27 Works

Data from: Wings or winds: inferring bat migration in a stepping-stone archipelago

Nicole Weyeneth, Steven M Goodman, Belinda Appleton, Rebecca Wood & Manuel Ruedi
Eocene ocean currents and prevailing winds correlate with over-water dispersals of terrestrial mammals from Africa to Madagascar. Since the Early Miocene (about 23 Ma), these currents flowed in the reverse direction, from the Indian Ocean towards Africa. The Comoro Islands are equidistant between Africa and Madagascar and support an endemic land vertebrate fauna that shares recent ancestry predominantly with Madagascar. We examined whether gene flow in two Miniopterus bat species endemic to the Comoros and...

Data from: Gauging scale effects and biogeographical signals in similarity distance decay analyses: an Early Jurassic ammonite case study

Axelle Zacaï, Arnaud Brayard, Jean-Louis Dommergues, Christian Meister, Gilles Escarguel, Rémi Laffont, Bruno Vrielynck & Emmanuel Fara
In biogeography, the similarity distance decay (SDD) relationship refers to the decrease in compositional similarity between communities with geographical distance. Although representing one of the most widely used relationships in biogeography, a review of the literature reveals that: (1) SDD is influenced by both spatial extent and sample size; (2) the potential effect of the phylogenetic level has yet to be tested; (3) the effect of a marked biogeographical structuring upon SDD patterns is largely...

Climate drives community-wide divergence within species over a limited spatial scale: evidence from an oceanic island

Antonia Salces-Castellano, Jairo Patiño, Nadir Alvarez, Carmelo Andújar, Paula Arribas, Juan J. Braojos-Ruiz, Marcelino Del Arco-Aguilar, Víctor García-Olivares, Dirk Karger, Heriberto López, Ioanna Manolopoulou, Pedro Oromí, Antonio J. Pérez-Delgado, William W. Peterman, Kenneth F. Rijsdijk & Brent C. Emerson
Geographic isolation substantially contributes to species endemism on oceanic islands when speciation involves the colonisation of a new island. However, less is understood about the drivers of speciation within islands. What is lacking is a general understanding of the geographic scale of gene flow limitation within islands, and thus the geographic scale and drivers of geographical speciation within insular contexts. Using a community of beetle species, we show that when dispersal ability and climate tolerance...

Data from: Long-term in situ persistence of biodiversity in tropical sky-islands revealed by landscape genomics

Alicia Mastretta-Yanes, Alexander T. Xue, Alejandra Moreno-Letelier, Tove H. Jørgensen, Nadir Alvarez, Daniel Piñero, Brent C. Emerson & Tove H. Jorgensen
Tropical mountains are areas of high species richness and endemism. Two historical phenomena may have contributed to this: (1) fragmentation and isolation of habitats may have promoted the genetic differentiation of populations and increased the possibility of allopatric divergence and speciation, and; (2) the mountain areas may have allowed long-term population persistence during global climate fluctuations. These two phenomena have been studied using either species occurrence data or estimating species divergence times. However, only few...

Fish communities critically depend on forest subsidies in small neotropical streams with high biodiversity value

Jean-Marc Roussel, Raphael Covain, Régis Vigouroux, Luc Allard, Anne Tréguier, Yvan Papa & Pierre-Yves Le Bail
Trophic support of species-rich tropical fish communities remains uncertain in small forest streams where dense and constant canopy cover strongly limits the solar radiation available to aquatic producers. We sampled >1300 fish from 80 species in 14 remote headwater streams during the dry season in French Guiana. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses and mixing models were run to estimate the trophic position (TP) of each species and its dependence on terrestrial organic carbon sources....

Transgressing Wallace´s Line brings hyperdiverse weevils down to earth

Harald Letsch, Michael Balke, Emmanuel Toussaint, Pramesa Narakusumo, Konrad Fiedler & Alexander Riedel
Wallace´s Line, located in the heart of the Indo-Australian archipelago, has historically been hypothesized to strongly inhibit dispersal. Taxa crossing this barrier are confronted with different biota of Asian or Australian origin, respectively, but the extent to which these conditions have affected the evolution of the colonizing lineages remains largely unknown. We examined the potential correlations of body size, lifestyle and biogeographical distribution in the weevil genus Trigonopterus. These beetles are highly diverse both on...

Python Script used in: Evolution of nuptial gifts and its coevolutionary dynamics with male-like persistence traits of females for multiple mating

Yoshitaka Kamimura, Kazunori Yoshizawa, Charles Lienhard, Rodrigo Ferreira & Jun Abe
Many male animals donate nutritive materials during courtship or mating to their female mates. Donation of large-sized gifts, though costly to prepare, can result in increased sperm transfer during mating and delayed remating of the females, resulting in a higher paternity. Nuptial gifting sometimes causes severe female-female competition for obtaining gifts (i.e., sex-role reversal in mate competition) and female polyandry, changing the intensity of sperm competition and the resultant paternity gains. We built a theoretical...

Data from: Random Tanglegram Partitions (Random TaPas): an Alexandrian approach to the Cophylogenetic Gordian Knot

Juan Antonio Balbuena, Oscar Pérez-Escobar, Cristina Llopis-Belenguer & Isabel Blasco-Costa
Symbiosis is a key driver of evolutionary novelty and ecological diversity, but our understanding of how macroevolutionary processes originate extant symbiotic associations is still very incomplete. Cophylogenetic tools are used to assess the congruence between the phylogenies of two groups of organisms related by extant associations. If phylogenetic congruence is higher than expected by chance, we conclude that there is cophylogenetic signal in the system under study. However, how to quantify cophylogenetic signal is still...

The mark of captivity: plastic responses in the ankle bone of a wild ungulate (Sus scrofa)

Thomas CUCCHI, Hugo Harbers, Dimitri Neaux, Katia Ortiz, Flavie Laurens, Isabelle Baly, Cécile Callou, Renate Schafberg, Ashleigh Haruda, François Lecompte, Jacqueline Studer, Sabrina Renaud, Yann Locatelli, Jean-Denis Vigne & Anthony Herrel
Deciphering the plastic (non-heritable) changes induced by human control over wild animals in the archaeological record is challenging. We hypothesized that changes in locomotor behaviour in a wild ungulate due to mobility control could be quantified in the bone anatomy. To test this, we experimented the effect of mobility reduction on the skeleton of wild boar (Sus scrofa), using the calcaneus shape as a possible phenotypic marker. We first assessed differences in shape variation and...

Rapid colour shift by reproductive character displacement in Cupido butterflies

Joan Carles Hinojosa, Darina Koubínová, Vlad Dincă, Juan Hernández-Roldán, Miguel L. Munguira, Enrique García-Barros, Marta Vila, Nadir Alvarez, Marko Mutanen & Roger Vila
Reproductive character displacement occurs when competition for successful breeding imposes a divergent selection on the interacting species, causing a divergence of reproductive traits. Here, we show that a disputed butterfly taxon is actually a case of male wing colour shift, apparently produced by reproductive character displacement. Using double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing and mitochondrial DNA sequencing we studied four butterfly taxa of the subgenus Cupido (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): Cupido minimus and the taxon carswelli, both...

Data from: Forest Giants on Different Evolutionary Branches: Ecomorphological Convergence in Helicopter Damselflies

Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Seth M. Bybee, Robert J. Erickson & Fabien L. Condamine
The convergent evolution of analogous features is an evolutionary process occurring independently across the tree of life. From the evolution of echolocation, prehensile tail, viviparity or winged flight, environmental factors often drive this astonishing phenomenon. However, convergent evolution is not always conspicuous or easily identified. Giant damselflies count among the largest flying insects on Earth, and have astonishing ecologies including orb-web spider plucking and oviposition in phytotelmata. One species occurs in the Afrotropics and 18...

Data from: The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world

Claudio Ottoni, Wim Van Neer, Bea De Cupere, Julien Daligault, Silvia Guimaraes, Joris Peters, Nikolai Spassov, Mary E. Prendergast, Nicole Boivin, Arturo Morales-Muñiz, Adrian Bălăşescu, Cornelia Becker, Norbert Benecke, Adina Boroneant, Hijlke Buitenhuis, Jwana Chahoud, Alison Crowther, Laura Llorente, Nina Manaseryan, Hervé Monchot, Vedat Onart, Marta Osypińska, Olivier Putelat, Eréndira M. Quintana Morales, Jacqueline Studer … & Eva-Maria Geigl
The cat has long been important to human societies as a pest-control agent, object of symbolic value and companion animal, but little is known about its domestication process and early anthropogenic dispersal. Here we show, using ancient DNA analysis of geographically and temporally widespread archaeological cat remains, that both the Near Eastern and Egyptian populations of Felis silvestris lybica contributed to the gene pool of the domestic cat at different historical times. While the cat’s...

Data from: The Rapoport effect and the climatic variability hypothesis in Early Jurassic ammonites

Axelle Zacaï, Arnaud Brayard, Rémi Laffont, Jean-Louis Dommergues, Christian Meister & Emmanuel Fara
The increase of species range size towards high latitudes, known as the Rapoport’s rule, remains one of the most debated and poorly understood macroecological patterns. Numerous studies have challenged both its universality and the main mechanism originally proposed to explain it, i.e. the climatic variability hypothesis. Here we study this pattern on a group of fossil marine organisms: the early Pliensbachian ammonites of the western Tethys. We further take into account the influence of the...

Data from: Out of the Orient: Post-Tethyan transoceanic and trans-Arabian routes fostered the spread of Baorini skippers in the Afrotropics

Emmanuel F.A. Toussaint, Roger Vila, Masaya Yago, Hideyuki Chiba, Andrew D. Warren, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Caroline Storer, Kelly M. Dexter, Kiyoshi Maruyama, David J. Lohman & Akito Y. Kawahara
The origin of taxa presenting a disjunct distribution between Africa and Asia has puzzled biogeographers for more than a century. This biogeographic pattern has been hypothesized to be the result of transoceanic long‐distance dispersal, Oligocene dispersal through forested corridors, Miocene dispersal through the Arabian Peninsula or passive dispersal on the rifting Indian plate. However, it has often been difficult to pinpoint the mechanisms at play. We investigate biotic exchange between the Afrotropics and the Oriental...

Data from: A peculiar tooth renewal in a Jurassic ray-finned fish (Lepisosteiformes: †Scheenstia sp.)

Léa Leuzinger, Lionel Cavin, Adriana López-Arbarello & Jean-Paul Billon-Bruyat
Tooth replacement in vertebrates is extremely diverse, and its study in extinct taxa gives insights into the evolution of the different dental renewal modes. Based on µ-CT scans of a left lower jaw of the extinct fish †Scheenstia (Actinopterygii – Lepisosteiformes), we describe in detail a peculiar tooth replacement mode that is, as far as we could trace back in the literature, unique among vertebrates. The formation of the replacement teeth comprises a 180° rotation...

Data from: A hybrid phylogenetic–phylogenomic approach for species tree estimation in African Agama lizards with applications to biogeography, character evolution, and diversification

Adam D. Leaché, Philipp Wagner, Charles W. Linkem, Wolfgang Böhme, Theodore J. Papenfuss, Rebecca A. Chong, Brian R. Lavin, Aaron M. Bauer, Stuart V. Nielsen, Eli Greenbaum, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Andreas Schmitz, Matthew LeBreton, Ivan Ineich, Laurent Chirio, Caleb Ofori-Boateng, Edem A. Eniang, Sherif Baha El Din, Alan R. Lemmon & Frank T. Burbrink
Africa is renowned for its biodiversity and endemicity, yet little is known about the factors shaping them across the continent. African Agama lizards (45 species) have a pan-continental distribution, making them an ideal model for investigating biogeography. Many species have evolved conspicuous sexually dimorphic traits, including extravagant breeding coloration in adult males, large adult male body sizes, and variability in social systems among colorful versus drab species. We present a comprehensive time-calibrated species tree for...

Data from: A single origin of extreme matrotrophy in African mabuyine skinks

Margarita Metallinou, Jeffrey L. Weinell, Benjamin R. Karin, Werner Conradie, Philipp Wagner, Andreas Schmitz, Todd R. Jackman & Aaron M. Bauer
Most mammals and approximately 20% of squamates (lizards and snakes) are viviparous, whereas all crocodilians, birds and turtles are oviparous. Viviparity evolved greater than 100 times in squamates, including multiple times in Mabuyinae (Reptilia: Scincidae), making this group ideal for studying the evolution of nutritional patterns associated with viviparity. Previous studies suggest that extreme matrotrophy, the support of virtually all of embryonic development by maternal nutrients, evolved as many as three times in Mabuyinae: in...

Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in pollinator communities maintains within-species floral odour variation

Mark A. Szenteczki, Adrienne Godschalx, Andrea Galmán, Anahí Espíndola, Marc Gibernau, Nadir Alvarez & Sergio Rasmann
Flowering plants emit complex bouquets of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to mediate interactions with their pollinators. These bouquets are undoubtedly influenced by pollinator-mediated selection, particularly in deceptively-pollinated species that rely on chemical mimicry. However, many uncertainties remain regarding how spatially and temporally heterogeneous pollinators affect the diversity and distribution of floral odour variation. Here, we characterized and compared the floral odours of ten populations of deceptively-pollinated Arum maculatum (Araceae), and inter-annual and decadal variation in...

Data from: A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda)

Alain De Chambrier, Andrea Waeschenbach, Makda Fisseha, Tomas Scholz & Jean Mariaux
Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset...

Data from: Diversification rates have no effect on the convergent evolution of foraging strategies in the most speciose genus of bats, Myotis

Ariadna E Morales, Manuel Ruedi, Kathryn Field & Bryan C Carstens
Adaptive radiations are defined as rapid diversification with phenotypic innovation led by colonization to new environments. Notably, adaptive radiations can occur in parallel when habitats with similar selective pressures are accessible promoting convergent adaptions. While convergent evolution appears to be a common process, it is unclear what are the main drivers leading the reappearance of morphologies or ecological roles. We explore this question in Myotis bats, the only Chiropteran genus with a worldwide distribution. Three...

Data from: Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths

Akito Y. Kawahara, David Plotkin, Marianne Espeland, Karen Meusemann, Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Alexander Donath, France Gimnich, Paul B. Frandsen, Andreas Zwick, Mario Dos Reis, Jesse R. Barber, Ralph S. Peters, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Christoph Mayer, Lars Podsiadlowski, Caroline Storer, Jayne E. Yack, Bernhard Misof & Jesse W. Breinholt
Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are one of the major super-radiations of insects, comprising nearly 160,000 described extant species. As herbivores, pollinators, and prey, Lepidoptera play a fundamental role in almost every terrestrial ecosystem. Lepidoptera are also indicators of environmental change and serve as model organisms for research on mimicry and genetics. They have been central to the development of co-evolutionary hypotheses, such as butterflies with flowering plants, and moths' evolutionary arms race with echolocating bats....

Data from: No ecological opportunity signal on a continental scale? Diversification and life-history evolution of African true toads (Anura: Bufonidae)

H. Christoph Liedtke, Hendrik Müller, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Michele Menegon, LeGrand Nono Gonwouo, Michael F. Barej, Václav Gvoždík, Andreas Schmitz, Alan Channing, Peter Nagel & Simon P. Loader
The niche-filling process predicted by the “ecological opportunity” (EO) model is an often-invoked mechanism for generating exceptional diversity in island colonizers. Whether the same process governs lineage accumulation and trait disparity during continental colonization events is less clear. Here, we test this prediction by investigating the rate dynamics and trait evolution of one of Africa's most widespread amphibian colonizers, the true toads (Bufonidae). By reconstructing the most complete molecular phylogeny of African Bufonidae to date,...

Transcriptomics illuminate the phylogenetic backbone of tiger beetles

Harlan Gough, Julie Allen, Emmanuel Toussaint, Caroline Storer & Akito Kawahara
Phylogenomics is progressing rapidly, allowing large strides forward into our understanding of the tree of life. In this study, we generated transcriptomes from ethanol-preserved specimens of 13 tiger beetle species (Coleoptera: Cicindelinae) and one Scaritinae outgroup. From these 14 transcriptomes and seven publicly available transcriptomes, we recovered an average of 2538 loci for phylogenetic analysis. We constructed an evolutionary tree of tiger beetles to examine deep-level relationships and examined the extent to which the composition...

The roles of wing color pattern and geography in the evolution of Neotropical Preponini butterflies

Elena Ortiz-Acevedo, Juan P. Gomez, Marianne Espeland, Emmanuel Toussaint & Keith R. Willmott
Diversification rates and evolutionary trajectories are known to be influenced by phenotypic traits and the geographic history of the landscapes that organisms inhabit. One of the most conspicuous traits in butterflies is their wing color pattern, which has been shown to be important in speciation. The evolution of many taxa in the Neotropics has also been influenced by major geological events. Using a dated, species-level molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for Preponini, a colorful Neotropical butterfly tribe,...

How functionally diverse are fish in the deep? A comparison of fish communities in deep and shallow‐water systems

Victoria Grace Carrington, Yvan Papa, Jessica Hall, Monique A. Ladds, Alice Rogers, Peter Horn, Raphaël Covain & Chelsey M. Beese
Aim: Functional diversity metrics inform how species’ traits relate to ecosystem functions, useful for quantifying how exploitation and disturbance impact ecosystems. We compare the functional diversity of entire fish communities in a shallow-water region with a deep-sea region for further insight into the differences between these ecosystem types. Location: The regions compared in this study were selected to represent a shallow-water coastal region, Tasman and Golden Bays (TBGB), and a deep-sea region, Chatham Rise (CR),...

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