350 Works

GENDER WAGE AND EQUALITY AND INVESTMENTS IN CARE: MODELING EQUITY AND PRODUCTION

Elissa Braunstein & Daniele Taviani

Dataset associated with Long-Term Effects of Fuel Reduction Treatments on Surface Fuel Loading in the Blue Mountains of Oregon

Kat Morici
Dataset contains a 2015 partial re-measurement of the Blue Mountains Fire and Fire Surrogate study. 8 plots were measured from each of the 16 units, selected randomly from all plots in each unit. Species are recorded using USDA plant codes, "UNKN" is unknown species. For fine fuels, 3 Brown's transects were collected per plot. The length varied based on fuel size class. The "hr1/hr10/hr100" columns include the count of fuel particles within each size class...

Data from: Blood mercury levels of zebra finches are heritable: implications for the evolution of mercury resistance

Kenton A. Buck, Claire W. Varian-Ramos, Daniel A. Cristol & John P. Swaddle
Mercury is a ubiquitous metal contaminant that negatively impacts reproduction of wildlife and has many other sub-lethal effects. Songbirds are sensitive bioindicators of mercury toxicity and may suffer population declines as a result of mercury pollution. Current predictions of mercury accumulation and biomagnification often overlook possible genetic variation in mercury uptake and elimination within species and the potential for evolution in affected populations. We conducted a study of dietary mercury exposure in a model songbird...

Data from: Partial support for the central–marginal hypothesis within a population: reduced genetic diversity but not increased differentiation at the range edge of an island endemic bird

Kathryn M. Langin, T. Scott Sillett, W. Chris Funk, Scott A. Morrison & Cameron K. Ghalambor
Large-scale population comparisons have contributed to our understanding of the evolution of geographic range limits and species boundaries, as well as the conservation value of populations at range margins. The central–marginal hypothesis (CMH) predicts a decline in genetic diversity and an increase in genetic differentiation toward the periphery of species’ ranges due to spatial variation in genetic drift and gene flow. Empirical studies on a diverse array of taxa have demonstrated support for the CMH....

Data from: Ecological correlates of the distribution limits of two poeciliid species across a salinity gradient

Julián Torres-Dowdall, Felipe Dargent, Corey A. Handelsman, Indar W. Ramnarine & Cameron K. Ghalambor
Identifying the environmental factors responsible for the formation of a species' distribution limit is challenging because organisms interact in complex ways with their environments. However, the use of statistical niche models in combination with the analysis of phenotypic variation along environmental gradients can help to reduce such complexity and identify a subset of candidate factors. In the present study, we used such approaches to describe and identify factors responsible for the parapatric distribution of two...

Data from: Hybridization and invasion: an experimental test with diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)

Amy C Blair, Dana Blumenthal & Ruth A Hufbauer
A number of studies have suggested a link between hybridization and invasion. In this study, we experimentally test the potential for hybridization to influence invasion through a greenhouse common garden study. Diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.) was introduced to North America with admixture from spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe subsp. stoebe L.). Comparisons between North American diffuse knapweed (including hybrid phenotypes) and native (European) diffuse knapweed in a common garden did not reveal enhanced performance or...

Data from: Interspecific hybridization transfers a previously unknown glyphosate resistance mechanism in Amaranthus species

Todd A Gaines, Sarah M Ward, Bekir Bukun, Christopher Preston, Jan E Leach & Philip Westra
A previously unknown glyphosate resistance mechanism, amplification of the 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene, was recently reported in Amaranthus palmeri. This evolved mechanism could introgress to other weedy Amaranthus species through interspecific hybridization, representing an avenue for acquisition of a novel adaptive trait. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for this glyphosate resistance trait to transfer via pollen from A. palmeri to five other weedy Amaranthus species (A. hybridus, A. powellii,...

Data from: Robust extraction of quantitative structural information from high-variance histological images of livers from necropsied Soay sheep

Quentin Caudron, Romain Garnier, Jill G. Pilkington, Kathryn A. Watt, Christina Hansen, Bryan T. Grenfell, Tawfik Aboellail & Andrea L. Graham
Quantitative information is essential to the empirical analysis of biological systems. In many such systems, spatial relations between anatomical structures is of interest, making imaging a valuable data acquisition tool. However, image data can be difficult to analyse quantitatively. Many image processing algorithms are highly sensitive to variations in the image, limiting their current application to fields where sample and image quality may be very high. Here, we develop robust image processing algorithms for extracting...

Data from: Gene flow and pathogen transmission among bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a fragmented urban landscape

Justin S. Lee, Emily W. Ruell, Erin E. Boydston, Lisa M. Lyren, Robert S. Alonso, Jennifer L. Troyer, Kevin R. Crooks & Sue VandeWoude
Urbanization can result in the fragmentation of once contiguous natural landscapes into a patchy habitat interspersed within a growing urban matrix. Animals living in fragmented landscapes often have reduced movement among habitat patches due to avoidance of intervening human development, which potentially leads to both reduced gene flow and pathogen transmission between patches. Mammalian carnivores with large home ranges, such as bobcats (Lynx rufus), may be particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation. We performed genetic analyses...

Data from: The power of evolutionary rescue is constrained by genetic load

Gavin S. Stewart, Madeline R. Morris, Allison B. Genis, Marianna Szűcs, Brett A. Melbourne, Simon J. Tavener & Ruth A. Hufbauer
Extinction risk of small isolated populations in changing environments can be reduced by rapid adaptation and subsequent growth to larger, less vulnerable sizes. Whether this process, called evolutionary rescue, is able to reduce extinction risk and sustain population growth over multiple generations is largely unknown. To understand the consequences of adaptive evolution as well as maladaptive processes in small isolated populations, we subjected experimental Tribolium castaneum populations founded with 10 or 40 individuals to novel...

Data from: Rapid adaptive evolution in novel environments acts as an architect of population range expansion

Marianna Szűcs, Megan L. Vahsen, Brett A. Melbourne, Charlotte Hoover, Christopher Weiss-Lehman & Ruth A. Hufbauer
Colonization and expansion into novel landscapes determine the distribution and abundance of species in our rapidly changing ecosystems worldwide. Colonization events are crucibles for rapid evolution, but it is not known whether evolutionary changes arise mainly after successful colonization has occurred, or if evolution plays an immediate role, governing the growth and expansion speed of colonizing populations. There is evidence that spatial evolutionary processes can speed range expansion within a few generations because dispersal tendencies...

Data from:Differential induction of plant chemical defenses by parasitized and unparasitized herbivores: consequences for reciprocal, multitrophic interactions

Paul J. Ode, Jeffrey A. Harvey, Michael Riechelt, Jonathan Gershenzon & Rieta Gols
Insect parasitoids can play ecologically important roles in virtually all terrestrial plant–insect herbivore interactions, yet whether parasitoids alter the defensive traits that underlie interactions between plants and their herbivores remains a largely unexplored question. Here, we examined the reciprocal trophic interactions among populations of the wild cabbage Brassica oleracea that vary greatly in their production of defensive secondary compounds – glucosinolates (GSs), a generalist herbivore, Trichoplusia ni, and its polyembryonic parasitoid Copidosoma floridanum. In a...

Data from: Exposure to dairy manure leads to greater antibiotic resistance and increased mass-specific respiration in soil microbial communities

Carl Wepking, Bethany Avera, Brian Badgley, John E. Barrett, Josh Franklin, Katharine F. Knowlton, Partha P. Ray, Crystal Smitherman & Michael S. Strickland
Intensifying livestock production to meet the demands of a growing global population coincides with increases in both the administration of veterinary antibiotics and manure inputs to soils. These trends have the potential to increase antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities. The effect of maintaining increased antibiotic resistance on soil microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they regulate is unknown. We compare soil microbial communities from paired reference and dairy manure-exposed sites across the USA. Given...

Data from: The importance of functional responses among competing predators for avian nesting success

Kristen Ellis, Randy Larsen & Dave Koons
1. The relationship between the rate of predation and prey abundance is an important component of predator-prey dynamics. However, functional responses are less straightforward when multiple predators compete for shared prey. Interactions among competing predators can reduce or enhance effects of predation on prey populations. Because many avian populations experience high rates of nest predation, understanding the role of specific predators on nest mortality will lead to more informed conservation and management strategies which attempt...

Phylogenomic data reveal widespred introgression across the range of an alpine and arctic specialist

Erik Funk, Garth Spellman, Kevin Winker, Jack Withrow, Erika Zavaleta, Kristen Ruegg & Scott Taylor
Understanding how gene flow affects population divergence and speciation remains challenging. Differentiating one evolutionary process from another can be difficult because multiple processes can produce similar patterns, and more than one process can occur simultaneously. While simple population models produce predictable results, how these processes balance in taxa with patchy distributions and complicated natural histories is less certain. These types of populations might be highly connected through migration (gene flow), but can experience stronger effects...

Data from: Interindividual variation in the use of social information during learning in honeybees

Catherine Tait
Slow-fast differences in cognition among individuals have been proposed to be an outcome of the speed-accuracy trade-off in decision-making. Based on the different costs associated with acquiring information via individual and social learning, we hypothesized that slow-fast cognitive differences would also be tied to the adoption of these different learning modes. Since foragers in honeybee colonies likely have both these information acquisition modes available to them, we chose to test them for inter-individual differences in...

Directional selection shifts trait distributions of planted species in dryland restoration

Kathleen Balazs, Seth Munson, Caroline A. Havrilla & Brad Butterfield
1. The match between species trait values and local abiotic filters can restrict community membership. An often-implicit assumption of this relationship is that abiotic filters select for a single locally optimal strategy, though difficulty in isolating effects of the abiotic environment from those of dispersal limitation and biotic interactions has resulted in few empirical tests of this assumption. Similar constraints have made it difficult to assess whether the type and intensity of abiotic filters shift...

Data from \"Quantification of major particulate matter species from a single filter type using infrared spectroscopy – Application to a large-scale monitoring network\"

Ann Dillner, Bruno Debus, Andrew T. Weakley, Satoshi Takahama, Kathryn George, Bret Schichtel, Scott Copeland & Anthony Wexler
This data set contains FT-IR data obtained from spectra of PTFE filters routinely in IMPROVE network during the time period 2015-2017, as well as the corresponding routine IMPROVE data for all ( ~160) IMPROVE sites except Korea. The data include PM2.5 aerosol concentrations measurements for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), total carbon (TC), sulfate, nitrate, silicon, aluminum, calcium, titanium, iron, mass and light absorption. The data are in ug/m3. Some samples are excluded based...

Effects of enhanced productivity of resources shared by predators in a food-web module: Comparing results of a field experiment to predictions of mathematical models of intra-guild predation

David Wise & Monica Farfan
This dataset contains data from a field experiment described in the publication “Wise, D. H. & Farfan, M.A. (2021) Effects of enhanced productivity of resources shared by predators in a food-web module: Comparing results of a field experiment to predictions of mathematical models of intra-guild predation. Ecology and Evolution, 00: 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8375”. The field experiment compared the response to increased input of nutrients and energy (artificial detritus) to an empirical model of intra-guild predation (IGP)...

Isotopic niche partitioning and individual specialization in an Arctic raptor guild

Devin L. Johnson, Michael T. Henderson, David L. Anderson, Travis L. Booms & Cory T. Williams
Intra- and inter-specific resource partitioning within predator communities is a fundamental component of trophic ecology, and one proposed mechanism for how populations partition resources is through individual niche variation. The Niche Variation Hypothesis (NVH) predicts that inter-individual trait variation leads to functional trade-offs in foraging efficiency, resulting in populations composed of individual dietary specialists. The degree to which niche specialization persists within a population is plastic and responsive to fluctuating resource availability. We quantified niche...

Landscape genomics of the streamside salamander: Implications for species management in the face of environmental change

Marc Beer, Rachael Kane, Steven Micheletti, Christopher Kozakiewicz & Andrew Storfer
Understanding spatial patterns of genetic differentiation and local adaptation is critical in a period of rapid environmental change. Climate change and anthropogenic development have led to population declines and shifting geographic distributions in numerous species. The streamside salamander, Ambystoma barbouri, is an endemic amphibian with a small geographic range that predominantly inhabits small, ephemeral streams. As A. barbouri is listed as near-threatened by the IUCN, we describe range-wide patterns of genetic differentiation and adaptation to...

Habitat-linked genetic variation supports microgeographic adaptive divergence in an island-endemic bird species

Rebecca Cheek, Brenna Forrester, Daryl Trumbo, Patricia Salerno, Nancy Chen, T. Scott Sillett, Scott Morrison, Cameron Ghalambor & W. Chris Funk
We present evidence for and investigate potential mechanisms driving habitat-linked genetic divergence within a bird species endemic to a single 250 km2 island. The island scrub-jay (Aphelocoma insularis) exhibits microgeographic divergence in bill morphology across pine-oak ecotones on Santa Cruz Island, California (USA) similar to adaptive differences described in mainland congeners over much larger geographic scales. To test whether individuals exhibit genetic differentiation related to habitat type and divergence in bill length, we genotyped over...

Reproductive benefits associated with dispersal in headwater populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

Isabela Lima Borges, Jillian Dangerfield, Lisa Angeloni, Chris Funk & Sarah Fitzpatrick
Theory suggests that the evolution of dispersal is balanced by its fitness costs and benefits, yet empirical evidence is sparse due to the difficulties of measuring dispersal and fitness in natural populations. Here, we use spatially-explicit data from a multi-generational capture-mark-recapture study of two populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) along with pedigrees to test whether there are fitness benefits correlated with dispersal. Combining these ecological and molecular datasets allows us to directly measure the...

Contrasting environmental drivers of genetic of genetic and phenotypic divergence in an Andean poison frog

Mónica Páez-Vacas, W. Chris Funk & Daryl Trumbo
Phenotypic and genetic divergence are shaped by the homogenizing effects of gene flow and the differentiating processes of genetic drift and local adaptation. Herein, we examined the mechanisms that underlie phenotypic (size and color) and genetic divergence in 35 populations (535 individuals) of the poison frog Epipedobates anthonyi along four elevational gradients (0–1800 m asl) in the Ecuadorian Andes. We found phenotypic divergence in size and color despite relatively low genetic divergence at neutral microsatellite...

Data from: Applicability of artificial neural networks to integrate socio-technical drivers of buildings recovery following extreme wind events

Stephanie Pilkington & Hussam Mahmoud
The data provided and the associated MATLAB code were used to build an Artificial Neural Network Model to capture the reconstruction (recovery) of various buildings subjected to tornado events in the State of Missouri. The ANN model utilizes relevant tornado, societal demographic, and structural data to determine a building’s resulting damage state from an extreme wind event and the subsequent recovery time. Abstract for the publication is as follows: In a companion article, previously published...

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Affiliations

  • Colorado State University
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