409 Works

Data from: Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in reptile faeces: analysis of earthworm consumption by slow worms

David S. Brown, Simon N. Jarman & William O.C. Symondson
Little quantitative ecological information exists on the diets of most invertebrate feeding reptiles, particularly nocturnal or elusive species that are difficult to observe. In the UK and elsewhere, reptiles are legally required to be relocated before land development can proceed, but without knowledge of their dietary requirements the suitability of receptor sites cannot be known. Here we tested the ability of non-invasive DNA-based molecular diagnostics (454 pyrosequencing) to analyse reptile diets, with the specific aims...

Data from: Landscape determinants of fine-scale genetic structure of a small rodent in a heterogeneous landscape (Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa)

Isa-Rita M. Russo, Catherine L. Sole, Mario Barbato, Ullrich Von Bramann & Michael W. Bruford
Small mammals provide ecosystem services, acting, for example, as pollinators and seed dispersers. In addition, they are also disease reservoirs that can be detrimental to human health and they can also act as crop pests. Knowledge of their dispersal preferences is therefore useful for population management and landscape planning. Genetic data were used alongside landscape data to examine the influence of the landscape on the demographic connectedness of the Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) and...

Data from: Pace of life, predators and parasites: predator-induced life history evolution in Trinidadian guppies predicts decrease in parasite tolerance

Jessica F. Stephenson, C. Van Oosterhout & Joanne Cable
A common evolutionary response to predation pressure is increased investment in reproduction, ultimately resulting in a fast life history. Theory and comparative studies suggest that short-lived organisms invest less in defence against parasites than those that are longer lived (the pace of life hypothesis). Combining these tenets of evolutionary theory leads to the specific, untested prediction that within species, populations experiencing higher predation pressure invest less in defence against parasites. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata,...

Data from: Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability

Carrie Andrew, Einar Heegaard, Klaus Høiland, Beatrice Senn-Irlet, Thomas W. Kuyper, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Paul M. Kirk, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Alan C. Gange, Simon Egli, Claus Bässler, Ulf Büntgen, Lynne Boddy & Håvard Kauserud
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path‐analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by...

Data from: The cost of infection: Argulus foliaceus and its impact on the swimming performance of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Alexander Stewart, Rhiannon Hunt, Valantine Muhawenimana, Catherine A.M.E. Wilson, Joseph A. Jackson & Joanne Cable
For fish, there can be multiple consequences of parasitic infections, including the physical impacts on swimming and the pathological costs of infection. This study utilised the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the ectoparasitic fish louse, Argulus foliaceus, to assess both physical (including form drag and mass) and pathological effects of infection. Both sustained (prolonged swimming within an open channel flume) and burst (C-start) swimming performance were measured on individual fish before (Trials 1-2) and after...

Data from: Phenology of farmland floral resources reveals seasonal gaps in nectar availability for bumblebees

Thomas P. Timberlake, Ian P. Vaughan & Jane Memmott
Floral resources are known to be important in regulating wild pollinator populations and are therefore an important component of agri‐environment and restoration schemes which aim to support pollinators and their associated services. However, the phenology of floral resources is often overlooked in these schemes – a factor which may be limiting their success. Our study characterises and quantifies the phenology of nectar resources at the whole‐farm scale on replicate farms in Southwestern UK throughout the...

Data from: Plant species roles in pollination networks: an experimental approach

Kate Pereira Maia, I.P. Vaughan & Jane Memmott
Pollination is an important ecosystem service threatened by current pollinator declines, making flower planting schemes an important strategy to recover pollination function. However, ecologists rarely test the attractiveness of chosen plants to pollinators in the field. Here, we experimentally test whether plant species roles in pollination networks can be used to identify species with the most potential to recover plant-pollinator communities. Using published pollination networks, we calculated each plant’s centrality and chose five central and...

Data from: Biological invasion modifies the co-occurrence patterns of insects along a stress gradient

José Antonio Carbonell, Josefa Velasco, Andres Millan, Andy J. Green, Cristina Coccia, Simone Guareschi & Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas
Biological invasions have become one of the most important drivers of biodiversity loss and ecosystem change world-wide. However, it is still unclear how invasions may interact with local abiotic stressors, which are expected to increase as global change intensifies. Furthermore, we know little about the response to biological invasions of insects, despite their disproportionate contribution to global animal biodiversity. The aim of the present work is to investigate the impact of an invasive aquatic insect...

Data from: Maintenance of genetic diversity in an introduced island population of Guanacos after seven decades and two severe demographic bottlenecks: implications for camelid conservation

Benito A. González, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Rainer Von Borries, Warren E. Johnson, William L. Franklin & Juan C. Marín
Fifteen Guanacos were introduced to Staats Island in Falklands/Malvinas archipelago from Patagonia in the 1930s. After introduction, the Guanaco population increased to almost 400 animals that retained a footprint of the founding effect and bottleneck reflected in the genetic status of this isolated population. The goals of this study were to (i) make a genetic assessment of this island population through comparisons with mainland populations and simulation, and (ii) assess the likely source population of...

Data from: No signs of inbreeding despite long-term isolation and habitat fragmentation in the critically endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi)

Emilio Valbuena-Ureña, Anna Soler-Membrives, Sebastian Steinfartz, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel & Salvador Carranza
Endemic species with restricted geographic ranges potentially suffer the highest risk of extinction. If these species are further fragmented into genetically isolated subpopulations, the risk of extinction is elevated. Habitat fragmentation is generally considered to have negative effects on species survival, despite some evidence for neutral or even positive effects. Typically, non-negative effects are ignored by conservation biology. The Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi) has one of the smallest distribution ranges of any European amphibian...

Data from: Moving in groups: how density and unpredictable motion affect predation risk

Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel, Gavin Holmes, Roland Baddeley & Innes C. Cuthill
One of the most widely applicable benefits of aggregation is a per capita reduction in predation risk. Many factors can contribute to this but, for moving groups, an increased difficulty in tracking and targeting one individual amongst many has received particular attention. This “confusion effect” has been proposed to result from a bottleneck in information processing, a hypothesis supported by both modelling and experiment. If the competition for limited attention is localised to the particular...

Data from: A comparison of clearfelling and gradual thinning of plantations for the restoration of insect herbivores and woodland plants

Beth Atkinson, Sallie Bailey, Ian P. Vaughan & Jane Memmott
1. Testing restoration methods is essential for the development of restoration ecology as a science. It is also important to monitor a range of taxa, not just plants which have been the traditional focus of restoration ecology. Here we compare the effects on ground flora and leaf-miners, of two restoration practices used when restoring conifer plantations. 2. Two methods of restoration were investigated: clearfelling of plantations and the gradual thinning of conifers over time. Unrestored...

Data from: Hybridization masks speciation in the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana

Amy MacLeod, Ariel Rodríguez, Miguel Vences, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Carolina García, Fritz Trillmich, Gabriele Gentile, Adalgisa Caccone, Galo Quezada & Sebastian Steinfartz
The effects of the direct interaction between hybridization and speciation—two major contrasting evolutionary processes—are poorly understood. We present here the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and reveal a case of incipient within-island speciation, which is paralleled by between-island hybridization. In-depth genome-wide analyses suggest that Amblyrhynchus diverged from its sister group, the Galápagos land iguanas, around 4.5 million years ago (Ma), but divergence among extant populations is exceedingly young (less than 50...

Data from: ‘Venus trapped, Mars transits’: Cu and Fe redox chemistry, cellular topography and in situ ligand binding in terrestrial isopod hepatopancreas

Peter Kille, A. John Morgan, Kate Powell, J. Frederick W. Mosselmans, Daniel Hart, Paul Gunning, Anthony Hayes, Derek Scarborough, Iain Mcdonald & John M. Charnock
Woodlice efficiently sequester copper (Cu) in ‘cuprosomes’ within hepatopancreatic ‘S’ cells. Binuclear ‘B’ cells in the hepatopancreas form iron (Fe) deposits; these cells apparently undergo an apocrine secretory diurnal cycle linked to nocturnal feeding. Synchrotron-based m-focus X-ray spectroscopy undertaken on thin sections was used to characterize the ligands binding Cu and Fe in S and B cells of Oniscus asellus (Isopoda). Main findings were: (i) morphometry confirmed a diurnal B-cell apocrine cycle; (ii) X-ray fluorescence...

Clinical recommendations to guide physical therapy practice for Huntington disease

Nora Fritz, Lori Quinn, Deb Kegelmeyer, Anne Kloos, Ashwini Rao & Monica Busse
Objective In the past decade, an increasing number of studies have examined the efficacy of physical therapy interventions in people with Huntington disease (HD). Methods We performed a mixed-methods systematic review using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology and included experimental and observational study designs. The search resulted in 23 quantitative studies and 3 qualitative studies from which we extracted data using JBI standardized extraction tools. Results of this review suggested that physical therapy interventions may...

To clean or not to clean: cleaning mutualism breakdown in a tidal environment

Katie Dunkley, Ashley Ward, Sarah Perkins & Jo Cable
The dynamics and prevalence of mutualistic interactions, which are responsible for the maintenance and structuring of all ecological communities, are vulnerable to changes in abiotic and biotic environmental conditions. Mutualistic outcomes can quickly shift from cooperation to conflict, but it unclear how resilient and stable mutualistic outcomes are to more variable conditions. Tidally controlled coral atoll lagoons that experience extreme diurnal environmental shifts thus provide a model from which to test plasticity in mutualistic behavior...

Enhanced Activated Carbon with H2SO4-activation of African Maize Cobs biomass for Supercapacitor electrodes material application

Moses Kigozi, Ravi Kali, Abdulhakeem Bello, Balaji Padya, Godwin Kaulu-Uka, Gabriel N Kasozi, Pawan Kumar Jain, Azikiwe Peter Onwualu & Nelson Y Dzade
The African Maize Cobs (AMC) biomass was converted into activated carbon (AC) for electrode materials for supercapacitor application. The carbonization was carried out with concentrated sulphuric acid and the activation was done in three (3) batches using activation temperatures of 600, 700 and 800oC. The AC materials were characterized by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DSC), N2-adsorption-desorption isotherms, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Boehm titration, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS),...

Bumblebee colony density on farmland is influenced by late-summer nectar supply and garden cover

Thomas Timberlake, Ian Vaughan, Mathilde Baude & Jane Memmott
1. Floral resources are important in limiting pollinator populations, but they are often highly variable across time and space and the effect of this variation on pollinator population dynamics is not well understood. The phenology (timing) of floral resources is thought to be important in structuring pollinator populations, but few studies have directly investigated this. 2. Our study quantifies the landscape composition, seasonal nectar and pollen supply, and Bombus terrestris colony density of 12 farms...

MEDI: Macronutrient Extraction and Determination from Invertebrates, a rapid, cheap and streamlined protocol

Jordan Cuff
Macronutrients, comprising carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, underpin many ecological processes, but their quantification in ecological studies is often inaccurate and laborious, requiring large investments of time and bulk samples, which make individual-level studies impossible. This study presents MEDI (Macronutrient Extraction and Determination from Invertebrates), a protocol for the direct, rapid and relatively low-cost determination of macronutrient content from single small macroinvertebrates. Macronutrients were extracted by a sequential process of soaking in 1:12 chloroform:methanol solution to...

Ecomorphological variation in Trithemis (Odonata, Libellulidae) dragonfly wings reconsidered

Norman MacLeod, Banjamin Price & Zachary Stevens
In the analysis and interpretation of organismal morphology it is important to take a number of factors into consideration. The phylogenetic ecology of the Afro-Asian dragonfly genus Trithemis has been investigated by Damm et al. [1] and Trithemis wing ecomorphology by Outomuro et al. [2]. However, the latter study focused exclusively on a somewhat coarse sampling of forewing and hindwing outlines and reported results that were at odds in some ways with expectations given the...

Structure and in silico simulations of a cold-active esterase reveals its prime cold-adaptation mechanism - data

Nehad Noby, Husam Sabah Auhim, Samuel Winter, Harley L Worthy, Pierre J Rizkallah, Stephen A Wells & Darran Dafydd Jones
The structure was detmined of a cold active family IV esterase (EstN7) cloned from Bacillus cohnii strain N1. EstN7 is a dimer with a classical α/β hydrolase fold. It has an acidic surface that is thought to play a role in cold-adaption by retaining solvation under changed water solvent entropy at lower temperatures. The conformation of the functionally important cap region is significantly different to EstN7's closest relatives, forming a bridge-like structure with reduced helical...

3D Pointcloud of Wallasey Library

Camilla Pezzica, Giovanni Bruschi & Oriel Prizeman
Pointclouds generated using Faro® Focus 3D X130 Laser scanner processed with Faro SCENE® with Structure-From-Motion photogrammetric pointclouds created using Leica® X1 24mm F2.8 lens (35mm full frame equivalent) 12.2Mp APS-C CMOS sensor in RAW processed using Agisoft Photoscan®. Final outputs combined using Cloud Compare® and Autodesk Recap®. Surveyed as an archetypal building for the AHRC funded Shelf-Life: Reimagining the Future of Carnegie Public Libraries project 2017-21 [AH/P002587/1].

The development, design and characterisation of a scale model horizontal axis tidal turbine for dynamic load quantification - data

Matthew Allmark, Tim O'Doherty, Allan Mason-Jones, Robert Ellis, Catherine Lloyd & Carlton Byrne
The data set contains experimental data collected during towing tank testing of horizontal axis tidal turbine. The 1/20th scale tidal turbine was tested at the Kelvin Hydrodynamic Laboritory tow tank facility in Glasgow. The data sets include measurements taken from instrumentation measuring turbine loading as well as readings taken of generator/motor parameters. Furthermore, the data sets include readings of a series of capacitance ultrasonic wave probes. The data is presented as a .mat workspace. The...

3D Pointcloud of Kettering Library

Camilla Pezzica, Giovanni Bruschi, Mahdi Boughanmi & Oriel Prizeman
Pointclouds generated using Faro® Focus 3D X130 Laser scanner processed with Faro SCENE® with Structure-From-Motion photogrammetric pointclouds created using Leica® X1 24mm F2.8 lens (35mm full frame equivalent) 12.2Mp APS-C CMOS sensor in RAW processed using Agisoft Photoscan®. Final outputs combined using Cloud Compare® and Autodesk Recap®. Surveyed as an archetypal building for the AHRC funded Shelf-Life: Reimagining the Future of Carnegie Public Libraries project 2017-21 [AH/P002587/1].

3D Pointcloud of Keighley Library

Camilla Pezzica, Giovanni Bruschi, Mahdi Boughanmi & Oriel Prizeman
Pointclouds generated using Faro® Focus 3D X130 Laser scanner processed with Faro SCENE® with Structure-From-Motion photogrammetric pointclouds created using Leica® X1 24mm F2.8 lens (35mm full frame equivalent) 12.2Mp APS-C CMOS sensor in RAW processed using Agisoft Photoscan®. Final outputs combined using Cloud Compare® and Autodesk Recap®. Surveyed as an archetypal building for the AHRC funded Shelf-Life: Reimagining the Future of Carnegie Public Libraries project 2017-21 [AH/P002587/1].

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