301 Works

Data from: Coupled land use and ecological models reveal emergence and feedbacks in socio‐ecological systems

Nicholas W. Synes, Calum Brown, Stephen C. F. Palmer, Greta Bocedi, Patrick E. Osborne, Kevin Watts, Janet Franklin & Justin M. J. Travis
Understanding the dynamics of socio‐ecological systems is crucial to the development of environmentally sustainable practices. Models of social or ecological sub‐systems have greatly enhanced such understanding, but at the risk of obscuring important feedbacks and emergent effects. Integrated modelling approaches have the potential to address this shortcoming by explicitly representing linked socio‐ecological dynamics. We developed a socio‐ecological system model by coupling an existing agent‐based model of land‐use dynamics and an individual‐based model of demography and...

Data from: Population genomics of natural and experimental populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

Bonnie A. Fraser, Axel Künstner, David N. Reznick, Christine Dreyer & Detlef Weigel
Convergent evolution represents one of the best lines of evidence for adaptation, but few cases of phenotypic convergence are understood at the genetic level. Guppies inhabiting the Northern Mountain Range of Trinidad provide a classic example of phenotypic convergent evolution, where adaptation to low or high predation environments has been found for a variety of traits. A major advantage of this system is the possibility of long-term experimental studies in nature, including transplantation from high...

Data from: Replicated origin of female biased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

Jeffrey D. Arendt, David N. Reznick & Andres López-Sepulcre
There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size which affects population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However a...

Data from: Pathogen shifts in a honey bee predator following arrival of the Varroa mite

Kevin J. Loope, James W. Baty, Phil J. Lester & Erin E. Wilson Rankin
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a global threat to honey bees, and spillover from managed bees threaten wider insect populations. Deformed wing virus (DWV), a widespread virus that has become emergent in conjunction with the spread of the mite Varroa destructor, is thought to be partly responsible for global colony losses. The arrival of Varroa in honey bee populations causes a dramatic loss of viral genotypic diversity, favoring a few virulent strains. Here, we investigate...

Data from: The costs of being dark: the genetic basis of melanism and its association with fitness-related traits in the sand cricket

Derek A. Roff & Daphne J. Fairbairn
Melanism is an important component of insect cuticle and serves numerous functions that enhance fitness. Despite its importance, there is little information on its genetic basis or its phenotypic and genetic correlation with fitness-related traits. Here, we examine the heritability of melanism in the wing dimorphic sand cricket and determine its phenotypic and genetic correlation with wing morphology, gonad mass and size of the dorso-longitudinal muscles (the principle flight muscles). Previously demonstrated trade-offs among these...

Data from: The phenotypic correlates and quantitative genetics of masculinization in the rodent, Octodon degus

Derek A. Roff, Matthew E. Wolak, Loreto A. Correa & Mauricio Soto-Gamboa
In some mammals female characteristics have been shown to depend in part on the intrauterine position during development of female fetuses relative to male fetuses. Females developing in close proximity to males show behavioural, physiological and life history characteristics that are masculinized. With the exception of one inconclusive study, nothing is known of the genetic basis of this phenomenon. In this paper we reported an analysis of the quantitative genetic basis of masculinization, as indicated...

Data from: A test of the hypothesis that correlational selection generates genetic correlations

Derek A. Roff & Daphne J. Fairbairn
Theory predicts that correlational selection on two traits will cause the major axis of the bivariate G matrix to orient itself in the same direction as the correlational selection gradient. Two testable predictions follow from this: for a given pair of traits (1) the sign of correlational selection gradient should be the same as that of the genetic correlation, and (2) the correlational selection gradient should be positively correlated with the value of the genetic...

Data from: Ecological and phylogenetic variability in the spinalis muscle of snakes

Jessica L. Tingle, Gabriel E.A. Gartner, Bruce C. Jayne, , G. E. A. Gartner & T. Garland
Understanding the origin and maintenance of functionally important subordinate traits is a major goal of evolutionary physiologists and ecomorphologists. Within the confines of a limbless body plan, snakes are diverse in terms of body size and ecology, but we know little about the functional traits that underlie this diversity. We used a phylogenetically diverse group of 131 snake species to examine associations between habitat use, sidewinding locomotion, and constriction behavior with the number of body...

Data from: Predicting the response to simultaneous selection: genetic architecture and physiological constraints

Goggy Davidowitz, H. Frederik Nijhout & Derek A. Roff
A great deal is known about the evolutionary significance of body size and development time. They are determined by the non-linear interaction of three physiological traits: two hormonal events and growth rate. In this study we investigate how the genetic architecture of the underlying three physiological traits affects the simultaneous response to selection on the two life history traits in the hawk moth Manduca sexta. The genetic architecture suggests that when the two life history...

Data from: Non-uniform evolutionary response of gecko eye size to changes in diel activity patterns

Lars Schmitz & Timothy E. Higham
Geckos feature a large range of eye sizes, but what drives this phenotypic diversity is currently unknown. Earlier studies point towards diel activity patterns (DAP) and locomotory mode, but phylogenetic comparative studies in support of the proposed adaptive mode of eye evolution are lacking. Here we test the hypothesis of DAP as the driver of eye size evolution with a dataset on 99 species of gecko. Results from phylogenetic generalized least square analysis (PGLS) and...

Data from: Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the placenta of the live-bearing fish Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae)

Tamara M Panhuis, Gina Broitman-Maduro, Jarrod Uhrig, Morris Maduro & David N Reznick
Matrotrophic fish in the genus Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae) have a placenta-like structure used in post-fertilization maternal provisioning of the developing embryo. To understand better the structure and function of the Poeciliopsis placenta we derived cDNA libraries from the maternal follicular placenta of two matrotrophic Poeciliopsis sister species, P. turneri and P. presidionis. These species inherited their placenta from a common ancestor and represent one of three independent origins of placentas in Poeciliopsis. Expressed sequence tags were...

Data from: Diversity-dependent evolutionary rates in early Paleozoic zooplankton

Michael Foote, Roger A. Cooper, James S. Crampton & Peter M. Sadler
The extent to which biological diversity affects rates of diversification is central to understanding macroevolutionary dynamics, yet no consensus has emerged on the importance of diversity-dependence of evolutionary rates. Here we analyse the species-level fossil record of early Paleozoic graptoloids, documented with high temporal resolution, to test directly whether rates of diversification were influenced by levels of standing diversity within this major clade of marine zooplankton. To circumvent the statistical regression-to-the-mean artefact, whereby higher- and...

Fire emissions data before and after peatland restoration, Indonesia, 2004-2015

L. Kiely, D.V. Spracklen & C. Wiedinmyer
This dataset contains fire emissions from Equatorial Asia for the years 2004, 2006, 2009, 2012, 2014 and 2015. The data is based on the Fire Inventory from National Center for Atmospheric Research with the addition of emissions from Indonesian peat fires, which contribute substantially to fire emissions in the region. The files for each year contain daily information on the area burned and emissions of several species, including CO, CO2 and PM2.5. Data is given...

Holy Fire Headwater Sediment Dynamics, Santa Ana Mts, CA - Leach Canyon TLS U-075 PS01 SV01

Andrew Gray, Nicolas Barth & James Guilinger

Holy Fire Headwater Sediment Dynamics, Santa Ana Mts, CA - Leach Canyon SfM U-075 PS01 SV06

Andrew Gray, Nicolas Barth & James James Guilinger

Data from: Predation-associated differences in sex-linkage of wild guppy coloration

Swanne Pamela Gordon, Andrés López-Sepulcre & David N Reznick
Evolutionary theory predicts that the sex-linkage of sexually selected traits can influence the direction and rate of evolutionary change, and also itself be subject to selection. Theory abounds on how sex-specific selection, mate choice, or other phenomena should favor different types of sex-linked inheritance, yet evidence in nature remains limited. Here we use hormone assays in Trinidadian guppies to explore the extent to which linkage of male coloration differs among populations adapted to varying predation...

Data from: Organization of biogeochemical nitrogen pathways with switch-like adjustment in fluctuating soil redox conditions

Sanjay Lamba, Soumen Bera, Mubasher Rashid, Alexander B. Medvinsky, Gui-Quan Sun, Claudia Acquisti, Amit Chakraborty & Bai-Lian Li
Nitrogen is cycled throughout ecosystems by a suite of biogeochemical processes. The high complexity of the nitrogen cycle resides in an intricate interplay between reversible biochemical pathways alternatively and specifically activated in response to diverse environmental cues. Despite aggressive research, how the fundamental nitrogen biochemical processes are assembled and maintained in fluctuating soil redox conditions remains elusive. Here, we address this question using a kinetic modelling approach coupled with dynamical systems theory and microbial genomics....

Data from: Post-fire recovery in coastal sage scrub: seed rain and community trajectory

Erin Conlisk, Rebecca Swab, Alejandra Martínez-Berdeja & Matthew P. Daugherty
Disturbance is a primary mechanism structuring ecological communities. However, human activity has the potential to alter the frequency and intensity of natural disturbance regimes, with subsequent effects on ecosystem processes. In Southern California, human development has led to increased fire frequency close to urban areas that can form a positive feedback with invasive plant spread. Understanding how abiotic and biotic factors structure post-fire plant communities is a critical component of post-fire management and restoration. In...

Data from: Crossing the uncrossable: novel trans-valley biogeographic patterns revealed in the genetic history of low dispersal mygalomorph spiders (Antrodiaetidae, Antrodiaetus) from California

Marshal Hedin, James Starrett & Cheryl Hayashi
Antrodiaetus riversi is a dispersal-limited, habitat specialized mygalomorph spider species endemic to mesic woodlands of northern and central California. Here we build upon prior phylogeographic research using a much larger geographic sample and include additional nuclear genes, providing more detailed biogeographic insights throughout the range of this complex. Of particular interest is the uncovering of unexpected and replicated trans-valley biogeographic patterns, where in two separate genetic clades western haplotypes in the California south Coast Ranges...

Data from: Early consequences of allopolyploidy alter floral evolution in Nicotiana (Solanaceae)

Elizabeth W. McCarthy, Jacob B. Landis, Amelda Kurti, Amber J. Lawhorn, Mark W. Chase, Sandra Knapp, Steven C. Le Comber, Andrew R. Leitch & Amy Litt
Background: Polyploidy has played a major role in angiosperm evolution. Previous studies have examined polyploid phenotypes in comparison to their extant progenitors, but not in context of predicted progenitor phenotypes at allopolyploid origin. In addition, differences in the trends of polyploid versus diploid evolution have not been investigated. We use ancestral character-state reconstructions to estimate progenitor phenotype at allopolyploid origin to determine patterns of polyploid evolution leading to morphology of the extant species. We also...

#BlackWomenAtWork

Bergis Jules
The hashtag #BlackWomenAtWork began trending following Fox News host Bill O'Reilly's sexist and racist comment about California Congresswoman's Maxine Water's hair on March 28th, 2017and White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer's remarks to journalist April Ryan during press briefing on the same day. The hashtag began trending after Brittany Packnett used it in this set of tweets where she asked black women to tweet about their experiences: https://twitter.com/mspackyetti/status/846811002670854145

I Voted For Trump

Bergis Jules
The phrase "I Voted For Trump" began trending on Twitter on August, 17th, 2017. It includes tweets from supporters and opponents of President Donald Trump. This collection contains 140,000 tweet ids. The tweet ids were collected using the DocNow tweet collection prototype tool: http://app.docnow.io/ The tweet ids can be turned back into the original tweets using the DocNow tweet hydration tool: https://github.com/docnow/hydrator#readme

Data from: Cascading effects of mammalian herbivores on ground-dwelling arthropods: variable responses across arthropod groups, habitats and years

Eric M. Cecil, Marko J. Spasojevic & J. Hall Cushman
1. Large mammalian herbivores are well known to shape the structure and function of ecosystems worldwide and these effects can in turn cascade through systems to indirectly influence other animal species. A wealth of studies have explored the effects of large mammals on arthropods, but to date they have reported such widely varying results that generalizations have been elusive. Three factors are likely drivers of this variability: the widely varying life-history characteristics of different arthropod...

Data from: Convergent evolution of alternative developmental trajectories associated with diapause in African and South American killifish

Andrew I. Furness, David N. Reznick, Mark S. Springer & Robert W. Meredith
Annual killifish adapted to life in seasonally ephemeral water-bodies exhibit desiccation resistant eggs that can undergo diapause, a period of developmental arrest, enabling them to traverse the otherwise inhospitable dry season. Environmental cues that potentially indicate the season can govern whether eggs enter a stage of diapause mid-way through development or skip this diapause and instead undergo direct development. We report, based on construction of a supermatrix phylogenetic tree of the order Cyprinodontiformes and a...

#Blackwomanhood

Bergis Jules
The #blackwomanhood Twitter chat took place on May 10th, 2018. It was a discussion around the syllabus for the Black Womanhood course taught by Martha Jones and Jessica Marie Johnson at Johns Hopkins University. http://dh.jmjafrx.com/2018/01/27/black-womanhood-the-syllabus/

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