18 Works

Soil fauna data from Sourhope field experiment site, Scotland, 2002-2003 [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

M.T. Fountain, R.S. Thomas, V.K. Brown, A.C. Gange, P.J. Murray, W.O.C. Symondson, B. Woodcock, S. Granger, V. Chapman & G. Burt-Smith
This data set includes records of soil fauna sampled from the Sourhope experimental site in July and October 2002, and April, June and October 2003. These include collembola, spiders, slugs and beetles and a range of invertebrates captured by a variety of methods. Data were collected during a project funded under the NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme. The NERC Soil Biodiversity Thematic Programme was established in 1999 and was centred upon the intensive study of a...

Data from: Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability

Carrie Andrew, Einar Heegaard, Klaus Høiland, Beatrice Senn-Irlet, Thomas W. Kuyper, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Paul M. Kirk, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Alan C. Gange, Simon Egli, Claus Bässler, Ulf Büntgen, Lynne Boddy & Håvard Kauserud
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path‐analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by...

Data from: The cost of infection: Argulus foliaceus and its impact on the swimming performance of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Alexander Stewart, Rhiannon Hunt, Valantine Muhawenimana, Catherine A.M.E. Wilson, Joseph A. Jackson & Joanne Cable
For fish, there can be multiple consequences of parasitic infections, including the physical impacts on swimming and the pathological costs of infection. This study utilised the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the ectoparasitic fish louse, Argulus foliaceus, to assess both physical (including form drag and mass) and pathological effects of infection. Both sustained (prolonged swimming within an open channel flume) and burst (C-start) swimming performance were measured on individual fish before (Trials 1-2) and after...

Data from: Population-specific genetic modification of Huntington's disease in Venezuela

Michael J. Chao, Kyung-Hee Kim, Jun Wan Shin, Diane Lucente, Vanessa C. Wheeler, Hong Li, Jared C. Roach, Leroy Hood, Nancy S. Wexler, Laura B. Jardim, Peter Holmans, Lesley Jones, Michael Orth, Seung Kwak, James F. Gusella, Marcy E. MacDonald & Jong-Min Lee
Modifiers of Mendelian disorders can provide insights into disease mechanisms and guide therapeutic strategies. A recent genome-wide association (GWA) study discovered genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease (HD) onset in Europeans. Here, we performed whole genome sequencing and GWA analysis of a Venezuelan HD cluster whose families were crucial for the original mapping of the HD gene defect. The Venezuelan HD subjects develop motor symptoms earlier than their European counterparts, implying the potential for population-specific modifiers....

Data from: Predicting the effects of parasite co-infection across species boundaries

Joanne Lello, Susan J. McClure, Kerri Tyrrell & Mark E. Viney
It is normal for hosts to be coinfected by parasites. Interactions among coinfecting species can have profound consequences, including changing parasite transmission dynamics, altering disease severity, and confounding attempts at parasite control. Despite the importance of coinfection, there is currently no way to predict how different parasite species may interact with one another, nor the consequences of those interactions. Here we demonstrate a method that enables such prediction by identifying two nematode parasite groups based...

Data from: Have Welsh agri-environment schemes delivered for focal species? Results from a comprehensive monitoring programme

Michael A. MacDonald, Ruth Angell, Trevor D. Dines, Stephen Dodd, Karen A. Haysom, Russel Hobson, Ian G. Johnstone, Vaughn Matthews, Anthony J. Morris, Rob Parry, Catharine H. Shellswell, James Skates, George M. Tordoff & Elizabeth M. Wilberforce
1. Agri-environment schemes (AES) have been criticised for being inadequately monitored and for not delivering the expected benefits to nature. Consequently, the Welsh Government funded a comprehensive programme of monitoring of Welsh AES, which took place between 2009 and 2012. The AES assessment focused primarily on Tir Gofal (which translates as “Land in Care”), but also included the Organic Farming Scheme, and monitoring focused on a range of taxa of conservation importance: arable plants, grassland...

Data from: Interspecific transfer of parasites following a range-shift in Ficedula flycatchers

William Jones, Katarzyna Kulma, Staffan Bensch, Mariusz Cichoń, Anvar Kerimov, Miloš Krist, Toni Laaksonen, Juan Moreno, Pavel Munclinger, Fred Slater, Eszter Szöllősi, Marcel E. Visser, Anna Qvarnström & Fred M. Slater
Human-induced climate change is expected to cause major biotic changes in species distributions and thereby including escalation of novel host-parasite associations. Closely related host species that come into secondary contact are especially likely to exchange parasites and pathogens. Two competing theories, the Enemy Release Hypothesis, where invading hosts escape their original parasites; and the Novel Weapon Hypothesis, where invading hosts bring new parasites that have detrimental effects on native hosts, have been described to predict...

Data from: Immunogenetic novelty confers a selective advantage in host-pathogen coevolution

Karl P. Phillips, Joanne Cable, Ryan S. Mohammed, Magdalena Herdegen-Radwan, Jaroslaw Raubic, Karolina J. Przesmycka, Cock Van Oosterhout & Jacek Radwan
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is crucial to the adaptive immune response of vertebrates and is among the most polymorphic gene families known. Its high diversity is usually attributed to selection imposed by fast-evolving pathogens. Pathogens are thought to evolve to escape recognition by common immune alleles, and, hence, novel MHC alleles, introduced through mutation, recombination, or gene flow, are predicted to give hosts superior resistance. Although this theoretical prediction underpins host–pathogen “Red Queen” coevolution,...

Mathematically modelled daily water saturation profiles for sites on the Namoi River floodplain in south-east Australia at different distances from the river

C.M. Evans, D.G. Dritschel & M.B. Singer
This dataset comprises mathematically modelled data of soil-water saturation, along vertical profiles, at 6 sites near the Namoi River, south-eastern Australia. The vertical profiles span the soil surface down to 10m deep, divided into 944 intervals. The 6 sites are located at different distances from the Namoi River and are split between 2 locations (Old Mollee and Yarral East). The distances from the river channel at each location are, Old Mollee: 50m, 140m and 320m,...

Data from: Genetic diversity and parasite facilitated establishment of the invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in Great Britain

Chloe Victoria Robinson, Carlos Garcia De Leaniz, Joanna James, Joanne Cable, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel & Sofia Consuegra
Successful establishment of non‐native species is strongly influenced, among other factors, by the genetic variation of founding populations, which can be enhanced by multiple introductions through admixture. Coexisting pathogens can also facilitate the establishment of non‐native species by detrimentally impacting on the native fauna acting as novel weapons. The signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) is a highly invasive species, which has caused mass declines of native crayfish in Europe through displacement and transmission of the oomycete...

Bacterial community structure and soil process data from a sewage sludge amended upland grassland soil experiment, 2000 [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

N.D. Gray, R.C. Hastings, S.K. Sheppard, P. Loughnane, D. Lloyd, A.J. McCarthy & I.M. Head
This set of data comprises temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) and soil process measurements, used to analyse the effects of perturbations (sludge and/or lime application) on the structure, community development and activity of bacteria that catalyse fundamental processes in upland soils. These were collected to address the following questions: Do soil improvement treatments select for particular components of bacterial populations and hence drive community development? If so, at what functional and phylogenetic level is this...

Data from: Transmission risk predicts avoidance of infected conspecifics in Trinidadian guppies

Jessica F. Stephenson, Sarah E. Perkins & Joanne Cable
1.Associating with conspecifics afflicted with infectious diseases increases the risk of becoming infected, but engaging in avoidance behaviour incurs the cost of lost social benefits. Across systems, infected individuals vary in the transmission risk they pose, so natural selection should favour risk‐sensitive avoidance behaviour that optimally balances the costs and benefits of sociality. 2.Here we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata‐Gyrodactylus turnbulli host‐parasite system to test the prediction that individuals avoid infected conspecifics in proportion to...

Data from: The choice of universal primers and the characteristics of the species mixture determines when DNA metabarcoding can be quantitative.

Josep Pinol, Miquel Angel Senar & William O. C. Symondson
DNA metabarcoding is a technique used to survey biodiversity in many ecological settings, but there are doubts about whether it can provide quantitative results, i.e. the proportions of each species in the mixture as opposed to a species list. While there are several experimental studies that report quantitative metabarcoding results, there are a similar number that fail to do so. Here we provide the rationale to understand under what circumstances the technique can be quantitative....

Data from: Supplemental food alters nest defence and incubation behaviour of an open-nesting wetland songbird

Jim O. Vafidis, Richard J. Facey, David Leech & Robert J. Thomas
Climate-driven increases in spring temperatures are expected to result in higher prey availability earlier in the breeding season for insectivorous birds breeding in wetland habitats. Predation during the incubation phase is a major cause of nesting failure in open-nesting altricial birds such as the Eurasian reed warbler. The nest predation rate in this species has recently been shown to be substantially reduced under conditions of experimentally elevated invertebrate prey availability. Food availability near the nest...

Data from: Demography and rapid local adaptation shape Creole cattle genome diversity in the tropics

Daniel Pitt, Michael W. Bruford, Mario Barbato, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Rodrigo Martinez & Natalia Sevane
The introduction of Iberian cattle in the Americas after Columbus’ arrival imposed high selection pressures on a limited number of animals over a brief period of time. Knowledge of the genomic regions selected during this process may help in enhancing climatic resilience and sustainable animal production. We first determined taurine and indicine contributions to the genomic structure of modern Creole cattle. Second, we inferred their demographic history using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), linkage disequilibrium (LD),...

Data from: Walking in a heterogeneous landscape: dispersal, gene-flow and conservation implications for the giant panda in the Qinling Mountains

Tianxiao Ma, Yibo Hu, Isa-Rita Russo, Yonggang Nie, Tianyou Yang, Lijuan Xiong, Shuai Ma, Tao Meng, Han Han, Ximing Zhang, Mike W. Bruford, Fuwen Wei, Isa-Rita M. Russo & Michael W. Bruford
Understanding the interaction between life history, demography and population genetics in threatened species is critical for the conservations of viable populations. In the context of habitat loss and fragmentation, identifying the factors that underpin the structuring of genetic variation within populations can allow conservationists to evaluate habitat quality and connectivity and help to design dispersal corridors effectively. In this study, we carried out a detailed, fine-scale landscape genetic investigation of a giant panda population for...

Data from: Contrasting evolutionary history, anthropogenic declines and genetic contact in the northern and southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)

Yoshan Moodley, Isa-Rita M. Russo, Jan Robovský, Desire Lee Dalton, Antoinette Kotze, Steve Smith, Jan Stejskal, Oliver A. Ryder, Robert Hermes, Chris Walzer & Michael W. Bruford
The white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) has a discontinuous African distribution, which is limited by the extent of sub-Saharan grasslands. The southern population (SWR) declined to its lowest number around the turn of the 19th century, but recovered to become the world’s most numerous rhinoceros. In contrast, the northern population (NWR) was common during much of the 20th century, declining rapidly since the 1970s, and now only two post-reproductive individuals remain. Despite this species’ conservation status,...

Data from: Comparing genetic diversity and demographic history in co-distributed wild South American camelids

Ciara S. Casey, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Katherine Yaya, Miranda Kadwell, Matilde Fernández, Juan Carlos Marin, Raul Rosadio, Lenin Maturrano, Domingo Hoces, Yibo Hu, Jane C. Wheeler & Michael W. Bruford
Vicuñas and guanacos are two species of wild South American camelids that are key ruminants in the ecosystems where they occur. Although closely related, these species feature differing ecologies and life history characters, which are expected to influence both their genetic diversity and population differentiation at different spatial scales. Here, using mitochondrial and microsatellite genetic markers, we show that vicuña display lower genetic diversity within populations than guanaco but exhibit more structure across their Peruvian...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    18

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    18

Affiliations

  • Cardiff University
    18
  • UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
    2
  • Zoological Society of London
    2
  • Institute of Zoology
    2
  • Welsh Government
    1
  • Massachusetts General Hospital
    1
  • University of the Free State
    1
  • Columbia University
    1
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    1
  • Moscow State University
    1