43 Works

Data from: Environmentally-induced noise dampens and reddens with increasing trophic level in a complex food web

Anna Kuparinen, Tommi Perälä, Neo D. Martinez & Fernanda S. Valdovinos
Stochastic variability of key abiotic factors including temperature, precipitation and the availability of light and nutrients greatly influences species’ ecological function and evolutionary fate. Despite such influence, ecologists have typically ignored the effect of abiotic stochasticity on the structure and dynamics of ecological networks. Here we help to fill that gap by advancing the theory of how abiotic stochasticity, in the form of environmental noise, affects the population dynamics of species within food webs. We...

Data from: Bringing down the house: male widow spiders reduce the webs of aggressive females more

Nicholas DiRienzo, Charles T. Bradley, Connor A. Smith & A. Dornhaus
Theory suggests that males should adjust courtship in response to a variety of factors, including female quality, the risk of male-male competition, and often in spiders, the risk of sexual cannibalism. Male black widow spiders demonstrate a behavior during courtship whereby they tear down and bundle a female’s web in addition to providing other vibratory and contact sexual signals. This web reduction has been hypothesized to play a role in all three factors (sexual signaling,...

Data from: Potential limits to the benefits of admixture during biological invasion

Brittany S. Barker, Janelle E. Cocio, Samantha R. Anderson, Joseph E. Braasch, F. Alice Cang, Heather D. Gillette & Katrina M. Dlugosch
Species introductions often bring together genetically divergent source populations, resulting in genetic admixture. This geographic reshuffling of diversity has the potential to generate favorable new genetic combinations, facilitating the establishment and invasive spread of introduced populations. Observational support for the superior performance of admixed introductions has been mixed, however, and the broad importance of admixture to invasion questioned. Under most underlying mechanisms, admixture’s benefits should be expected to increase with greater divergence among and lower...

Data from: Controls on yardang development and morphology II. Numerical modeling

Jon D. Pelletier
Here I present a set of mathematical modeling results, constrained by the results of the companion paper, aimed at improving our understanding of yardang development and controls on yardang morphology. The classic model for yardang development posits that yardangs evolve to an aspect ratio of ≈ 4 in order to minimize aerodynamic drag. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model results presented here, however, demonstrate that yardangs with an aspect ratio of 4 do not minimize drag....

Data from: Genetic control of seed shattering during African rice domestication

Shuwei Lv, Wenguang Wu, Muhua Wang, Rachel S. Meyer, Marie-Noelle Ndjiondjop, Lubin Tan, Haiying Zhou, Jianwei Zhang, Yongcai Fu, Hongwei Cai, Chuanqing Sun, Rod A. Wing & Zuofeng Zhu
Domestication represents a unique opportunity to study the evolutionary process. The elimination of seed dispersal traits was a key step in the evolution of cereal crops under domestication. Here, we show that ObSH3, a YABBY transcription factor, is required for the development of the seed abscission layer. Moreover, selecting a genomic segment deletion containing SH3 resulted in the loss of seed dispersal in populations of African cultivated rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.). Functional characterization of SH3...

Data from: Testing the role of climate in speciation: new methods and applications to squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes)

Tereza Jezkova & John J. Wiens
Climate may play important roles in speciation, such as causing the range fragmentation that underlies allopatric speciation (through niche conservatism) or driving divergence of parapatric populations along climatic gradients (through niche divergence). Here, we developed new methods to test the frequency of climate niche conservatism and divergence in speciation, and applied it to species pairs of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). We used a large-scale phylogeny to identify 242 sister-species pairs for analysis. From these,...

Data from: Dispersal is associated with morphological innovation, but not increased diversification, in Cyphostemma (Vitaceae)

David J. Hearn, Margaret Evans, Ben Wolf, Michael McGinty & Jun Wen
Multiple processes - including dispersal, morphological innovation, and habitat change - are frequently cited as catalysts for increased diversification. We investigate these processes and the causal linkages among them in the genus Cyphostemma (Vitaceae), a clade comprising ~200 species that is unique in the Vitaceae for its diversity of growth habits. We reconstruct time-calibrated evolutionary relationships among 64 species in the genus using five nuclear and chloroplast markers, and infer the group’s morphological and biogeographic...

Data from: Bison body size and climate change

Jeff M. Martin, Jim I. Mead & Perry S. Barboza
The relationship between body size and temperature of mammals is poorly resolved, especially for large keystone species such as bison (Bison bison). Bison are well-represented in the fossil record across North America, which provides an opportunity to relate body size to climate within a species. We measured the length of a leg bone (calcaneal tuber, DstL) in 849 specimens from 60 localities that were dated by stratigraphy and 14C decay. We estimated body mass (M)...

Data from: Adaptive diversification of growth allometry in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

François Vasseur, Moises Exposito-Alonso, Oscar J. Ayala-Garay, George Wang, Brian J. Enquist, Denis Vile, Cyrille Violle & Detlef Weigel
Seed plants vary tremendously in size and morphology. However, variation and covariation between plant traits may at least in part be governed by universal biophysical laws and biological constants. Metabolic Scaling Theory (MST) posits that whole-organismal metabolism and growth rate are under stabilizing selection that minimizes the scaling of hydrodynamic resistance and maximizes the scaling of resource uptake. This constrains variation in physiological traits and in the rate of biomass accumulation, so that they can...

Data from: A continent-scale test of multiple hypotheses on the abundances of Neotropical birds

David W. Kikuchi, Gustavo H. Kattan & Kimberly C. Navarro Velez
Explaining variation in the abundance of species remains a challenge in ecology. We sought to explain variation in abundance of Neotropical forest birds using a dataset of population densities of 596 species. We tested a priori hypotheses for the roles of species traits, environmental factors, and species interactions. Specifically, we focused on four factors: 1) body mass (trait); 2) habitat type (environmental factor), 3) net primary productivity (NPP; environmental factor); and 4) species richness of...

Data from: Infrapopulation size and mate availability influence reproductive success of a parasitic plant

Kelsey M. Yule & Judith L. Bronstein
1. Aggregated distributions of parasite individuals across host individuals are nearly ubiquitous among parasitic taxa. The size and sex ratio of the population of one parasite species infecting a single host (hereafter “infrapopulation”) can influence parasite fitness through intraspecific competition, mate availability, and the ability to attract vectors for transmission of parasite propagules. Competition for both resources and for pollen and seed vector services may limit reproductive success (pollen receipt, fruit production, and seed dispersal)...

Data from: Selection for seed size: the unexpected effects of water availability and density

Eugenio Larios & David Lawrence Venable
1. Seed size is a functional trait with important fitness consequences that potentially extend throughout the life cycle of plants. Dithyrea californica experiences selection for larger seeds in post‐germination stages but it is still uncertain how environmental factors mediate the strength and the direction of natural selection on seed size. 2. D. californica represents a unique opportunity to investigate selection on seed size in natural conditions due to a persistent seed ring that stays attached...

Data from: Bio-inspired imager improves sensitivity in near-infrared fluorescence image-guided surgery

Missael Garcia, Christopher Edmiston, Timothy York, Radoslav Marinov, Suman Mondal, Nan Zhu, Gail P. Sudlow, Walter J. Akers, Julie Margenthaler, Samuel Achilefu, Rongguang Liang, Mohamed A. Zayed, Marta Y. Pepino & Viktor Gruev
Image-guided surgery can enhance cancer treatment by decreasing, and ideally eliminating, positive tumor margins and iatrogenic damage to healthy tissue. Current state-of-the-art near-infrared fluorescence imaging systems are bulky and costly, lack sensitivity under surgical illumination, and lack co-registration accuracy between multimodal images. As a result, an overwhelming majority of physicians still rely on their unaided eyes and palpation as the primary sensing modalities for distinguishing cancerous from healthy tissue. Here we introduce an innovative design,...

Data from: A spatially explicit hierarchical model to characterize population viability

Steven P. Campbell, Erin R. Zylstra, Catherine R. Darst, Roy C. Averill-Murray & Robert J. Steidl
Many of the processes that govern the viability of animal populations vary spatially, yet population viability analyses (PVAs) that account explicitly for spatial variation are rare. We develop a PVA model that incorporates autocorrelation into the analysis of local demographic information to produce spatially explicit estimates of demography and viability at relatively fine spatial scales across a large spatial extent. We use a hierarchical, spatial autoregressive model for capture-recapture data from multiple locations to obtain...

Data from: Severity of impacts of an introduced species corresponds with regional eco-evolutionary experience

Kimberley T. Davis, Ragan M. Callaway, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Martin A Nunez, Rob W Brooker, Bruce D. Maxwell, Romina D Dimarco, Duane A Peltzer, Bill Mason, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Anne C S McIntosh, Robin J Pakeman, Alyssa Laney Smith & Michael Gundale
Invasive plant impacts vary widely across introduced ranges. We tested the hypothesis that differences in the eco-evolutionary experience of native communities with the invader correspond with the impacts of invasive species on native vegetation, with impacts increasing with ecological novelty. We compared plant species richness and composition beneath Pinus contorta to that in adjacent vegetation and other P. contorta stands across a network of sites in its native (Canada and USA) and non-native (Argentina, Chile,...

Data from: Variation in mandible development and its relationship to dependence on parents across burying beetles

Kyle M. Benowitz, Madeline E. Sparks, Elizabeth C. McKinney, Patricia J. Moore & Allen J. Moore
Background: In species with parental care, there is striking variation in offspring dependence at birth, ranging from feeding independence to complete dependency on parents for nutrition. Frequently, highly dependent offspring further evolve reductions or alterations of morphological traits that would otherwise promote self-sufficiency. Here, we examine evidence for morphological evolution associated with dependence in burying beetles (Nicrophorus spp.), in which dependence upon parents appears to have several independent origins. In many species precocial first instar...

Data from: Contemporaneous radiations of fungi and plants linked to symbiosis

François Lutzoni, Michael D. Nowak, Michael E. Alfaro, Valérie Reeb, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Michael Krug, A. Elizabeth Arnold, Louise A. Lewis, David L. Swofford, David Hibbett, Khidir Hilu, Timothy Y. James, Dietmar Quandt & Susana Magallón
Interactions between fungi and plants, including parasitism, mutualism, and saprotrophy, have been invoked as key to their respective macroevolutionary success. Here we evaluate the origins of plant-fungal symbioses and saprotrophy using a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework that reveals linked and drastic shifts in diversification rates of each kingdom. Fungal colonization of land was associated with at least two origins of terrestrial green algae and preceded embryophytes (as evidenced by losses of fungal flagellum, ca. 720 Ma),...

Data from: Extensive phenotypic diversification coexists with little genetic divergence and a lack of population structure in the White Wagtail subspecies complex (Motacilla alba)

Georgy A. Semenov, Evgeniy A. Koblik, Yaroslav A. Red'kin & Alexander V. Badyaev
Geographically clustered phenotypes often demonstrate consistent patterns in molecular markers, particularly mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) traditionally used in phylogeographic studies. However distinct evolutionary trajectories among traits and markers can lead to their discordance. First, geographic structure in phenotypic traits and nuclear molecular markers can be co-aligned but inconsistent with mtDNA (mito-nuclear discordance). Alternatively, phenotypic variation can have little to do with patterns in neither mtDNA nor nuclear markers. Disentangling between these distinct patterns can provide insight...

Data from: Experimental warming in the field delays phenology and reduces body mass and survival: implications for the persistence of a pollinator under climate change

Paul J. CaraDonna, James L. Cunningham & Amy M. Iler
1. Climate change is rapidly altering thermal environments across the globe. The effects of increased temperatures in already warm environments may be particularly strong because organisms are likely to be near their thermal safety margins, with limited tolerance to additional heat stress. 2. We conduct an in situ field experiment over two years to investigate the direct effects of temperature on an early-season solitary bee in a warm, arid region of the Southwestern USA. Our...

Data from: Explaining the ocean’s richest biodiversity hotspot and global patterns of fish diversity

Elizabeth Christina Miller, Kenji T. Hayashi, Dongyuan Song & John J. Wiens
For most marine organisms, species richness peaks in the Central Indo-Pacific region and declines longitudinally, a striking pattern that remains poorly understood. Here, we used phylogenetic approaches to address the causes of richness patterns among global marine regions, comparing the relative importance of colonization time, number of colonization events, and diversification rates (speciation minus extinction). We estimated regional richness using distributional data for almost all percomorph fishes (17,435 species total, including ~72% of all marine...

Data from: Colour plasticity alters thermoregulatory behaviour in Battus philenor caterpillars by modifying the cue received

Matthew E. Nielsen, Eran Levin, Goggy Davidowitz & Daniel R. Papaj
Behaviour is an important way for animals to rapidly respond to changes in their current environment; however, over extended periods animals can also respond to environmental change via slower, developmental plasticity in other traits. This developmental plasticity could itself alter the animal's behaviour in two ways: it could change the state of the aspect of the animal's current environment that induces the behaviour (the cue), or it could change the physiology underlying production of that...

Data from: Predictable gene expression related to behavioral variation in parenting

Kyle M. Benowitz, Elizabeth C. McKinney, Christopher B. Cunningham & Allen J. Moore
Differential gene expression has been associated with transitions between behavioral states for a wide variety of organisms and behaviors. Heterochrony, genetic toolkits, and predictable pathways underlying behavioral transitions have been hypothesized to explain the relationship between transcription and behavioral changes. Less studied is how variation in transcription is related to variation within a behavior, and if the genes that are associated with this variation are predictable. Here we adopt an evolutionary systems biology perspective to...

Data from: Does biological intimacy shape ecological network structure? A test using a brood pollination mutualism on continental and oceanic islands

David H. Hembry, Rafael L. G. Raimundo, Erica A. Newman, Lesje Atkinson, Chang Guo, & Rosemary G. Gillespie
Biological intimacy—the degree of physical proximity or integration of partner taxa during their life cycles—is thought to promote the evolution of reciprocal specialization and modularity in the networks formed by co‐occurring mutualistic species, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested. Here, we test this “biological intimacy hypothesis” by comparing the network architecture of brood pollination mutualisms, in which specialized insects are simultaneously parasites (as larvae) and pollinators (as adults) of their host plants to that...

Data from: Genome-wide analysis of SNPs is consistent with no domestic dog ancestry in the endangered Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi)

Robert R. Fitak, Sarah E. Rinkevich & Melanie Culver
The Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was historically distributed throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Extensive predator removal campaigns during the early 20th century, however, resulted in its eventual extirpation by the mid 1980s. At this time, the Mexican wolf existed only in three separate captive lineages (McBride, Ghost Ranch, and Aragón) descended from three, two, and two founders, respectively. These lineages were merged in 1995 to increase the available genetic variation,...

Data from: Age‐dependent leaf physiology and consequences for crown‐scale carbon uptake during the dry season in an Amazon evergreen forest

Loren P. Albert, Jin Wu, Neill Prohaska, Plinio Barbosa De Camargo, Travis E. Huxman, Edgard S. Tribuzy, Valeriy Y. Ivanov, Rafael S. Oliveira, Sabrina Garcia, Marielle N. Smith, Raimundo Cosme Oliveira Junior, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Rodrigo Da Silva, Scott C. Stark, Giordane A. Martins, Deliane V. Penha & Scott R. Saleska
* Satellite and tower-based metrics of forest-scale photosynthesis generally increase with dry season progression across central Amazônia, but the underlying mechanisms lack consensus. * We conducted demographic surveys of leaf age composition, and measured age-dependence of leaf physiology in broadleaf canopy trees of abundant species at a central eastern Amazon site. Using a novel leaf-to-branch scaling approach, we used this data to independently test the much-debated hypothesis—arising from satellite and tower-based observations—that leaf phenology could...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Arizona
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • Virginia Tech
  • University of Sao Paulo
  • University of California Los Angeles
  • University of Kansas
  • Duke University
  • University of Georgia
  • National Institute for Environmental Studies
  • Arizona State University