38 Works

Data from: Pupal cocoons affect sanitary brood care and limit fungal infections in ant colonies

Simon Tragust, Line V. Ugelvig, Michel Chapuisat, Jürgen Heinze & Sylvia Cremer
Background: The brood of ants and other social insects is highly susceptible to pathogens, particularly those that penetrate the soft larval and pupal cuticle. We here test whether the presence of a pupal cocoon, which occurs in some ant species but not in others, affects the sanitary brood care and fungal infection patterns after exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum. We use a) a comparative approach analysing four species with either naked or cocooned...

Data from: An integrative genomic analysis of the Longshanks selection experiment for longer limbs in mice

João P. L. Castro, Michelle N. Yancoskie, Marta Marchini, Stefanie Belohlavy, Layla Hiramatsu, Marek Kučka, William H. Beluch, Ronald Naumann, Isabella Skuplik, John Cobb, Nick H. Barton, Campbell Rolian & Yingguang Frank Chan
Evolutionary studies are often limited by missing data that are critical to understanding the history of selection. Selection experiments, which reproduce rapid evolution under controlled conditions, are excellent tools to study how genomes evolve under selection. Here we present a genomic dissection of the Longshanks selection experiment, in which mice were selectively bred over 20 generations for longer tibiae relative to body mass, resulting in 13% longer tibiae in two replicates. We synthesized evolutionary theory,...

Supplementary code for: Polygenic local adaptation in metapopulations: a stochastic eco-evolutionary model

Eniko Szep, Himani Sachdeva & Nick Barton
This paper analyzes the conditions for local adaptation in a metapopulation with infinitely many islands under a model of hard selection, where population size depends on local fitness. Each island belongs to one of two distinct ecological niches or habitats. Fitness is influenced by an additive trait which is under habitat-dependent directional selection. Our analysis is based on the diffusion approximation and accounts for both genetic drift and demographic stochasticity. By neglecting linkage disequilibria, it...

Data from: Opposing effects of allogrooming on disease transmission in ant societies

Fabian J. Theis, Line V. Ugelvig, Carsten Marr & Sylvia Cremer
To prevent epidemics, insect societies have evolved collective disease defences that are highly effective at curing exposed individuals and limiting disease transmission to healthy group members. Grooming is an important sanitary behaviour—either performed towards oneself (self-grooming) or towards others (allogrooming)—to remove infectious agents from the body surface of exposed individuals, but at the risk of disease contraction by the groomer. We use garden ants (Lasius neglectus) and the fungal pathogen Metarhizium as a model system...

Data from: The consequences of an introgression event

Nicholas H. Barton
The spread of adaptive alleles is fundamental to evolution, and in theory, this process is well‐understood. However, only rarely can we follow this process—whether it originates from the spread of a new mutation, or by introgression from another population. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Hanemaaijer et al. (2018) report on a 25‐year long study of the mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae (Figure 1) and Anopheles coluzzi in Mali, based on genotypes at 15 single‐nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)....

Early queen infection shapes developmental dynamics and induces long-term disease protection in incipient ant colonies

Barbara Casillas-Pérez, Christopher Pull, Filip Naiser, Elisabeth Naderlinger, Jiri Matas & Sylvia Cremer
Infections early in life can have enduring effects on an organism’s development and immunity. In this study, we show that this equally applies to developing “superorganisms” – incipient social insect colonies. When we exposed newly mated Lasius niger ant queens to a low pathogen dose, their colonies grew more slowly than controls before winter, but reached similar sizes afterwards. Independent of exposure, queen hibernation survival improved when the ratio of pupae to workers was small....

On the encoding, transfer, and consolidation of spatial memories

Michele Nardin
The ability to form and retrieve memories is central to survival. In mammals, the hippocampus is a brain region essential to the acquisition and consolidation of new memories. It is also involved in keeping track of one’s position in space and aids navigation. Although this space-memory has been a source of contradiction, evidence supports the view that the role of the hippocampus in navigation is memory, thanks to the formation of cognitive maps. First introduced...

Remodeling of E-cadherin-mediated contacts via cortical flows

Feyza Nur Arslan
Metazoan development relies on the formation and remodeling of cell-cell contacts. The binding of adhesion receptors and remodeling of the actomyosin cell cortex at cell-cell interaction sites have been implicated in cell-cell contact formation. Yet, how these two processes functionally interact to drive cell-cell contact expansion and strengthening remains unclear. Here, we study how primary germ layer progenitor cells from zebrafish bind to supported lipid bilayers (SLB) functionalized with E-cadherin ectodomains as an assay system...

Data from: Anti-pathogen protection versus survival costs mediated by an ectosymbiont in an ant host

Matthias Konrad, Anna V. Grasse, Simon Tragust & Sylvia Cremer
The fitness effects of symbionts on their hosts can be context-dependent, with usually benign symbionts causing detrimental effects when their hosts are stressed, or typically parasitic symbionts providing protection towards their hosts (e.g. against pathogen infection). Here, we studied the novel association between the invasive garden ant Lasius neglectus and its fungal ectosymbiont Laboulbenia formicarum for potential costs and benefits. We tested ants with different Laboulbenia levels for their survival and immunity under resource limitation...

Data from: How does epistasis influence the response to selection?

Nicholas H. Barton
Much of quantitative genetics is based on the "infinitesimal model", under which selection has a negligible effect on the genetic variance. This is typically justified by assuming a very large number of loci with additive effects. However, it applies even when genes interact, provided that the number of loci is large enough that selection on each of them is weak relative to random drift. In the long term, directional selection will change allele frequencies, but...

Data from: Error-robust modes of the retinal population code

Adrianna R. Loback, Gašper Tkačik, Jason S. Prentice, Mark L. Ioffe, , Olivier Marre & Michael J. Berry
Across the nervous system, certain population spiking patterns are observed far more frequently than others. A hypothesis about this structure is that these collective activity patterns function as population codewords–collective modes–carrying information distinct from that of any single cell. We investigate this phenomenon in recordings of ∼150 retinal ganglion cells, the retina’s output. We develop a novel statistical model that decomposes the population response into modes; it predicts the distribution of spiking activity in the...

Social immunity modulates competition between coinfecting pathogens

Barbara Milutinović, Miriam Stock, Anna V. Grasse, Elisabeth Naderlinger, Christian Hilbe & Sylvia Cremer
Coinfections with multiple pathogens can result in complex within-host dynamics affecting virulence and transmission. Whilst multiple infections are intensively studied in solitary hosts, it is so far unresolved how social host interactions interfere with pathogen competition, and if this depends on coinfection diversity. We studied how the collective disease defenses of ants – their social immunity ­– influence pathogen competition in coinfections of same or different fungal pathogen species. Social immunity reduced virulence for all...

Existence and density problems in Diophantine geometry: From norm forms to Campana points

Alec L. Shute
In this thesis, we study two of the most important questions in Arithmetic geometry: that of the existence and density of solutions to Diophantine equations. In order for a Diophantine equation to have any solutions over the rational numbers, it must have solutions everywhere locally, i.e., over R and over Qp for every prime p. The converse, called the Hasse principle, is known to fail in general. However, it is still a central question in...

Transcriptional consequences of mutations in genes associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Christoph Dotter
This dataset contains the supplementary data for the research paper "Haploinsufficiency of the intellectual disability gene SETD5 disturbs developmental gene expression and cognition". The contained files have the following content: 'Supplementary Figures.pdf' Additional figures (as referenced in the paper). 'Supplementary Table 1. Statistics.xlsx' Details on statistical tests performed in the paper. 'Supplementary Table 2. Differentially expressed gene analysis.xlsx' Results for the differential gene expression analysis for embryonic (E9.5; analysis with edgeR) and in vitro (ESCs,...

Data from: Increased grooming after repeated brood care provides sanitary benefits in a clonal ant

Claudia Westhus, Line V. Ugelvig, Edouard Tourdot, Jürgen Heinze, Claudie Doums & Sylvia Cremer
Repeated pathogen exposure is a common threat in colonies of social insects, posing selection pressures on colony members to respond with improved disease-defense performance. We here tested whether experience gained by repeated tending of low-level fungus-exposed (Metarhizium robertsii) larvae may alter the performance of sanitary brood care in the clonal ant, Platythyrea punctata. We trained ants individually over nine consecutive trials to either sham-treated or fungus-exposed larvae. We then compared the larval grooming behavior of...

Data from: Ret and Etv4 promote directed movements of progenitor cells during renal branching morphogenesis

Paul Riccio, Cristina Cebrian, Hui Zong, Simon Hippenmeyer & Frank Costantini
Branching morphogenesis of the epithelial ureteric bud forms the renal collecting duct system and is critical for normal nephron number, while low nephron number is implicated in hypertension and renal disease. Ureteric bud growth and branching requires GDNF signaling from the surrounding mesenchyme to cells at the ureteric bud tips, via the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and coreceptor Gfrα1; Ret signaling up-regulates transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5, which are also critical for branching. Despite extensive...

Data from: Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1: testing for a role in insect immunity, behaviour and reproduction

Robert Peuß, Kristina U. Wensing, Luisa Woestmann, Hendrik Eggert, Barbara Milutinović, Marlene G. U. Sroka, Jörn P. Scharsack, Joachim Kurtz & Sophie A. O. Armitage
Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial...

Data from: Social transfer of pathogenic fungus promotes active immunisation in ant colonies

Matthias Konrad, Meghan L. Vyleta, Fabian J. Theis, Miriam Stock, Simon Tragust, Martina Klatt, Verena Drescher, Carsten Marr, Line V. Ugelvig & Sylvia Cremer
Due to the omnipresent risk of epidemics, insect societies have evolved sophisticated disease defences at the individual and colony level. An intriguing yet little understood phenomenon is that social contact to pathogen-exposed individuals reduces susceptibility of previously naive nestmates to this pathogen. We tested whether such social immunisation in Lasius ants against the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is based on active upregulation of the immune system of nestmates following contact to an infectious individual or...

Data from: Hemimetabolous genomes reveal molecular basis of termite eusociality

Mark C Harrison, Evelien Jongepier, Hugh M. Robertson, Nicolas Arning, Tristan Bitard-Feildel, Hsu Chao, Christopher P. Childers, Huyen Dinh, Harshavardhan Doddapaneni, Shannon Dugan, Johannes Gowin, Carolin Greiner, Yi Han, Haofu Hu, Daniel S.T. Hughes, Ann-Kathrin Huylmans, Carsten Kemena, Lukas P.M. Kremer, Sandra L. Lee, Alberto Lopez-Ezquerra, Ludovic Mallet, Jose M. Monroy-Kuhn, Annabell Moser, Shwetha C. Murali, Donna M. Muzny … & Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Around 150 million years ago, eusocial termites evolved from within the cockroaches, 50 million years before eusocial Hymenoptera, such as bees and ants, appeared. Here, we report the 2-Gb genome of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and the 1.3-Gb genome of the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus. We show evolutionary signatures of termite eusociality by comparing the genomes and transcriptomes of three termites and the cockroach against the background of 16 other eusocial and non-eusocial insects....

VCF files of synonymous SNPs related to: Genomic inference of complex domestication histories in three Solanaceae species

Stéphanie Arnoux, Christelle Fraïsse & Christopher Sauvage
Domestication is a human-induced selection process that imprints the genomes of domesticated populations over a short evolutionary time scale, and that occurs in a given demographic context. Reconstructing historical gene flow, effective population size changes and their timing is therefore of fundamental interest to understand how plant demography and human selection jointly shape genomic divergence during domestication. Yet, the comparison under a single statistical framework of independent domestication histories across different crop species has been...

Data from: Genetic variation for adaptive traits is associated with polymorphic inversions in Littorina saxatilis

Eva Koch, Hernán Morales, Jenny Larsson, Anja Westram, Rui Faria, Alan Lemmon, Emily Lemmon, Kerstin Johannesson & Roger Butlin
Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms, segments of chromosomes that are flipped in orientation and occur in reversed order in some individuals, have long been recognized to play an important role in local adaptation. They can reduce recombination in heterozygous individuals and thus help to maintain sets of locally adapted alleles. In a wide range of organisms, populations adapted to different habitats differ in frequency of inversion arrangements. However, getting a full understanding of the importance of inversions...

Was bietet die IFLA der VÖB? – Warum Bibliothekar*innen international aktiv sein sollten - Statement

Patrick Danowski
75 Jahre VÖB. 1946–2021, Hg. v. Alker-Windbichler, Bauer und Köstner-Pemsel, 2021, S. 143–145

High-dimensional expansion and crossing numbers of simplicial complexes

Pascal Wild
In this dissertation we study coboundary expansion of simplicial complex with a view of giving geometric applications. Our main novel tool is an equivariant version of Gromov's celebrated Topological Overlap Theorem. The equivariant topological overlap theorem leads to various geometric applications including a quantitative non-embeddability result for sufficiently thick buildings (which partially resolves a conjecture of Tancer and Vorwerk) and an improved lower bound on the pair-crossing number of (bounded degree) expander graphs. Additionally, we...

Clines on the seashore: The genomic architecture underlying rapid divergence in the face of gene flow

Anja Marie Westram, Anja M. Westram, Marina Rafajlović, Pragya Chaube, Rui Faria, Tomas Larsson, Marina Panova, Mark Ravinet, Anders Blomberg, Bernhard Mehlig, Kerstin Johannesson & Roger Butlin
Adaptive divergence and speciation may happen despite opposition by gene flow. Identifying the genomic basis underlying divergence with gene flow is a major task in evolutionary genomics. Most approaches (e.g., outlier scans) focus on genomic regions of high differentiation. However, not all genomic architectures potentially underlying divergence are expected to show extreme differentiation. Here, we develop an approach that combines hybrid zone analysis (i.e., focuses on spatial patterns of allele frequency change) with system-specific simulations...

Data from: Transformation of stimulus correlations by the retina

Kristina D. Simmons, Jason S. Prentice, Gašper Tkačik, Jan Homann, Heather K. Yee, Stephanie E. Palmer, Philip C. Nelson & Vijay Balasubramanian
Redundancies and correlations in the responses of sensory neurons may seem to waste neural resources, but they can also carry cues about structured stimuli and may help the brain to correct for response errors. To investigate the effect of stimulus structure on redundancy in retina, we measured simultaneous responses from populations of retinal ganglion cells presented with natural and artificial stimuli that varied greatly in correlation structure; these stimuli and recordings are publicly available online....

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Affiliations

  • Institute of Science and Technology Austria
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  • Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA)
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