stephen Collis and Jordan Scott travelled to five different ecosystems within the borders of British Columbia (BC). At each location, they left a copy of the canonical text of physical anthropology, Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859), open to the elements, for one calendar year. The project, documented in the photographic book Decomp turned the poets’ usual mode of expression on its head: instead of manipulating words to create a final...

The Mode is the Message: Using Predata as Exclusion Restrictions to Evaluate Survey Design

Heng Chen, Geoffrey Dunbar & Q. Rallye Shen
Changes in survey mode (e.g., online, offline) may influence the values of survey responses, and may be particularly problematic when comparing repeated cross-sectional surveys. This paper identifies mode effects by correcting for both unit non-response and sampling selection using the sample profile data (predata) — the individual’s number of previous survey invitations, the number of completed past surveys, and the reward points balance. The findings show that there is statistically significant evidence of mode effects...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    63

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    53
  • Text
    7
  • Image
    2
  • Journal Article
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Toronto
    63
  • University of British Columbia
    6
  • University of Minnesota
    5
  • University of Calgary
    4
  • Bank of Canada
    4
  • McGill University
    3
  • Sunnybrook Hospital
    2
  • Royal Ontario Museum
    2
  • University of Alberta
    2
  • Monash University
    2