289 Works

Information Shocks, Jumps, and Price Discovery - Evidence from the U.S. Treasury Market

George Jiang, Ingrid Lo & Adrien Verdelhan
We examine large price changes, known as jumps, in the U.S. Treasury market. Using recently developed statistical tools, we identify price jumps in the 2-, 3-, 5-, 10-year notes and 30-year bond during the period of 2005-2006. Our results show that jumps mostly occur during prescheduled macroeconomic announcements or events. Nevertheless, market surprise based on preannouncement surveys is an imperfect predictor of bond price jumps. We find that a macroeconomic news announcement is often preceeded...

Data from: Population structure of a vector-borne plant parasite

Kelsey M. Yule, Jennifer A. H. Koop, Nicolas M. Alexandre, Lauren R. Johnston & Noah K. Whiteman
Parasites are among the most diverse groups of life on Earth, yet complex natural histories often preclude studies of their speciation processes. The biology of parasitic plants facilitates in situ collection of data on both genetic structure and the mechanisms responsible for that structure. Here, we studied the role of mating, dispersal and establishment in host race formation of a parasitic plant. We investigated the population genetics of a vector-borne desert mistletoe (Phoradendron californicum) across...

Data from: Selection for collective aggressiveness favors social susceptibility in social spiders

Jonathan N. Pruitt, Colin M. Wright, James L. L. Lichtenstein, Gregory T. Chism, Brendan L. McEwen, Ambika Kamath & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Particularly socially influential individuals are present in many groups, but it is unclear whether their emergence is determined by their social influence versus the social susceptibility of others. The social spider Stegodyphus dumicola shows regional variation in apparent leader-follower dynamics. We use this variation to evaluate the relative contributions of leader social influence versus follower social susceptibility in driving this social order. Using chimeric colonies that combine potential leaders and followers, we discover that leader-follower...

Data from: Allelopathy as an emergent, exploitable public good in the bloom-forming microalga Prymnesium parvum

William Wallace Driscoll, Noelle Justine Espinosa, Omar Tonsi Eldakar & Jeremiah D. Hackett
Many microbes cooperatively secrete extracellular products that favorably modify their environment. Consistent with social evolution theory, structured habitats play a role in maintaining these traits in microbial model systems, by localizing the benefits and separating strains that invest in these products from ‘cheater’ strains that benefit without paying the cost. It is thus surprising that many unicellular, well-mixed microalgal populations invest in extracellular toxins that confer ecological benefits upon the entire population, for example, by...

Data from: Bringing down the house: male widow spiders reduce the webs of aggressive females more

Nicholas DiRienzo, Charles T. Bradley, Connor A. Smith & A. Dornhaus
Theory suggests that males should adjust courtship in response to a variety of factors, including female quality, the risk of male-male competition, and often in spiders, the risk of sexual cannibalism. Male black widow spiders demonstrate a behavior during courtship whereby they tear down and bundle a female’s web in addition to providing other vibratory and contact sexual signals. This web reduction has been hypothesized to play a role in all three factors (sexual signaling,...

Data from: Potential limits to the benefits of admixture during biological invasion

Brittany S. Barker, Janelle E. Cocio, Samantha R. Anderson, Joseph E. Braasch, F. Alice Cang, Heather D. Gillette & Katrina M. Dlugosch
Species introductions often bring together genetically divergent source populations, resulting in genetic admixture. This geographic reshuffling of diversity has the potential to generate favorable new genetic combinations, facilitating the establishment and invasive spread of introduced populations. Observational support for the superior performance of admixed introductions has been mixed, however, and the broad importance of admixture to invasion questioned. Under most underlying mechanisms, admixture’s benefits should be expected to increase with greater divergence among and lower...

Data from: “Darwin’s corollary” and cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by Cardinium may contribute to speciation in Encarsia wasps (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

Marco Gebiola, Suzanne E. Kelly, Peter Hammerstein, Massimo Giorgini, Molly S. Hunter & Martha S. Hunter
The potential importance of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) – inducing bacterial symbionts in speciation of their arthropod hosts has been debated. Theoretical advances have led to a consensus that a role is plausible when CI is combined with other isolating barriers. However, the insect model systems Nasonia and Drosophila are the only two experimental examples documented. Here we analyzed the components of reproductive isolation between the parasitoid wasp Encarsia suzannae, which is infected by the CI-inducing...

Data from: Who needs 'lazy' workers? Inactive workers act as a 'reserve' labor force replacing active workers, but inactive workers are not replaced when they are removed

Daniel Charbonneau, Takao Sasaki & Anna Dornhaus
Social insect colonies are highly successful, self-organized complex systems. Surprisingly however, most social insect colonies contain large numbers of highly inactive workers. Although this may seem inefficient, it may be that inactive workers actually contribute to colony function. Indeed, the most commonly proposed explanation for inactive workers is that they form a ‘reserve’ labor force that becomes active when needed, thus helping mitigate the effects of colony workload fluctuations or worker loss. Thus, it may...

Data from: Divergence and reticulation among montane populations of a jumping spider (Habronattus pugillis Griswold)

Wayne Maddison & Michelle McMahon
Populations of the jumping spider Habronattus pugillis Griswold isolated on nearby mountain ranges in southern Arizona are differentiated in many features of the males (color, shape and orientation of setae on face, shape of carapace, markings of palpi and legs, motions during courtship behavior). These features are (mostly) consistent within a range and different between ranges. The concentration of differences to male courtship behavior and body parts exposed to the female during courtship and correlations...

Data from: Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry2Ab and survival on single-toxin and pyramided cotton in cotton bollworm from China

Laipan Liu, Meijing Gao, Song Yang, Shaoyan Liu, Yidong Wu, Yves Carrière & Yihua Yang
Evolution of Helicoverpa armigera resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton producing Cry1Ac is progressing in northern China and replacement of Cry1Ac cotton by pyramided Bt cotton has been considered to counter such resistance. Here, we investigated four of the eight conditions underlying success of the refuge strategy for delaying resistance to Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab cotton, a pyramid that has been used extensively against H. armigera outside China. Laboratory bioassays of a Cry2Ab-selected strain (An2Ab) and a related...

Data from: Evolution of viviparity: a phylogenetic test of the cold-climate hypothesis in Phrynosomatid lizards

Shea M. Lambert & John J. Wiens
The evolution of viviparity is a key life-history transition in vertebrates, but the selective forces favoring its evolution are not fully understood. With >100 origins of viviparity, squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are ideal for addressing this issue. Some evidence from field and laboratory studies supports the “cold-climate” hypothesis, wherein viviparity provides an advantage in cold environments by allowing mothers to maintain higher temperatures for developing embryos. Surprisingly, the cold-climate hypothesis has not been tested...

Data from: Reinforcement selection acting on the European house mouse hybrid zone

Barbora Vošlajerová Bimová, Miloš Macholán, Stuart J E Baird, Pavel Munclinger, Petra Dufková, Christina M Laukaitis, Robert C Karn, Kenneth Luzynski, Priscilla K Tucker & Jaroslav Piálek
Behavioural isolation may lead to complete speciation when partial postzygotic isolation acts in the presence of divergent specific mate recognition systems. These conditions exist where Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus come into contact and hybridize. We studied two mate recognition signal systems, based on urinary and salivary proteins, across a Central European portion of the mouse hybrid zone. Introgression of the genomic regions responsible for these signals: the major urinary proteins (MUPs) and...

Data from: Controls on yardang development and morphology II. Numerical modeling

Jon D. Pelletier
Here I present a set of mathematical modeling results, constrained by the results of the companion paper, aimed at improving our understanding of yardang development and controls on yardang morphology. The classic model for yardang development posits that yardangs evolve to an aspect ratio of ≈ 4 in order to minimize aerodynamic drag. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model results presented here, however, demonstrate that yardangs with an aspect ratio of 4 do not minimize drag....

Data from: Viral dark matter and virus–host interactions resolved from publicly available microbial genomes

Simon Roux, Steven J. Hallam, Tanja Woyke & Matthew B. Sullivan
The ecological importance of viruses is now widely recognized, yet our limited knowledge of viral sequence space and virus-host interactions precludes accurate prediction of their roles and impacts. Here we mined publicly available bacterial and archaeal genomic datasets to identify 12,498 high‑confidence viral genomes linked to their microbial hosts. These data augment public datasets 10-fold, provide first viral sequences for 13 new bacterial phyla including ecologically abundant phyla, and help taxonomically identify 7-38% of 'unknown'...

Data from: Disentangling competitive versus climatic drivers of tropical forest mortality

Michiel Pillet, Emilie Joetzjer, Camille Belmin, Jérôme Chave, Philippe Ciais, Aurélie Dourdain, Margaret Evans, Bruno Hérault, Sebastiaan Luyssaert & Benjamin Poulter
1. Tropical forest mortality is controlled by biotic and abiotic processes, but how these processes interact to determine forest structure is not well understood. Using long-term demography data from permanent forest plots at the Paracou Tropical Forest Research Station in French Guiana, we analyzed the relative influence of competition and climate on tree mortality. We found that self-thinning is evident at the stand level, and is associated with clumped mortality at smaller scales (< 2...

Data from: Steep clines within a highly permeable genome across a hybrid zone between two subspecies of the European rabbit

Miguel Carneiro, Stuart J. E. Baird, Sandra Afonso, Esther Ramirez, Pedro Tarroso, Henrique Teotonio, Rafael Villafuerte, Michael W. Nachman & Nuno Ferrand
Maintenance of genetic distinction in the face of gene flow is an important aspect of the speciation process. Here, we provide a detailed spatial and genetic characterization of a hybrid zone between two subspecies of the European rabbit. We examined patterns of allele frequency change for 22 markers located on the autosomes, X-chromosome, Y-chromosome, and mtDNA in 1078 individuals sampled across the hybrid zone. While some loci revealed extremely wide clines (w>=300 km) relative to...

Data from: Task-switching is associated with temporal delays in Temnothorax rugatulus ants

Gavin M. Leighton, Daniel Charbonneau & Anna Dornhaus
The major evolutionary transitions often result in reorganization of biological systems, and a component of such reorganization is that individuals within the system specialize on performing certain tasks, resulting in a division of labor. Although the traditional benefit of division of labor is thought to be a gain in work efficiency, one alternative benefit of specialization is avoiding temporal delays associated with switching tasks. While models have demonstrated that costs of task switching can drive...

Data from: A continent-scale test of multiple hypotheses on the abundances of Neotropical birds

David W. Kikuchi, Gustavo H. Kattan & Kimberly C. Navarro Velez
Explaining variation in the abundance of species remains a challenge in ecology. We sought to explain variation in abundance of Neotropical forest birds using a dataset of population densities of 596 species. We tested a priori hypotheses for the roles of species traits, environmental factors, and species interactions. Specifically, we focused on four factors: 1) body mass (trait); 2) habitat type (environmental factor), 3) net primary productivity (NPP; environmental factor); and 4) species richness of...

Data from: A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes

R. Alexander Pyron, Frank T. Burbrink & John J. Wiens
Background: The extant squamates (>9400 known species of lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse and conspicuous radiations of terrestrial vertebrates, but no studies have attempted to reconstruct a phylogeny for the group with large-scale taxon sampling. Such an estimate is invaluable for comparative evolutionary studies, and to clarify their taxonomy. Here, we present the first large-scale phylogenetic estimate for Squamata. Results: The estimated phylogeny contains 4161 species representing all currently recognized families...

Data from: Less favorable climates constrain demographic strategies in plants

Anna M. Csergo, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Olivier Broennimann, Shaun R. Coutts, Antoine Guisan, Amy L. Angert, Erik Welk, Iain Stott, Brian J. Enquist, Brian McGill, Jens-Christian Svenning, Cyrille Violle & Yvonne M. Buckley
Correlative species distribution models are based on the observed relationship between species’ occurrence and macroclimate or other environmental variables. In climates predicted less favourable populations are expected to decline, and in favourable climates they are expected to persist. However, little comparative empirical support exists for a relationship between predicted climate suitability and population performance. We found that the performance of 93 populations of 34 plant species worldwide – as measured by in situ population growth...

Data from: Bison body size and climate change

Jeff M. Martin, Jim I. Mead & Perry S. Barboza
The relationship between body size and temperature of mammals is poorly resolved, especially for large keystone species such as bison (Bison bison). Bison are well-represented in the fossil record across North America, which provides an opportunity to relate body size to climate within a species. We measured the length of a leg bone (calcaneal tuber, DstL) in 849 specimens from 60 localities that were dated by stratigraphy and 14C decay. We estimated body mass (M)...

Data from: Development of an ultra-dense genetic map of the sunflower genome

John E. Bowers, Savithri Nambeesan, Jonathan Corbi, John M. Burke, Michael S. Barker, Loren H. Rieseberg & Steven J. Knapp
The development of ultra-dense genetic maps has the potential to facilitate detailed comparative genomic analyses and whole genome sequence assemblies. Here we describe the use of a custom Affymetrix GeneChip containing nearly 2.4 million features (25 bp sequences) targeting 86,023 unigenes from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and related species to test for single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs) in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population derived from a cross between confectionery and oilseed sunflower lines (RHA280 x...

Data from: Genetic control of seed shattering during African rice domestication

Shuwei Lv, Wenguang Wu, Muhua Wang, Rachel S. Meyer, Marie-Noelle Ndjiondjop, Lubin Tan, Haiying Zhou, Jianwei Zhang, Yongcai Fu, Hongwei Cai, Chuanqing Sun, Rod A. Wing & Zuofeng Zhu
Domestication represents a unique opportunity to study the evolutionary process. The elimination of seed dispersal traits was a key step in the evolution of cereal crops under domestication. Here, we show that ObSH3, a YABBY transcription factor, is required for the development of the seed abscission layer. Moreover, selecting a genomic segment deletion containing SH3 resulted in the loss of seed dispersal in populations of African cultivated rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.). Functional characterization of SH3...

Data from: Testing the role of climate in speciation: new methods and applications to squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes)

Tereza Jezkova & John J. Wiens
Climate may play important roles in speciation, such as causing the range fragmentation that underlies allopatric speciation (through niche conservatism) or driving divergence of parapatric populations along climatic gradients (through niche divergence). Here, we developed new methods to test the frequency of climate niche conservatism and divergence in speciation, and applied it to species pairs of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). We used a large-scale phylogeny to identify 242 sister-species pairs for analysis. From these,...

Data from: Adaptive diversification of growth allometry in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

François Vasseur, Moises Exposito-Alonso, Oscar J. Ayala-Garay, George Wang, Brian J. Enquist, Denis Vile, Cyrille Violle & Detlef Weigel
Seed plants vary tremendously in size and morphology. However, variation and covariation between plant traits may at least in part be governed by universal biophysical laws and biological constants. Metabolic Scaling Theory (MST) posits that whole-organismal metabolism and growth rate are under stabilizing selection that minimizes the scaling of hydrodynamic resistance and maximizes the scaling of resource uptake. This constrains variation in physiological traits and in the rate of biomass accumulation, so that they can...

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