17 Works

Kinematics of sea star legged locomotion

Olaf Ellers, Melody Khoriaty & Amy S. Johnson
Sea stars have slower crawling and faster bouncing gaits. Both speed and oscillation amplitude increase during the transition from crawling to oscillating. In the bouncy gait, vertical velocities precede horizontal velocities by 98&[deg], as reflected by clockwise circular hodographs. Potential energy precedes horizontal energy by 16&[deg] and so are nearly in phase. These phase relationships resemble terrestrial running gaits, except that podia are always on the ground. Kinetic and potential energy scale as mass1.1, with...

Jason Moran’s Staged: Improvisational Blurring and the Boundaries of Conceptual Art

Tracy McMullen
I examine jazz pianist Jason Moran’s conceptual artwork, Staged (2015/18), in order to interrogate the intersection between improvisation and contemporary art. Enlisting and expanding upon George Lewis’s coinage and theorization of Afrological and Eurological practices, I outline discourses that have coded improvisation as embedded in tradition, the “known,” and history, and conceptual art (as a form of “contemporary art”) as free from these. Staged brings these discourses into collision and offers new directions for contemporary...

Live imaging and biophysical modeling support a button-based mechanism of somatic homolog pairing in Drosophila

Myron Barber Child, Jack R Bateman, Amir Jahangiri, Armando Reimer, Nicholas C Lammers, Nica Sabouni, Diego Villamarin, Grace C McKenzie-Smith, Justine E Johnson, Daniel Jost & Hernan G Garcia
3D eukaryotic genome organization provides the structural basis for gene regulation. In Drosophila melanogaster, genome folding is characterized by somatic homolog pairing, where homologous chromosomes are intimately paired from end to end; however, how homologs identify one another and pair has remained mysterious. Recently, this process has been proposed to be driven by specifically interacting 'buttons' encoded along chromosomes. Here, we turned this hypothesis into a quantitative biophysical model to demonstrate that a button-based mechanism...

Sensory ecology of the frog-eating bat, Trachops cirrhosus, from DNA metabarcoding and behavior

Patricia L Jones, Timothy Divoll, M. May Dixon, Dineilys Aparicio, Gregg Cohen, Ulrich Mueller, Michael Ryan & Rachel Page
Metabarcoding of prey DNA from fecal samples can be used to design behavioral experiments to study the foraging behavior and sensory ecology of predators. The frog-eating bat, Trachops cirrhosus, eavesdrops on the mating calls of its anuran prey. We captured wild T. cirrhosus and identified prey remains in the bats' fecal samples using DNA metabarcoding of two gene regions (CO1, 16S). Bats were preying on frogs previously unknown in their diet, such as species in...

Local adaptation of a parasite to solar radiation impacts disease transmission potential, spore yield, and host fecundity

Mary Rogalski
Environmentally transmitted parasites spend time in the abiotic environment, where they are subjected to a variety of stressors. Understanding how they face this challenge is essential if we are to understand how host-parasite interactions may vary across environmental gradients. We used a zooplankton-bacteria host-parasite system where availability of sunlight (solar radiation) influences disease dynamics to look for evidence of parasite local adaptation to sunlight exposure. We also examined how variation in sunlight tolerance among parasite...

Context dependent host-symbiont interactions: shifts along the parasitism-mutualism continuum

Mary Rogalski
Symbiotic interactions can shift along a mutualism to parasitism continuum. While there are many studies examining dynamics typically considered to be mutualistic that sometimes shift towards parasitism, little is known about conditions underlying shifts from parasitism towards mutualism. In lake populations, we observed that infection by a microsporidian gut symbiont sometimes conferred a reproductive advantage and other times a disadvantage to its Daphnia host. We hypothesized that the microsporidian might benefit its host by reducing...

Density, parasitism, and sexual reproduction are strongly correlated in lake Daphnia populations

Meghan A. Duffy, Camden D. Gowler, Mary A. Rogalski, Clara L. Shaw & Katherine K. Hunsberger
Many organisms can reproduce both asexually and sexually. For cyclical parthenogens, periods of asexual reproduction are punctuated by bouts of sexual reproduction, and the shift from asexual to sexual reproduction has large impacts on fitness and population dynamics. We studied populations of Daphnia dentifera to determine the amount of investment in sexual reproduction as well as the factors associated with variation in investment in sex. To do so, we tracked host density, infections by nine...

Data from: Leaf size in three generations of a dioecious tropical tree, Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae): sexual dimorphism and changes with age

Nathaniel T. Wheelwright, Jordan Sinclair, Cris Hochwender, Frederic Janzen, Fredric J. Janzen & Jordan P. Sinclair
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In dioecious species, selection should favor different leaf sizes in males and females whenever the sexes experience distinct environments or constraints, such as different costs of reproduction. We took advantage of a long-term experimental study of Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae), a dioecious understory tree in Monteverde, Costa Rica, to explore leaf size differences between genders and age classes across generations. METHODS: We measured leaf size in adult trees in a natural population,...

Data from: Blue mussel (Genus Mytilus) transcriptome response to simulated climate change in the Gulf of Maine

Sarah E. Kingston, Pieter A. Martino & David Carlon
The biogeochemistry of the Gulf of Maine is rapidly changing in response to a changing climate, including rising temperatures, acidification, and declining primary productivity. These impacts are projected to worsen over the next hundred years and will apply selective pressure on populations of marine calcifiers. This study investigates the transcriptome expression response to these changes in ecologically and economically important marine calcifiers, blue mussels. Wild mussels (Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus) were sampled from sites...

Data from: Inbreeding shapes the evolution of marine invertebrates

Kevin Olsen, Will Ryan, Alice Winn, Ellen Kosman, Jose Moscoso, Stacy Krueger-Hadfield, Scott Burgess, David Carlon, Richard Grosberg, Susan Kalisz & Don Levitan
Inbreeding is a potent evolutionary force shaping the distribution of genetic variation within and among populations of plants and animals. Yet, our understanding of the forces shaping the expression and evolution of non-random mating in general, and inbreeding in particular, remains remarkably incomplete. Most research on plant mating systems focuses on self-fertilization and its consequences for automatic selection, inbreeding depression, purging, and reproductive assurance, whereas studies of animal mating systems have often assumed that inbreeding...

Data from: Beyond preference and performance: host plant selection by monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus

Patricia L. Jones & Anurag A. Agrawal
The connection between adult preferences and offspring performance is long-standing issue in understanding the evolutionary and ecological forces that dictate host associations and specialization in herbivorous insects. Indeed, decisions made by females about where to lay their eggs have direct consequences for fitness and are influenced by interacting factors including offspring performance, defence, and competition. Nonetheless, in addition to these attributes of the offspring, a female’s choices may be affected by her own prior experience....

Data-driven predictions of summertime visits to lakes across 17 US states

Erik Nelson
Using a dataset of more than 51,000 US lakes, we estimated the relationship between summertime lake visits, lake water quality, landscape features, and other amenities, where visitation was estimated using counts of geolocated photographs. Given the size and complexity of our dataset, we used a combination of machine learning techniques, imputation techniques, and a Poisson count model to estimate these relationships. We found that every additional meter of average summer-time Secchi depth was associated with...

The origin of the parrotfish species Scarus compressus in the Tropical Eastern Pacific: region-wide hybridization between ancient species pairs

David Carlon, D. R. Robertson, Robert Barron, David Anderson, Sonja Schwartz, Carlos Sanchez-Ortiz & John Choat
Background: An increasing number of hybrid zones with varying evolutionary outcomes have been documented from different reef fish families. In the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), four species of parrotfishes occur in sympatry on rocky reefs from Baja California to Ecuador: Scarus. compressus,S. ghobban, S. perrico, and S. rubroviolaceus; and have complex phylogeographic histories. The most divergent,S. perrico, belongs to a Tropical American clade that diverged from a Central Indo-Pacific ancestor in the late Miocene (6.6...

Gulf of Maine genotypes for 'Species identification based on a semi-diagnostic marker: evaluation of a simple conchological test for distinguishing blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. and M. trossulus Gould'

Sarah Kingston, Vadim Khaitov, Julia Marchenko, Marina Katolikova, Risto Väinölä, David Carlon, Michael Gantsevich & Petr Strelkov
These are genotype calls for Gulf of Maine samples associated with the paper 'Species identification based on a semi-diagnostic marker: evaluation of a simple conchological test for distinguishing blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. and M. trossulus Gould'.

Data from: Linking genotype to phenotype in a changing ocean: inferring the genomic architecture of a blue mussel stress response with genome-wide association

Sarah E. Kingston, Pieter Martino, Marko Melendy, Floyd A. Reed & David B. Carlon
A key component to understanding the evolutionary response to a changing climate is linking underlying genetic variation to phenotypic variation in stress response. Here we use a genome-wide association approach (GWAS) to understand the genetic architecture of calcification rates under simulated climate stress. We take advantage of the genomic gradient across the blue mussel hybrid zone (Mytilus edulis and Mytilus trossulus) in the Gulf of Maine (GOM) to link genetic variation with variance in calcification...

Data from: Three decades of cultural evolution in Savannah sparrow songs

Heather Williams, Iris I. Levin, D. Ryan Norris, Amy E. M. Newman, Nathaniel T. Wheelwright & Amy E.M. Newman
Cultural evolution can result in changes in the prevalence not only of different learned song types within bird populations but also of different segments within the song. Between 1980 and 2011, we examined changes within different segments of the single songs of male Savannah sparrows, Passerculus sandwichiensis, in an island population. Introductory notes did not change. The buzz segment showed similar stability; although a rare low-frequency variant appeared and then disappeared, the buzz segments from...

An open-access database of infectious disease transmission trees to explore superspreader epidemiology

Juliana C. Taube, Paige B. Miller & John M. Drake
Historically, emerging and reemerging infectious diseases have caused large, deadly, and expensive multinational outbreaks. Often outbreak investigations aim to identify who infected whom by reconstructing the outbreak transmission tree, which visualizes transmission between individuals as a network with nodes representing individuals and branches representing transmission from person to person. We compiled a database, called OutbreakTrees, of 382 published, standardized transmission trees consisting of 16 directly transmitted diseases ranging in size from 2 to 286 cases....

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