13 Works

Data from: Population genomics of natural and experimental populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

Bonnie A. Fraser, Axel Künstner, David N. Reznick, Christine Dreyer & Detlef Weigel
Convergent evolution represents one of the best lines of evidence for adaptation, but few cases of phenotypic convergence are understood at the genetic level. Guppies inhabiting the Northern Mountain Range of Trinidad provide a classic example of phenotypic convergent evolution, where adaptation to low or high predation environments has been found for a variety of traits. A major advantage of this system is the possibility of long-term experimental studies in nature, including transplantation from high...

Data from: Replicated origin of female biased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

Jeffrey D. Arendt, David N. Reznick & Andres López-Sepulcre
There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size which affects population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However a...

Data from: Convergent evolution of alternative developmental trajectories associated with diapause in African and South American killifish

Andrew I. Furness, David N. Reznick, Mark S. Springer & Robert W. Meredith
Annual killifish adapted to life in seasonally ephemeral water-bodies exhibit desiccation resistant eggs that can undergo diapause, a period of developmental arrest, enabling them to traverse the otherwise inhospitable dry season. Environmental cues that potentially indicate the season can govern whether eggs enter a stage of diapause mid-way through development or skip this diapause and instead undergo direct development. We report, based on construction of a supermatrix phylogenetic tree of the order Cyprinodontiformes and a...

Data from: Subdigital adhesive pad morphology varies in relation to structural habitat use in the Namib Day Gecko, Rhoptropus afer

Clint E. Collins, Anthony P. Russell & Timothy E. Higham
1. Morphological features that lead to increased locomotor performance, such as faster sprint speed, are thought to evolve in concert with habitat use. The latter depends on available habitat structure, and how the animal moves within that habitat. Thus, this behavioral variation will impact how natural selection acts on locomotion and morphology. 2. Quantifying the interplay between escape behavior and locomotor morphology across habitats that vary in structural composition could reveal how selection acts on...

Data from: Passively stuck: death does not affect gecko adhesion strength

William J. Stewart & Timothy E. Higham
Many geckos use adhesive toe pads on the bottom of their digits to attach to surfaces with remarkable strength. Although gecko adhesion has been studied for hundreds of years, gaps exist in our understanding at the whole-animal level. It remains unclear whether the strength and maintenance of adhesion are determined by the animal or are passively intrinsic to the system. Here we show, for the first time, that strong adhesion is produced passively at the...

Data from: Why get big in the cold? Size-fecundity relationships explain the temperature-size rule in a pulmonate snail (Physa)

Jeffrey D. Arendt & J. Arendt
Most ectotherms follow a pattern of size plasticity known as the temperature-size rule where individuals reared in cold environments are larger at maturation than those reared in warm environments. This pattern seems maladaptive because growth is slower in the cold so it takes longer to reach a large size. However, it may be adaptive if reaching a large size has a greater benefit in a cold than in a warm environment such as when size-dependent...

Data from: Geckos significantly alter foot orientation to facilitate adhesion during downhill locomotion

Aleksandra V. Birn-Jeffery & Timothy E. Higham
Geckos employ their adhesive system when moving up an incline, but the directionality of the system may limit function on downhill surfaces. Here, we use a generalist gecko to test whether limb modulation occurs on downhill slopes to allow geckos to take advantage of their adhesive system. We examined three-dimensional limb kinematics for geckos moving up and down a 45° slope. Remarkably, the hind limbs were rotated posteriorly on declines, resulting in digit III of...

Data from: Modelled three-dimensional suction accuracy predicts prey capture success in three species of centrarchid fishes

Emily A. Kane & Timothy E. Higham
Prey capture is critical for survival, and differences in correctly positioning and timing a strike (accuracy) are likely related to variation in capture success. However, an ability to quantify accuracy under natural conditions, particularly for fishes, is lacking. We developed a predictive model of suction hydrodynamics and applied it to natural behaviours using three-dimensional kinematics of three centrarchid fishes capturing evasive and non-evasive prey. A spheroid ingested volume of water (IVW) with dimensions predicted by...

Data from: The guantitative genetics of sexually selected traits, preferred traits and preference: a review and analysis of the data

Alexandra Y. Prokuda & Derek A. Roff
The maintenance of variation in sexually selected traits is a puzzle that has received increasing attention in the past several decades. Traits that are related to fitness, such as life-history or sexually selected traits, are expected to have low additive genetic variance (and hence, heritability) due to the rapid fixation of advantageous alleles. However, previous analyses have suggested that the heritabilities of sexually selected traits are on average higher than nonsexually selected traits. We show...

Data from: Species delimitation in the ground beetle subgenus Liocosmius (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidion), including standard and next-generation sequencing of museum specimens

David R. Maddison & Kenneth W. Cooper
The species of subgenus Liocosmius Casey of genus Bembidion Latreille are delimited and documented using DNA sequences from eight genes, morphological data, and geography. The subgenus consists of six known species, three of which are described as new: Bembidion orion Cooper and Maddison (California), B. darlingtonielum Cooper and Maddison (California), and B. cooperi Maddison (New Mexico and Arizona). The group ranges from British Columbia south to Baja California, and east to Colorado and New Mexico,...

Data from: Context-dependent changes in motor control and kinematics during locomotion: modulation and decoupling

Kathleen L. Foster & Timothy E. Higham
Successful locomotion through complex, heterogeneous environments requires the muscles that power locomotion to function effectively under a wide variety of conditions. Although considerable data exist on how animals modulate both kinematics and motor pattern when confronted with orientation (i.e. incline) demands, little is known about the modulation of muscle function in response to changes in structural demands like substrate diameter, compliance and texture. Here, we used high-speed videography and electromyography to examine how substrate incline...

Data from: Shape-shift: semicircular canal morphology responds to selective breeding for increased locomotor activity

Heidi Schutz, Heather A. Jamniczky, Benedikt Hallgrímsson, & Theodore Garland
Variation in semicircular canal morphology correlates with locomotor agility among species of mammals. An experimental evolutionary mouse model was used to test the hypotheses that semicircular canal morphology (1) evolves in response to selective breeding for increased locomotor activity, (2) exhibits phenotypic plasticity in response to early-onset chronic exercise, and (3) is unique in individuals possessing the minimuscle phenotype. We examined responses in canal morphology to prolonged wheel access and selection in laboratory mice from...

Data from: Population size-structure dependent fitness and ecosystem consequences in Trinidadian guppies

Ronald D. Bassar, , Michael C. Marshall, Steven A. Thomas, Alexander S. Flecker, David N. Reznick & Thomas Heatherly
1. Decades of theory and recent empirical results have shown that evolutionary, population, community and ecosystem properties are the result of feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. The vast majority of theory and empirical research on these eco-evolutionary feedbacks has focused on interactions among population size and mean traits of populations. 2. However, numbers and mean traits represent only a fraction of the possible feedback dimensions. Populations of many organisms consist of different size classes...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of California, Riverside
  • University of Calgary
  • University of California System
  • University of Georgia
  • Oregon State University
  • Montclair State University
  • Pacific Lutheran University
  • Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
  • University of Nebraska - Lincoln
  • Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology