Data from: Phenological responsiveness to climate differs among four species of Quercus in North AmericaKatharine L. Gerst, Natalie L. Rossington & Susan J. Mazer
1.The timing of the seasonal activity of organisms is a tractable indicator of climate change. Many studies in North America have investigated the role of temperature on the onset date of phenological transitions in temperate deciduous trees and found that the onset of leafing and flowering in numerous species has occurred earlier in recent years, apparently in response to higher temperatures in winter and spring. 2.Few studies have examined the climatic and biogeographic drivers of...
Shrub communities have expanded in arctic and alpine tundra during recent decades. Changes in shrub abundance may alter ecosystem carbon (C) sequestration and storage, with potential positive or negative feedback on global C cycling. To assess potential implications of shrub expansion in different alpine plant communities, we compared C fluxes and pools in one Empetrum-dominated heath, one herb- and cryptogam-dominated meadow, and one Salix-shrub community in Central Norway. Over two growing seasons, we measured Gross...
Data from: Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processesWayne E. Thogmartin, Ruscena Wiederholt, Karen Oberhauser, Ryan G. Drum, Jay E. Diffendorfer, Sonia Altizer, Orley R. Taylor, John Pleasants, Darius Semmens, Brice Semmens, Richard Erickson, Kaitlin Libby & Laura Lopez-Hoffman
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids)....
Connecting Students and Faculty Across the Globe to Study Cross Cultural Questions
Data from: Extreme precipitation variability, forage quality and large herbivore diet selection in arid environments, Jay V. Gedir, Jason P. Marshal, Paul R. Krausman, Jamison D. Allen, Glenn C. Duff, Brian D. Jansen, John R. Morgart & James W. Cain
Nutritional ecology forms the interface between environmental variability and large herbivore behaviour, life history characteristics, and population dynamics. Forage conditions in arid and semi-arid regions are driven by unpredictable spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall. Diet selection by herbivores should be directed towards overcoming the most pressing nutritional limitation (i.e. energy, protein [nitrogen, N], moisture) within the constraints imposed by temporal and spatial variability in forage conditions. We investigated the influence of precipitation-induced shifts in...
Data from: Effects of assortative mate choice on the genomic and morphological structure of a hybrid zone between two bird subspeciesGeorgy A. Semenov, Elizabeth S.C. Scordato, David R. Khaydarov, Chris C.R. Smith, Nolan C. Kane, Rebecca J. Safran & Elizabeth S. C. Scordato
Phenotypic differentiation plays an important role in the formation and maintenance of reproductive barriers. In some cases, variation in a few key aspects of phenotype can promote and maintain divergence; hence the identification of these traits and their associations with patterns of genomic divergence are crucial for understanding the patterns and processes of population differentiation. We studied hybridization between the alba and personata subspecies of the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), and quantified divergence and introgression...
Data from: Individual differences are consistent across changes in mating status and mediated by biogenic aminesNicholas DiRienzo & Hitoshi Aonuma
Although aspects of an individual’s state are well-known to influence the expression of behavior, it is still unclear how elements of state affect consistent among-individual differences in behavior. With binary, irreversible elements of state, such as mating status, there may be optimal behavioral phenotypes before and after mating, with individuals often prioritizing mate acquisition before and resource acquisition after. Yet, limited plasticity may prevent optimal behavior in both contexts. Additionally, it remains largely unknown if...
Outcrossing and self-fertilization are fundamental strategies of sexual reproduction, each with different evolutionary costs and benefits. Self-fertilization is thought to be an evolutionary “dead-end” strategy, beneficial in the short term but costly in the long term, resulting in self-fertilizing species that occupy only the tips of phylogenetic trees. Here, we use volvocine green algae to investigate the evolution of self-fertilization. We use ancestral-state reconstructions to show that self-fertilization has repeatedly evolved from outcrossing ancestors and...
Data from: Mutation accumulation is still potentially problematic, despite declining paternal age: a comment on Arslan et al. (2017).Michael A. Woodley Of Menie, Matthew A. Sarraf & Heitor B. F. Fernandes
Icelandic mutation accumulation modelIcelandic mutation accumulation model (Ibs 0.5-0.99 and Ibs 0.35) - secondary analysis of data from Kong et al. (2012) Rate of de novo mutations and the importance of father’s age to disease risk. Nature 488, 471–475. (doi:10.1038/nature11396), Fig. 4, p.474.
In mutualistic interactions, the decision whether to cooperate or cheat depends on the relative costs and benefits of each strategy. In pollination mutualisms, secondary nectar robbing is a facultative behavior employed by a diverse array of nectar-feeding organisms, and is thought to be a form of cheating. Primary robbers create holes in floral tissue through which they feed on nectar, whereas secondary robbers, which often lack chewing mouthparts, feed on nectar through existing holes. Because...
Data from: Reproductive interference and fecundity affect competitive interactions of sibling species with low mating barriers: experimental and theoretical evidenceMarco Gebiola, Suzanne E. Kelly, Lennart Velten, Roman Zug, Peter Hammerstein, Massimo Giorgini & Martha S. Hunter
When allopatric species with incomplete prezygotic isolation come into secondary contact, the outcome of their interaction is not easily predicted. The parasitoid wasp Encarsia suzannae (iES), infected by Cardinium inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and its sibling species E. gennaroi (EG), not infected by bacterial endosymbionts, may have diverged because of the complementary action of CI and asymmetric hybrid incompatibilities. Whereas postzygotic isolation is now complete due to sterility of F1 hybrid progeny, prezygotic isolation is...
Data from: Colony-level behavioral variation correlates with differences in expression of the foraging gene in red imported fire antsAlison A. Bockoven, Craig J. Coates & Micky D. Eubanks
Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and have significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behavior at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range...
Data from: Diversification rates are more strongly related to microhabitat than climate in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes)Melissa Bars-Closel, Tiana Kohlsdorf, Daniel S. Moen & John J. Wiens
Patterns of species richness among clades can be directly explained by the ages of clades or their rates of diversification. The factors that most strongly influence diversification rates remain highly uncertain, since most studies typically consider only a single predictor variable. Here, we explore the relative impacts of macroclimate (i.e., occurring in tropical vs. temperate regions) and microhabitat use (i.e., terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal, aquatic) on diversification rates of squamate reptile clades (lizards and snakes). We...
This is the second report of the Software Preservation Network Curation-ready Software Working Group. Seven use cases of software preservation are presented in detail. The first report is linked in the Components box below.
Data from: Chaparral bird community responses to prescribed fire and shrub removal in three management seasonsErica A. Newman, Jennifer B. Potts, Morgan W. Tingley, Charles Vaughn & Scott L. Stephens
Chaparral, a type of shrubland common throughout the California Floristic Province, is subject to management and removal in regions where wildfire threatens human lives and property. Management practices include conducting prescribed burns outside of the historical fire season and employing mechanical fuel reduction (mastication). As the wildland–urban interface grows, particularly in coastal California, more of this ecosystem is subject to active management. To understand the ecological implications of current California chaparral fire management practices, we...
University of Arizona41
George Washington University5
University of California, Berkeley3
University of Oxford3
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals2
New Mexico State University2
Santa Fe Institute2
University of Colorado Boulder2
Montana State University2
Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory2