21 Works

Data from: Does body size predict the buzz-pollination frequencies used by bees?

Paul A De Luca, Stephen L Buchmann, Candace Galen, Andrew C Mason & Mario Vallejo-Marín
Body size is an important trait linking pollinators and plants. Morphological matching between pollinators and plants is thought to reinforce pollinator fidelity, as the correct fit ensures that both parties benefit from the interaction. We investigated the influence of body size in a specialized pollination system (buzz‐pollination) where bees vibrate flowers to release pollen concealed within poricidal stamens. Specifically, we explored how body size influences the frequency of buzz‐pollination vibrations. Body size is expected to...

The implications of lineage-specific rates for divergence time estimation

Tom Carruthers, Michael J Sanderson & Robert W Scotland
Rate variation adds considerable complexity to divergence time estimation in molecular phylogenies. Here, we evaluate the impact of lineage-specific rates—which we define as among-branch-rate-variation that acts consistently across the entire genome. We compare its impact to residual rates—defined as among-branch-rate-variation that shows a different pattern of rate variation at each sampled locus, and gene-specific rates—defined as variation in the average rate across all branches at each sampled locus. We show that lineage-specific rates lead to...

Data from: Using a continuum model to decipher the mechanics of embryonic tissue spreading from time-lapse image sequences: an approximate Bayesian computation approach

Tracy L. Stepien, Holley E. Lynch, Shirley X. Yancey, Laura Dempsey & Lance A. Davidson
Advanced imaging techniques generate large datasets that are capable of describing the structure and kinematics of tissue spreading in embryonic development, wound healing, and the progression of many diseases. Information in these datasets can be integrated with mathematical models to infer important biomechanical properties of the system. Standard computational tools for estimating relevant parameters rely on methods such as gradient descent and typically identify a single set of optimal parameters for a single experiment. These...

Data from: When one phenotype is not enough - divergent evolutionary trajectories govern venom variation in a widespread rattlesnake species

Giulia Zancolli, Juan J. Calvete, Michael D. Cardwell, Harry W. Greene, William K. Hayes, Matthew J. Hegarty, Hans-Werner Herrmann, Andrew T. Holycross, Dominic I. Lannutti, John F. Mulley, Libia Sanz, Zachary D. Travis, Joshua R. Whorley, Catharine E. Wüster & Wolfgang Wuster
Understanding the origin and maintenance of phenotypic variation, particularly across a continuous spatial distribution, represents a key challenge in evolutionary biology. For this, animal venoms represent ideal study systems: they are complex, variable, yet easily quantifiable molecular phenotypes with a clear function. Rattlesnakes display tremendous variation in their venom composition, mostly through strongly dichotomous venom strategies, which may even coexist within single species. Here, through dense, widespread population-level sampling of the Mojave rattlesnake, Crotalus scutulatus,...

Recent responses to climate change reveal the drivers of species extinction and survival

Cristian Román-Palacios & John Wiens
Climate change may be a major threat to biodiversity in the next 100 years. Although there has been important work on mechanisms of decline in some species, it generally remains unclear which changes in climate actually cause extinctions, and how many species will likely be lost. Here we identify the specific changes in climate that are associated with the widespread local extinctions that have already occurred. We then use this information to predict the extent...

Data from: Soil organic carbon stability in forests: distinct effects of tree species identity and traits

Gerrit Angst, Kevin E. Mueller, David M. Eissenstat, Susan Trumbore, Katherine H. Freeman, Sarah E. Hobbie, Jon Chorover, Jacek Oleksyn, Peter B. Reich & Carsten W. Mueller
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased interest in the potential for forest ecosystems and soils to act as carbon (C) sinks. While soil organic C contents often vary with tree species identity, little is known about if, and how, tree species influence the stability of C in soil. Using a 40‐year‐old common garden experiment with replicated plots of eleven temperate tree species, we investigated relationships between soil organic matter (SOM) stability in mineral soils and...

Data from: Does an early spring indicate an early summer? relationships between intra-seasonal growing degree day thresholds

Michael Crimmins & Theresa Crimmins
Spring heat accumulation plays a major role in the timing of events such as leaf-out, leaf expansion, flowering, and insect hatch in temperate systems. Accordingly, heat accumulation can serve as a proxy for the timing of plant and insect phenological activity and can be used in a predictive way when the timing of heat accumulation thresholds being reached can be anticipated. This has strong value for a host of planning and management applications. If relationships...

Public sharing of medical advice using social media: an analysis of Twitter

Gondy Leroy, Philip Harber & Debra Revere

Data from: Expansion history and environmental suitability shape effective population size in a plant invasion

Joseph Braasch, Brittany S. Barker & Katrina M. Dlugosch
The margins of an expanding range are predicted to be challenging environments for adaptation. Marginal populations should often experience low effective population sizes (Ne) where genetic drift is high due to demographic expansion and/or census population size is low due to unfavorable environmental conditions. Nevertheless, invasive species demonstrate increasing evidence of rapid evolution and potential adaptation to novel environments encountered during colonization, calling into question whether significant reductions in Ne are realized during range expansions...

Data from: Implications of non-native species for mutualistic network resistance and resilience

Clare E. Aslan
Resilience theory aims to understand and predict ecosystem state changes resulting from disturbances. Non-native species are ubiquitous in ecological communities and integrated into many described ecological interaction networks, including mutualisms. By altering the fitness landscape and rewiring species interactions, such network invasion may carry important implications for ecosystem resistance and resilience under continued environmental change. Here, I hypothesize that the tendency of established non-native species to be generalists may make them more likely than natives...

Data from: An enigmatic new ungulate-like mammal from the early Eocene of India

Shawn Zack, Kenneth Rose, Luke Holbrook, Kishor Kumar, Rajendra Rana & Thierry Smith
We report on a new genus and species of herbivorous mammal, Pahelia mysteriosa, from the early Eocene Cambay Shale Formation, Tadkeshwar Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India. The new taxon, approximately the size of a small phenacodontid (e.g., Ectocion parvus), is represented by three mandibular fragments, the most complete of which documents nearly the entire symphysis and mandibular body plus P3-M3. Pahelia has incipiently selenolophodont molars with strong exodaenodonty, absent paraconids, weak but distinct entolophids, and prominent...

Data from: Increased soil temperature and decreased precipitation during early life stages constrain grass seedling recruitment in cold desert restoration

Jeremy J. James, Roger Sheley, Elizabeth Leger, Peter B. Adler, Stuart Hardegree, Elise Gornish & Matt Rinella
1. Seed-based restoration is one of the most difficult challenges for dryland restoration. Identifying environmental conditions that drive variation in seed and seedling mortality across similar restoration efforts could increase understanding of when and where restoration outcomes are likely to be favorable and identify new tools and strategies to improve outcomes. 2. We asked how variation in a suite of environmental predictors influenced germination, emergence, seedling establishment, and juvenile survival of four commonly sown perennial...

Why are there so many flowering plants? A multi-scale analysis of plant diversification

John Wiens & Tania Hernandez
The causes of the rapid diversification and extraordinary richness of flowering plants (angiosperms) relative to other plant clades is a long-standing mystery. Angiosperms are only one among 10 major land plant clades (phyla), but include ~90% of land plant species. However, most studies that have tried to identify which traits might explain the remarkable diversification of angiosperms have focused only on richness patterns within angiosperms, and tested only one or a few traits at a...

Data from: Climate change, extinction, and Sky Island biogeography in a montane lizard

John J. Wiens, Agustin Camacho, Aaron Goldberg, Tereza Jezkova, Matthew E. Kaplan, Shea M. Lambert, Elizabeth C. Miller, Jeffrey W. Streicher & Ramona L. Walls
Around the world, many species are confined to “Sky Islands,” with different populations in isolated patches of montane habitat. How does this pattern arise? One scenario is that montane species were widespread in lowlands when climates were cooler, and were isolated by local extinction caused by warming conditions. This scenario implies that many montane species may be highly susceptible to anthropogenic warming. Here, we test this scenario in a montane lizard (Sceloporus jarrovii) from the...

Data from: Scrutinizing assortative mating in birds

Daiping Wang, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Mihai Valcu, Niels Dingemanse, Martin Bulla, Christiaan Both, Renée A. Duckworth, Lynna Marie Kiere, Patrik Karell, Tomáš Albrecht & Bart Kempenaers
It is often claimed that pair bonds preferentially form between individuals that resemble one another. Such assortative mating appears to be widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Yet it is unclear whether the apparent ubiquity of assortative mating arises primarily from mate choice (‘like attracts like’) which can be constrained by same-sex competition for mates, from spatial or temporal separation, or from observer, reporting, publication or search bias. Here, based on a conventional literature search, we...

Data from: Experimental removals reveal dietary niche partitioning facilitates coexistence between native and introduced species

Jonathan J. Derbridge & John L. Koprowski
Niche overlap between native species and ecologically similar invaders can lead to competitive exclusion of threatened native species, but if two such species also co‐occur naturally elsewhere, interactions between native and introduced populations may mirror coevolved niche partitioning that reduces competition and promotes coexistence. A single, insular population of Fremont’s squirrel (Tamiasciurus fremonti) the Mount Graham red squirrel (MGRS; T. f. grahamensis) in the Pinaleño Mountains, Arizona, USA, is critically endangered and resource competition with...

Data from: GATA2 controls lymphatic endothelial cell junctional integrity and lymphovenous valve morphogenesis through miR-126

, Xin Geng, YenChun Ho, Boksik Cha, Yuenhee Kim, Jing Ma, Lijuan Chen, Greggory Myers, Sally Camper, Debbie Mustacich, Marlys Witte, Dongwon Choi, Young-Kwon Hong, Hong Chen, Gaurav Varshney, James D Engel, Shusheng Wang, Tae-Hoon Kim, Kim-Chew Lim & Sathish Srinivasan
Mutations in the transcription factor GATA2 cause lymphedema. GATA2 is necessary for the development of lymphatic valves (LVs) and lymphovenous valves (LVVs), and for the patterning of lymphatic vessels. Here, we report that GATA2 is not necessary for valvular endothelial cell (VEC) differentiation. Instead, GATA2 is required for VEC maintenance and morphogenesis. GATA2 is also necessary for the expression of cell junction molecules VE-Cadherin and Claudin5 in lymphatic vessels. We identified miR-126 as a target...

Data from: Temperature shapes opposing latitudinal gradients of plant taxonomic and phylogenetic β diversity

Ian R. McFadden, Brody Sandel, Constantinos Tsirogiannis, Naia Morueta-Holme, Jens-Christian Svenning, Brian J. Enquist & Nathan J. B. Kraft
Latitudinal and elevational richness gradients have received much attention from ecologists but there is little consensus on underlying causes. One possible proximate cause is increased levels of species turnover, or β diversity, in the tropics compared to temperate regions. Here, we leverage a large botanical dataset to map taxonomic and phylogenetic β diversity, as mean turnover between neighboring 100 × 100 km cells, across the Americas and determine key climatic drivers. We find taxonomic and...

Data from: Mie scattering and microparticle based characterization of heavy metal ions and classification by statistical inference methods

Katherine Klug, Christian Jennings, Nicholas Lytal, Lingling An & Jeong-Yeol Yoon
A straightforward method for classifying heavy metal ions in water is proposed using statistical classification and clustering techniques from non-specific microparticle scattering data. A set of carboxylated polystyrene microparticles of sizes 0.91 μm, 0.75 μm, and 0.40 μm were mixed with the solutions of nine heavy metal ions and two control cations and scattering measurements were collected at two angles optimized for scattering from non-aggregated and aggregated particles. Classification of these observations was conducted and...

Variation in the production of plant tissues bearing extrafloral nectaries explains temporal patterns of ant attendance in Amazonian understory plants

Anselmo Nogueira, Fabricio Baccaro, Laura Leal, Pedro Rey, Lúcia Lohmann & Judith Bronstein
1. Information on direct and indirect drivers of temporal variation in ant-plant interactions is scarce, compromising our ability to predict the functioning of these ecologically important interactions. 2. We investigated the roles of precipitation, ant activity, abundance of young plant tissues bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), and EFN phenotypes in the establishment of EFN-mediated ant-plant interactions throughout the year in Amazonia, Brazil. We hypothesized that the frequency of ant-plant interactions follows a predictable seasonal pattern, being...

Temperature and fluid pressurization effects on frictional stability of shale faults reactivated by hydraulic fracturing in the Changning Block, Southwest China

Mengke An, Fengshou Zhang, Zhaowei Chen, Derek Elsworth & Lianyang Zhang
A shale fault reactivated during multi-stage hydraulic fracturing in the Changning block in the Sichuan Basin, southwest China accompanied a cluster of small earthquakes with the largest reaching ML ~0.8. We illuminate the underlying mechanisms of fault reactivation through measurements of frictional properties on simulated fault gouge under hydrothermal conditions. Velocity-stepping experiments were performed at a confining pressure of 60 MPa, temperatures from 30 to 300 ℃, pore fluid pressures from 10 to 55 MPa...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • University of Arizona
  • University of Sao Paulo
  • Pennsylvania State University
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • Cleveland State University
  • Bangor University
  • University of Washington
  • Boston Children's Hospital
  • Utah State University
  • Seattle Central College