Dual spring force couples yield multifunctionality and ultrafast, precision rotation in tiny biomechanical systemsS. N. Patek, Ryan St. Pierre, Greg Sutton, Suzanne Cox, Sarah Bergbreiter, Adam Summers & Chi-Yun Kuo
Small organisms use propulsive springs rather than muscles to repeatedly actuate high acceleration movements, even when constrained to tiny displacements and limited by inertial forces. Through integration of a large kinematic dataset, measurements of elastic recoil, energetic math modeling, and dynamic math modeling, we tested how trap-jaw ants (Odontomachus brunneus) utilize multiple elastic structures to develop ultrafast and precise mandible rotations at small scales. We found that O. brunneus develops torque on each mandible using...
Data for: The formation of “mega‐flocks” depends on vegetation structure in montane coniferous forests of TaiwanChun-Chieh Liao, Tzung-Su Ding & Chao-Chieh Chen
A mixed-species bird flock is a social assemblage where two or more bird species are moving together while foraging and might benefit from increased foraging efficiency and antipredator vigilance. A “mega-flock,” which includes flocking species from different vegetation layers, often exhibits high species diversity. Mechanisms for the formation of mega-flocks have not yet been explored. In this study, we evaluated the influence of vegetation structure and bird species diversity/richness in driving the occurrence of mega-flocks....
Impacts of using different standard populations in calculating age-standardized death rates when age-speciﬁc death rates in the populations being compared do not have a consistent relationship: A cross-sectional population-based observational study on US state HIV death ratesShu-Yu Tai, Fu-Wen Liang, Yen-Yee Hng, Yi-Hsuan Lo & Tsung-Hsueh Lu
Objective: To examine if the rankings of state HIV age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) changed if different standard population (SP) was used. Design: A cross-sectional population-based observational study. Setting 36 states in the United States. Participants: People died from 2015 to 2019. Main outcome measures: State HIV ASDR using 4 SPs, namely WHO2000, US2000, US2mor020, and Eur2011–2030. Results: The rankings of 19 states did not change when ASDRs were calculated using US2000 and US2020. Of the...
Data for: Interspecific competition and facilitation coexist in mixed-species bird flocks of montane coniferous forests in TaiwanChao-Chieh Chen, Chun-Chieh Liao & Bruno Andreas Walther
Besides competition, positive interactions also play an important role in shaping the social structure of mixed-species bird flocks. This study aimed to illuminate the interspecific interactions of competition and facilitation in mixed-species bird flocks. We recorded the foraging behavior and microhabitat use of flocking species in montane coniferous forests of Taiwan under different social contexts. Foraging niche breadth and niche-overlap with other flocking species were compared between individuals inside and outside of mixed flocks. For...
Kaohsiung Medical University4
Australian National University2
University of Washington1
National Cheng Kung University1
University at Buffalo, State University of New York1
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research1
National Taiwan University1
Carnegie Mellon University1