273 Works

Data from: Climate outweighs native vs. non-native range-effects for genetics and common garden performance of a cosmopolitan weed

Christoph Rosche, Isabell Hensen, Adrian Schaar, Uzma Zehra, Marie Jasieniuk, Ragan M. Callaway, Damase P. Khasa, Mohammad M. Al-Gharaibeh, Ylva Lekberg, David U. Nagy, Robert W. Pal, Miki Okada, Karin Schrieber, Kathryn G. Turner, Susanne Lachmuth, Andrey Erst, Tomonori Tsunoda, Min Sheng, Robin Schmidt, Yanling Peng, Wenbo Luo, Yun Jäschke, Zafar A. Reshi & Manzoor A. Shah
Comparing genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and performance between native and non-native populations has advanced our knowledge of contemporary evolution and its ecological consequences. However, such between-range comparisons can be complicated by high among-population variation within native and non-native ranges. For example, native vs. non-native comparisons between small and non-representative subsets of populations for species with very large distributions have the potential to mislead because they may not sufficiently account for within-range adaptation to climatic conditions,...

The island biogeography of the eBird citizen-science program

Frank La Sorte & Marius Somveille
Aim: Island biotas face an array of unique challenges under global change. Monitoring and research efforts, however, have been hindered by the large number of islands, their broad distribution and geographic isolation. Global citizen-science initiatives have the potential to address these deficiencies. Here, we determine how the eBird citizen-science program is currently sampling island bird assemblages annually and how these patterns are developing over time. Location: Global. Taxa: Birds. Methods: We compiled occurrence information of...

A dicamba resistance endowing IAA16 mutation leads to significant vegetative growth defects and impaired competitiveness in kochia (Bassia scoparia)

Chenxi Wu, Sherry LeClere, Kang Liu, Marta Paciorek, Alejandro Perez-Jones, Phil Westra & Douglas Sammons
Precise quantification of the fitness cost of synthetic auxins resistance has been impeded by lack of knowledge for the genetic basis of resistance in weeds. Recent elucidation of a resistance endowing IAA16 mutation (G73N) in a key weed species kochia (Bassia scoparia), allows detailed characterization of the contribution of resistance alleles to weed fitness, both in the presence and absence of herbicides. Different G73N genotypes from a segregating resistant parental line (9425) were characterized for...

Mountain goat molt from community photographs

Katarzyna Nowak, Shane Richards, Joel Berger, Amy Panikowski, Aerin Jacob, Donald Reid, Greg Newman, Nicholas Young & Jon Beckmann
Participatory approaches, such as community photography, can engage the public in questions of societal and scientific interest while helping advance understanding of ecological patterns and processes. We combined data extracted from community-sourced, spatially-explicit photographs with research findings from 2018 fieldwork in the Yukon, Canada, to evaluate winter coat molt patterns and phenology in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), a cold-adapted, alpine mammal. Leveraging the community science portals iNaturalist and CitSci, in less than a year we...

Data from: Environmental change, if unaccounted, prevents detection of cryptic evolution in a wild population

Tomos Potter, Ronald D. Bassar, Paul Bentzen, Emily W. Ruell, Julián Torres-Dowdall, Corey A. Handelsman, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Joseph Travis, David N. Reznick & Tim Coulson
Detecting contemporary evolution requires demonstrating that genetic change has occurred. Mixed-effects models allow estimation of quantitative genetic parameters and are widely used to study evolution in wild populations. However, predictions of evolution based on these parameters frequently fail to match observations. Furthermore, such studies often lack an independent measure of evolutionary change against which to verify predictions. Here, we applied three commonly used quantitative genetic approaches to predict the evolution of size at maturity in...

Data from: A trait-based approach to assessing resistance and resilience to wildfire in two iconic North American conifers

Kyle Rodman, Thomas Veblen, Robert Andrus, Neil Enright, Joseph Fontaine, Angela Gonzalez, Miranda Redmond & Andreas Wion
Ongoing changes in fire activity have the potential to drive widespread shifts in Earth’s vegetation. Plant traits and vital rates can be indicators of the ability of individuals to survive fire (resistance) and populations to persist (resilience) following fire and provide a method to assess vulnerability to fire-driven vegetation shifts. In 15 study sites spanning climatic gradients in the southern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A., we quantified variation in key traits and vital rates of two co-occurring,...

Urbanization reduces genetic connectivity in bobcats (Lynx rufus) at both intra- and inter-population spatial scales

Christopher P Kozakiewicz, Christopher Burridge, W. Chris Funk, Patricia E Salerno, Daryl R Trumbo, Roderick B Gagne, Erin E Boydston, Robert N Fisher, Lisa M Lyren, Megan K Jennings, Seth P D Riley, Laurel E K Serieys, Sue VandeWoude, Kevin R Crooks & Scott Carver
Urbanization is a major factor driving habitat fragmentation and connectivity loss in wildlife. However, the impacts of urbanization on connectivity can vary among species and even populations due to differences in local landscape characteristics, and our ability to detect these relationships may depend on the spatial scale at which they are measured. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are relatively sensitive to urbanization and the status of bobcat populations is an important indicator of connectivity in urban coastal...

Mass ratio effects underlie ecosystem responses to environmental change

Melinda Smith, Sally Koerner, Alan Knapp, Meghan Avolio, Francis Chaves, Elsie Denton, John Dietrich, David Gibson, Jesse Gray, Ava Hoffman, David Hoover, Kimberly Komatsu, Andrea Silletti, Kevin Wilcox, Qiang Yu & John Blair
1. Random species loss has been shown experimentally to reduce ecosystem function, sometimes more than other anthropogenic environmental changes. Yet, controversy surrounds the importance of this finding for natural systems where species loss is non-random. 2. We compiled data from 16 multi-year experiments located at a single site in native tallgrass prairie. These experiments included responses to 11 anthropogenic environmental changes, as well as non-random biodiversity loss - either the removal of uncommon/rare plant species...

Data from: Mass ratio effects underlie ecosystem responses to environmental change

Melinda Smith & Andrea Silletti
1. Random species loss has been shown experimentally to reduce ecosystem function, sometimes more than other anthropogenic environmental changes. Yet, controversy surrounds the importance of this finding for natural systems where species loss is non-random. 2. We compiled data from 16 multi-year experiments located at a single site in native tallgrass prairie. These experiments included responses to 11 anthropogenic environmental changes, as well as non-random biodiversity loss - either the removal of uncommon/rare plant species...

Data from: Mating system and environmental variation drive patterns of adaptation in Boechera spatifolia (Brassicaceae)

Kelsi A. Grogan, Timothy F. Sharbel, John K. McKay, John T. Lovell & Kelsi Grogan
Determining the relative contribution of population genetic processes to the distribution of natural variation is a major goal of evolutionary biology. Here, we take advantage of variation in mating system to test the hypothesis that local adaptation is constrained by asexual reproduction. We explored patterns of variation in ecological traits and genome-wide molecular markers in Boechera spatifolia (Brassicaceae), a species that contains both apomictic (asexual) and sexual individuals. Using a combination of quantitative genetics, neutral...

Data from: The roles of demography and genetics in the early stages of colonization

Marianna Szűcs, Brett A. Melbourne, Ty Tuff & Ruth A. Hufbauer
Colonization success increases with the size of the founding group. Both demographic and genetic factors underlie this relationship, yet because genetic diversity normally increases with numbers of individuals, their relative importance remains unclear. Furthermore, their influence may depend on the environment and may change as colonization progresses from establishment through population growth and then dispersal. We tested the roles of genetics, demography and environment in the founding of Tribolium castaneum populations. Using three genetic backgrounds...

Data from: Creating fen initiation conditions: a new approach for peatland reclamation in the oil sands region of Alberta

Andrea Borkenhagen & David J. Cooper
Reclaiming peatland ecosystems is challenging our understanding of how to rebuild functioning landscapes. Assisted succession may provide a practical approach to guide the reestablishment of peatlands in denuded landscapes. In Alberta, the majority of peatlands began as fens during the paludification process. This research focuses on creating fen initiation conditions to establish fen moss species on mineral sediment as an approach for peatland reclamation in the oil sands region. In a field mesocosm experiment, we...

Data from: Identification of migratory bird flyways in North America using community detection on biological networks

Michael G. Buhnerkempe, Colleen T. Webb, Andrew A. Merton, John E. Buhnerkempe, Geof H. Givens, Ryan S. Miller & Jennifer A. Hoeting
Migratory behavior of waterfowl populations in North America has traditionally been broadly characterized by four north-south flyways, and these flyways have been central to the management of waterfowl populations for more than 80 years. However, previous flyway characterizations are not easily updated with current bird movement data and fail to provide assessments of the importance of specific geographical regions to the identification of flyways. Here, we developed a network model of migratory movement for four...

Data from: Lincoln estimates of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) abundance in North America

Ray T. Alisauskas, Todd W. Arnold, James O. Leafloor, David L. Otis & James S. Sedinger
Estimates of range-wide abundance, harvest, and harvest rate are fundamental for sound inferences about the role of exploitation in the dynamics of free-ranging wildlife populations, but reliability of existing survey methods for abundance estimation is rarely assessed using alternative approaches. North American mallard populations have been surveyed each spring since 1955 using internationally coordinated aerial surveys, but population size can also be estimated with Lincoln's method using banding and harvest data. We estimated late summer...

Data from: Overwintering strategies of migratory birds: a novel approach for estimating seasonal movement patterns of residents and transients

Viviana Ruiz-Gutierrez, William L. Kendall, James F. Saracco & Gary C. White
1. Our understanding of movement patterns in wildlife populations has played an important role in current ecological knowledge, and can inform landscape conservation decisions. Direct measures of movement can be obtained using marked individuals, but this requires tracking individuals across a landscape or multiple sites. 2. We demonstrate how movements can be estimated indirectly using single-site, capture–mark–recapture (CMR) data with a multistate open robust design with state uncertainty model (MSORD-SU). We treat residence and transience...

Data from: Genetic variation for mitochondrial function in the New Zealand freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum

Joel Sharbrough, Jennifer L. Cruise, Megan Beetch, Nicole M. Enright & Maurine Neiman
The proteins responsible for mitochondrial function are encoded by two different genomes with distinct inheritance regimes, rendering rigorous inference of genotype–phenotype connections intractable for all but a few model systems. Asexual organisms provide a powerful means to address these challenges because offspring produced without recombination inherit both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes from a single parent. As such, these offspring inherit mitonuclear genotypes that are identical to the mitonuclear genotypes of their parents and siblings and...

Data from: Tadpole begging reveals high quality

Matthew B. Dugas, Stephanie A. Strickler & Jennifer L. Stynoski
Parents can benefit from allocating limited resources non-randomly among offspring, and offspring solicitation (i.e., begging) is often hypothesized to evolve because it contains information valuable to choosy parents. We tested the diagnostic predictions of three ‘honest begging’ hypotheses –Signal of Need, Signal of Quality, and Signal of Hunger – in the tadpoles of a terrestrial frog (Oophaga pumilio). In this frog, mothers provision tadpoles with trophic eggs, and when mothers visit, tadpoles perform a putative...

Data from: Climate variability predicts thermal limits of aquatic insects across elevation and latitude

Alisha A. Shah, Brian A. Gill, Andrea C. Encalada, Alexander S. Flecker, W. Chris Funk, Juan M. Guayasamin, Boris C. Kondratieff, N. LeRoy Poff, Steven A. Thomas, Kelly R. Zamudio & Cameron K. Ghalambor
Janzen's extension of the climate variability hypothesis posits that increased seasonal variation at high latitudes should result in greater temperature overlap across elevations, and favor wider thermal breadths in temperate organisms compared to their tropical counterparts. We tested these predictions by measuring stream temperatures and thermal breadths (i.e. the difference between the critical thermal maximum and minimum) of 62 aquatic insect species from temperate (Colorado, USA) and tropical (Papallacta, Ecuador) streams spanning an elevation gradient...

Data from: Woodland resilience to regional drought: Dominant controls on tree regeneration following overstorey mortality

Miranda D. Redmond, Peter J. Weisberg, Neil S. Cobb & Michael J. Clifford
Drought events occurring under warmer temperatures (i.e. “hotter droughts”) have resulted in widespread tree mortality across the globe, and may result in biome-level vegetation shifts to alternate vegetation types if there is a failure of trees to regenerate. We investigated how overstorey trees, understorey vegetation, and local climatic and edaphic conditions interact to influence tree regeneration, a key prerequisite for resilience, in a region that has experienced severe overstorey tree mortality due to hotter droughts...

Data from: Hunger mediates apex predator's risk avoidance response in wildland-urban interface

Kevin A. Blecha, Randall B. Boone & Mathew W. Alldredge
1. Conflicts between large mammalian predators and humans present a challenge to conservation efforts, as these events drive human attitudes and policies concerning predator species. Unfortunately, generalities portrayed in many empirical carnivore landscape selection studies do not provide an explanation for a predator’s occasional use of residential development preceding a carnivore-human conflict event. In some cases, predators may perceive residential development as a risk-reward tradeoff. 2. We examine whether state dependent mortality-risk sensitive foraging can...

Data from: Applying a dryland degradation framework for rangelands: the case of Mongolia

Chantsallkham Jamsranjav, Robin S. Reid, Maria E. Fernandez-Gimenez, Altanzul Tsevlee, Baasandorj Yadamsuren & Michael Heiner
Livestock-caused rangeland degradation remains a major policy concern globally and the subject of widespread scientific study. This concern persists in part because it is difficult to isolate the effects of livestock from climate and other factors that influence ecosystem conditions. Further, degradation studies seldom use multiple plant and soil indicators linked to a clear definition of and ecologically-grounded framework for degradation assessment that distinguishes different levels of degradation. Here, we integrate two globally applicable rangeland...

Data from: Combining statistical inference and decisions in ecology

Perry J. Williams & Mevin B. Hooten
Statistical decision theory (SDT) is a sub-field of decision theory that formally incorporates statistical investigation into a decision-theoretic framework to account for uncertainties in a decision problem. SDT provides a unifying analysis of three types of information: statistical results from a data set, knowledge of the consequences of potential choices (i.e., loss), and prior beliefs about a system. SDT links the theoretical development of a large body of statistical methods including point estimation, hypothesis testing,...

Data from: SRUD: a simple non-destructive method for accurate quantification of plant diversity dynamics

Pengfei Zhang, George A. Kowalchuk, Merel B. Soons, Mariet M. Hefting, Chengjin Chu, Jennifer Firn, Cynthia S. Brown, Xianhui Zhou, Xiaolong Zhou, Zhi Guo, Zhigang Zhao, Guozhen Du & Yann Hautier
1. Predicting changes in plant diversity in response to human activities represents one of the major challenges facing ecologists and land managers striving for sustainable ecosystem management. Classical field studies have emphasized the importance of community primary productivity in regulating changes in plant species richness. However, experimental studies have yielded inconsistent empirical evidence, suggesting that primary productivity is not the sole determinant of plant diversity. Recent work has shown that more accurate predictions of changes...

Data from: Mismatches between breeding phenology and resource abundance of resident alpine ptarmigan negatively affect chick survival

Gregory T. Wann, Cameron L. Aldridge, Amy E. Seglund, Sara J. Oyler-McCance, Boris C. Kondratieff & Clait E. Braun
1. Phenological mismatches – defined here as the difference in reproductive timing of an individual relative to the availability of its food resources – occur in many avian species. Mistiming breeding activities in environments with constrained breeding windows may have severe fitness costs due to reduced opportunities for repeated breeding attempts. Therefore, species occurring in alpine environments may be particularly vulnerable. 2. We studied fitness consequences of timing of breeding in an alpine-endemic species, the...

Data from: Genetic and demographic founder effects have long-term fitness consequences for colonising populations

Marianna Szűcs, Brett A. Melbourne, Ty Tuff, Christopher Weiss-Lehman & Ruth A. Hufbauer
Colonisation is a fundamental ecological and evolutionary process that drives the distribution and abundance of organisms. The initial ability of colonists to establish is determined largely by the number of founders and their genetic background. We explore the importance of these demographic and genetic properties for longer term persistence and adaptation of populations colonising a novel habitat using experimental populations of Tribolium castaneum. We introduced individuals from three genetic backgrounds (inbred – outbred) into a...

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