15 Works

Existence and density problems in Diophantine geometry: From norm forms to Campana points

Alec L. Shute
In this thesis, we study two of the most important questions in Arithmetic geometry: that of the existence and density of solutions to Diophantine equations. In order for a Diophantine equation to have any solutions over the rational numbers, it must have solutions everywhere locally, i.e., over R and over Qp for every prime p. The converse, called the Hasse principle, is known to fail in general. However, it is still a central question in...

Transcriptional consequences of mutations in genes associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Christoph Dotter
This dataset contains the supplementary data for the research paper "Haploinsufficiency of the intellectual disability gene SETD5 disturbs developmental gene expression and cognition". The contained files have the following content: 'Supplementary Figures.pdf' Additional figures (as referenced in the paper). 'Supplementary Table 1. Statistics.xlsx' Details on statistical tests performed in the paper. 'Supplementary Table 2. Differentially expressed gene analysis.xlsx' Results for the differential gene expression analysis for embryonic (E9.5; analysis with edgeR) and in vitro (ESCs,...

Integrating top-down and bottom-up approaches to understand the genetic architecture of speciation across a monkeyflower hybrid zone

Matthew Streisfeld, Sean Stankowski, Madeline Chase & Hanna McIntosh
Understanding the phenotypic and genetic architecture of reproductive isolation is a longstanding goal of speciation research. In several systems, large-effect loci contributing to barrier phenotypes have been characterized, but such causal connections are rarely known for more complex genetic architectures. In this study, we combine ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approaches with demographic modeling toward an integrated understanding of speciation across a monkeyflower hybrid zone. Previous work suggests that pollinator visitation acts as a primary barrier to...

On the encoding, transfer, and consolidation of spatial memories

Michele Nardin
The ability to form and retrieve memories is central to survival. In mammals, the hippocampus is a brain region essential to the acquisition and consolidation of new memories. It is also involved in keeping track of one’s position in space and aids navigation. Although this space-memory has been a source of contradiction, evidence supports the view that the role of the hippocampus in navigation is memory, thanks to the formation of cognitive maps. First introduced...

Remodeling of E-cadherin-mediated contacts via cortical flows

Feyza Nur Arslan
Metazoan development relies on the formation and remodeling of cell-cell contacts. The binding of adhesion receptors and remodeling of the actomyosin cell cortex at cell-cell interaction sites have been implicated in cell-cell contact formation. Yet, how these two processes functionally interact to drive cell-cell contact expansion and strengthening remains unclear. Here, we study how primary germ layer progenitor cells from zebrafish bind to supported lipid bilayers (SLB) functionalized with E-cadherin ectodomains as an assay system...

Flow cytometry YFP and CFP data and deep sequencing data of populations evolving in galactose

Isabella Tomanek & Calin Guet
Copy-number and point mutations form the basis for most evolutionary novelty through the process of gene duplication and divergence. While a plethora of genomic sequence data reveals the long-term fate of diverging coding sequences and their cis-regulatory elements, little is known about the early dynamics around the duplication event itself. In microorganisms, selection for increased gene expression often drives the expansion of gene copy-number mutations, which serves as a crude adaptation, prior to divergence through...

Clines on the seashore: The genomic architecture underlying rapid divergence in the face of gene flow

Anja Marie Westram, Anja M. Westram, Marina Rafajlović, Pragya Chaube, Rui Faria, Tomas Larsson, Marina Panova, Mark Ravinet, Anders Blomberg, Bernhard Mehlig, Kerstin Johannesson & Roger Butlin
Adaptive divergence and speciation may happen despite opposition by gene flow. Identifying the genomic basis underlying divergence with gene flow is a major task in evolutionary genomics. Most approaches (e.g., outlier scans) focus on genomic regions of high differentiation. However, not all genomic architectures potentially underlying divergence are expected to show extreme differentiation. Here, we develop an approach that combines hybrid zone analysis (i.e., focuses on spatial patterns of allele frequency change) with system-specific simulations...

High-dimensional expansion and crossing numbers of simplicial complexes

Pascal Wild
In this dissertation we study coboundary expansion of simplicial complex with a view of giving geometric applications. Our main novel tool is an equivariant version of Gromov's celebrated Topological Overlap Theorem. The equivariant topological overlap theorem leads to various geometric applications including a quantitative non-embeddability result for sufficiently thick buildings (which partially resolves a conjecture of Tancer and Vorwerk) and an improved lower bound on the pair-crossing number of (bounded degree) expander graphs. Additionally, we...

Wolbachia frequency data from: Why did the Wolbachia transinfection cross the road? Drift, deterministic dynamics and disease control

Michael Turelli & Nicholas Barton
Maternally inherited Wolbachia transinfections are being introduced into natural mosquito populations to reduce the transmission of dengue, Zika and other arboviruses. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility provides a frequency-dependent reproductive advantage to infected females that can spread transinfections within and among populations. However, because transinfections generally reduce host fitness, they tend to spread within populations only after their frequency exceeds a critical threshold. This produces bistability with stable equilibrium frequencies at both 0 and 1, analogous to...

Chimeric G protein-coupled receptors mimic distinct signaling pathways and modulate microglia function

Rouven Schulz
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to specific ligands and regulate multiple processes ranging from cell growth and immune responses to neuronal signal transmission. However, ligands for many GPCRs remain unknown, suffer from off-target effects or have poor bioavailability. Additional challenges exist to dissect cell-type specific responses when the same GPCR is expressed on several cell types within the body. Here, we overcome these limitations by engineering DREADD-based GPCR chimeras that selectively bind their agonist clozapine-N-oxide...

Data from: Genetic architecture of repeated phenotypic divergence in Littorina saxatilis ecotype evolution

Eva L Koch, Mark Ravinet, Anja M Westram, Kerstin Johannesson & Roger K. Butlin
Chromosomal inversions have been shown to play a major role in local adaptation by suppressing recombination between alternative arrangements and maintaining beneficial allele combinations. However, so far, their importance relative to the remaining genome remains largely unknown. Understanding the genetic architecture of adaptation requires better estimates of how loci of different effect sizes contribute to phenotypic variation. Here, we used three Swedish islands where the marine snail Littorina saxatilis has repeatedly evolved into two distinct...

Homogenizing yarn simulations: Large-scale mechanics, small-scale detail, and quantitative fitting

Georg Sperl
The complex yarn structure of knitted and woven fabrics gives rise to both a mechanical and visual complexity. The small-scale interactions of yarns colliding with and pulling on each other result in drastically different large-scale stretching and bending behavior, introducing anisotropy, curling, and more. While simulating cloth as individual yarns can reproduce this complexity and match the quality of real fabric, it may be too computationally expensive for large fabrics. On the other hand, continuum-based...

Improving genome-wide association discovery and genomic prediction accuracy in biobank data

Matthew Robinson, Etienne J. Orliac, Daniel Trejo Banos, Sven E. Ojavee, Kristi Läll, Reedik Mägi, Peter M. Visscher & Matthew R. Robinson
Genetically informed, deep-phenotyped biobanks are an important research resource and it is imperative that the most powerful, versatile, and efficient analysis approaches are used. Here, we apply our recently developed Bayesian grouped mixture of regressions model (GMRM) in the UK and Estonian Biobanks and obtain the highest genomic prediction accuracy reported to date across 21 heritable traits. When compared to other approaches, GMRM accuracy was greater than annotation prediction models run in the LDAK or...

Modulation of auxin transport via ZF proteins adjust plant response to high ambient temperature

Christina Artner
As the overall global mean surface temperature is increasing due to climate change, plant adaptation to those stressful conditions is of utmost importance for their survival. Plants are sessile organisms, thus to compensate for their lack of mobility, they evolved a variety of mechanisms enabling them to flexibly adjust their physiological, growth and developmental processes to fluctuating temperatures and to survive in harsh environments. While these unique adaptation abilities provide an important evolutionary advantage, overall...

Using replicate hybrid zones to understand the genomic basis of adaptive divergence

Anja Marie Westram, Rui Faria, Kerstin Johannesson & Roger Butlin
Combining hybrid zone analysis with genomic data is a promising approach to understanding the genomic basis of adaptive divergence. It allows for the identification of genomic regions underlying barriers to gene flow. It also provides insights into spatial patterns of allele frequency change, informing about the interplay between environmental factors, dispersal and selection. However, when only a single hybrid zone is analysed, it is difficult to separate patterns generated by selection from those resulting from...

Registration Year

  • 2022
    15

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  • Dissertation
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Affiliations

  • Institute of Science and Technology Austria
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  • Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA)
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  • University of Gothenburg
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  • University of Sheffield
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  • University of Queensland
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  • University of Lausanne
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  • University of Nottingham
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  • University of Oslo
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  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
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  • University of Oregon
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