20 Works

Data from: Climate, invasive species and land use drive population dynamics of a cold-water specialist

Ryan P. Kovach, Robert Al-Chokhachy, Diane C. Whited, David A. Schmetterling, Andrew M. Dux & Clint C. Muhlfeld
Climate change is an additional stressor in a complex suite of threats facing freshwater biodiversity, particularly for cold-water fishes. Research addressing the consequences of climate change on cold-water fish has generally focused on temperature limits defining spatial distributions, largely ignoring how climatic variation influences population dynamics in the context of other existing stressors. We used long-term data from 92 populations of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus – one of North America's most cold-adapted fishes – to...

Resource allocation effects on the timing of reproduction in an avian habitat specialist

Kyle Cutting, Jay Rotella, James Waxe, Aaron O' Harra, Sean Schroff, Lorelle Berkeley, Mark Szczypinski, Andrea Litt & Bok Sowell
Variation in nutrient allocation can influence the timing of breeding and ultimately reproductive output. Time and space constraints might exist, however, if fewer food resources are available to meet the costs of reproduction early during the reproductive season. Here, for the first time, we test whether nutrient allocation strategies for reproduction in a shrub-dependent avian species differs with timing of breeding in different ecoregions: a high-elevation landscape, containing spatially complex vegetation (Rocky Mountains) versus a...

Data from: A method for estimating population sex ratio for sage-grouse using noninvasive genetic samples

Jeremy A. Baumgardt, Caren S. Goldberg, Kerry P. Reese, Jack W. Connelly, David D. Musil, Edward O. Garton & Lisette P. Waits
Population sex ratio is an important metric for wildlife management and conservation, but estimates can be difficult to obtain, particularly for sexually monomorphic species or for species that differ in detection probability between the sexes. Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a common method for identifying sex from sources such as hair, feathers, or feces, and is a potential source for estimating sex ratio. If, however, PCR success is sex-biased,...

Data from: Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: the importance of replication in landscape genetics

Brian Hand, Ryan Kovach, Clint C. Muhlfeld, Alisa A. Wade, Diane Whited, Shawn Narum, Andrew Matala, Mike Ackerman, Brittany Garner, John Kimball, Jack Stanford, Gordon Luikart, Brian K. Hand, Diane C. Whited, Brittany A. Garner, Jack A. Stanford, John S. Kimball, Shawn R. Narum & Andrew P. Matala
Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity, and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modeling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population specific and pairwise FST) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4,583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively...

Data from: Relative contributions of neutral and non-neutral genetic differentiation to inform conservation of steelhead trout across highly variable landscapes

Andrew P. Matala, Michael W. Ackerman, Matthew R. Campbell & Shawn R. Narum
Mounting evidence of climatic effects on riverine environments, and adaptive responses of fishes has elicited growing conservation concerns. Measures to rectify population declines include assessment of local extinction risk, population ecology, viability, and genetic differentiation. While conservation planning has been largely informed by neutral genetic structure, there has been a dearth of critical information regarding the role of non-neutral or functional genetic variation. We evaluated genetic variation among steelhead trout of the Columbia River Basin,...

Data from: Distribution of genetic variation underlying adult migration timing in steelhead of the Columbia River basin

Erin Collins, John Hargrove, Thomas Delomas & Shawn Narum
Fish migrations are energetically costly, especially when moving between fresh and saltwater, but are a viable strategy for Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) due to the advantageous resources available at various life stages. Anadromous steelhead (O. mykiss) migrate vast distances and exhibit variation for migration phenotypes that have a genetic basis at candidate genes known as greb1L and rock1. We examined the distribution of genetic variation at 13 candidate markers spanning greb1L, intergenic, and...

Data from: Age-specific infectious period shapes dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep

Raina K. Plowright, Kezia R. Manlove, Thomas E. Besser, David J. Páez, Kimberly R. Andrews, Patrick E. Matthews, Lisette P. Waits, Peter J. Hudson & E. Frances Cassirer
Superspreading, the phenomenon where a small proportion of individuals contribute disproportionately to new infections, has profound effects on disease dynamics. Superspreading can arise through variation in contacts, infectiousness or infectious periods. The latter has received little attention, yet it drives the dynamics of many diseases of critical public health, livestock health and conservation concern. Here, we present rare evidence of variation in infectious periods underlying a superspreading phenomenon in a free-ranging wildlife system. We detected...

Mating systems and predictors of relative reproductive success in a Cutthroat Trout subspecies of conservation concern

John Hargrove, Jesse McCane, Curtis Roth, Brett High & Matthew Campbell
Mating systems and patterns of reproductive success in fishes play an important role in ecology and evolution. While information on the reproductive ecology of many anadromous salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) is well-detailed, there is less information for non-anadromous species including the Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout (O. clarkii bouvieri), a subspecies of recreational angling importance and conservation concern. Using data from a parentage-based tagging study, we described the genetic mating system of a migratory population of Yellowstone Cutthroat...

Hourly locations and survival data of Nilgai Antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus) in South Texas

Jeremy Baumgardt, Kathryn Sliwa & Randall DeYoung
Wildlife play an important role in the emergence of livestock diseases and their movements can complicate disease management efforts. One of the most significant vector-borne diseases of livestock worldwide is bovine babesiosis, spread by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (=Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus. Although cattle fever ticks were eradicated from the U.S. by 1943, bovine babesiosis and cattle fever ticks are prevalent in México. Recently, management of cattle fever ticks in the Texas-México region...

Data from: Thermal adaptation and acclimation of ectotherms from differing aquatic climates

Shawn R. Narum, Nathan R. Campbell, Kevin A. Meyer, Michael R. Miller & Ronald W. Hardy
To elucidate the mechanisms of thermal adaptation and acclimation in ectothermic aquatic organisms from differing climates, we used a common-garden experiment for thermal stress to investigate the heat shock response of redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) from desert and montane populations. Evidence for adaptation was observed as expression of heat shock genes in fish from the desert population was more similar to control (unstressed) fish and significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from those from the...

Data from: Is ungulate migration culturally transmitted? Evidence of social learning from translocated animals

Brett R. Jesmer, Jerod A. Merkle, Jacob R. Goheen, Ellen O. Aikens, Jeffrey L. Beck, Alyson B. Courtemanch, Mark A. Hurley, Douglas E. McWhirter, Hollie M. Miyasaki, Kevin L. Monteith & Matthew J. Kauffman
Ungulate migrations are assumed to stem from learning and cultural transmission of information regarding seasonal distribution of forage, but this hypothesis has not been tested empirically. We compared the migratory propensities of bighorn sheep and moose translocated into novel habitats with those of historical populations that had persisted for hundreds of years. Whereas individuals from historical populations were largely migratory, translocated individuals initially were not. After multiple decades, however, translocated populations gained knowledge about surfing...

Chinook salmon environmental data and allele frequency matrix

Yara Alshwairikh, Rebekah Horn, Travis Seaborn, Shawn Narum, Lisette Waits, William Swain, Steve Stephens-Cardenas, Jenny Olsson & Shayla Kroeze
Many species that undergo long breeding migrations, such as anadromous fishes, face highly heterogeneous environments along their migration corridors and at their spawning sites. These environmental challenges encountered at different life stages may act as strong selective pressures and drive local adaptation. However, the relative influence of environmental conditions along the migration corridor compared to the conditions at spawning sites on driving selection is still unknown. In this study, we performed genome-environment associations (GEA) to...

Modeling management strategies for chronic disease in wildlife: predictions for the control of respiratory disease in bighorn sheep

Kezia Manlove, Emily Almberg, E. Frances Cassirer, Jennifer Ramsey, Keri Carson, Justin Gude & Raina Plowright
1. Controlling persistent infectious disease in wildlife populations is an on-going challenge for wildlife managers and conservationists worldwide. 2. Here, we develop a dynamic pathogen transmission model capturing key features of M. ovipneumoniae infection, a major cause of population declines in North American bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). We explore the effects of model assumptions and parameter values on disease dynamics, including density versus frequency dependent transmission, the inclusion of a carrier class versus a longer...

Natural history of a bighorn sheep pneumonia epizootic

Thomas Besser, E. Frances Cassirer, Amy Lisk, Danielle Nelson, Kezia Manlove, Paul Cross & John Hogg
A respiratory disease epizootic at the National Bison Range (NBR) in Montana in 2016-2017 caused an 85% decline in the bighorn sheep population, documented by observations of its unmarked but individually identifiable members, the subjects of an ongoing long-term study. The index case was likely one of a small group of young bighorn sheep on a short-term exploratory foray in early summer of 2016. Disease subsequently spread through the population, with peak mortality in September...

Data from: Spatial variation buffers temporal fluctuations in early juvenile survival for an endangered Pacific salmon

James T. Thorson, Mark D. Scheuerell, Eric R. Buhle & Timothy Copeland
1. Spatial, phenotypic, and genetic diversity at relatively small scales can buffer species against large-scale processes such as climate change that tend to synchronize populations and increase temporal variability in overall abundance or production. This portfolio effect generally results in improved biological and economic outcomes for managed species. Previous evidence for the portfolio effect in salmonids has arisen from examinations of time series of adult abundance, but we lack evidence of spatial buffering of temporal...

Data from: Contact and contagion: bighorn sheep demographic states vary in probability of transmission given contact

Kezia R. Manlove, E. Frances Cassirer, Raina K. Plowright, Paul C. Cross & Peter J. Hudson
1. Understanding both contact and probability of transmission given contact are key to managing wildlife disease. However, wildlife disease research tends to focus on contact heterogeneity, in part because probability of transmission given contact is notoriously difficult to measure. Here we present a first step toward empirically investigating probability of transmission given contact in free-ranging wildlife. 2. We used measured contact networks to test whether bighorn sheep demographic states vary systematically in infectiousness or susceptibility...

Data from: Effects of breeder turnover and harvest on group composition and recruitment in a social carnivore

David E. Ausband, Michael S. Mitchell & Lisette P. Waits
1. Breeder turnover can influence population growth in social carnivores through changes to group size, composition, and recruitment. 2. Studies that possess detailed group composition data that can provide insights about the effects of breeder turnover on groups have generally been conducted on species that are not subject to recurrent annual human harvest. We wanted to know how breeder turnover affects group composition and how harvest, in turn, affects breeder turnover in cooperatively breeding gray...

Data from: Climate, demography, and zoogeography predict introgression thresholds in Salmonid hybrid zones in Rocky Mountain streams

Michael K. Young, Daniel J. Isaak, Kevin S. McKelvey, Taylor M. Wilcox, Daniel M. Bingham, Kristine L. Pilgrim, Kellie J. Carim, Matthew R. Campbell, Matthew P. Corsi, Dona E. Horan, David L. Nagel, Michael K. Schwartz, Dona L. Horan & David E. Nagel
Among the many threats posed by invasions of nonnative species is introgressive hybridization, which can lead to the genomic extinction of native taxa. This phenomenon is regarded as common and perhaps inevitable among native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, despite that these taxa naturally co-occur in some locations. We conducted a synthetic analysis of 13,315 genotyped fish from 558 sites by building logistic regression models using data from geospatial stream...

Contemporary genetic structure affects genetic stock identification of steelhead trout in the Snake River basin

John Powell & Matthew Campbell
Genetic stock identification is a widely applied tool for the mixed-stock management of salmonid species throughout the North Pacific Rim. The effectiveness of genetic stock identification is dependent on the level of differentiation among stocks which is often high due to the life history of these species that involves high homing fidelity to their natal streams. However, the utility of this tool can be reduced when natural genetic structuring has been altered by hatchery translocation...

Data from: Assessing accuracy of GAP and LANDFIRE land cover datasets in winter habitats used by greater sage-grouse in Idaho and Wyoming, USA

Marcella R. Fremgen-Tarantino, Peter Olsoy, Graham G. Frye, John W. Connelly, Alan H. Krakauer, Gail L. Patricelli, Andrew Wright Child & Jennifer Sorensen Forbey
Remotely sensed land cover datasets have been increasingly employed in studies of wildlife habitat use. However, meaningful interpretation of these datasets is dependent on how accurately they estimate habitat features that are important to wildlife. We evaluated the accuracy of the GAP dataset, which is commonly used to classify broad cover categories (e.g., vegetation communities) and LANDFIRE datasets, which are classify narrower cover categories (e.g., plant species) and structural features of vegetation. To evaluate accuracy,...

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