62 Works

Gardener demographics, experience, and motivations drive differences in plant species richness and composition in urban gardens

Stacy Philpott, Monika Egerer, Peter Bichier, Hamutahl Cohen, Roseann Cohen, Heidi Liere, Shalene Jha & Brenda Lin
Urban agriculture has received considerable attention for its role in supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services, and health and well-being for growing urban populations. Urban gardens managed with agroecological practices and higher plant diversity support more biodiversity and may support higher crop production. Plant selection in gardens is a function of temperature and environmental conditions and also depends on gardener socio-demographic characteristics, motivations for gardening, and gardening experience. In this study, we examined how plant richness...

No state change in pelagic fish production and biodiversity during the Eocene-Oligocene Transition

Elizabeth Sibert, Michelle Zill, Ella Frigyik & Richard Norris
The Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) boundary ~33.9 million years ago, has been described as a state change in the Earth system marked by the permanent glaciation of Antarctica and a proposed increase in oceanic productivity. Here we quantified the response of fish production and biodiversity to this event using microfossil fish teeth (ichthyoliths) in seven deep-sea sediment cores from around the world. Ichthyolith accumulation rate (a proxy for fish biomass production) shows no synchronous trends across the...

An ancient and eroded social supergene is widespread across Formica ants

Alan Brelsford, Jessica Purcell, Amaury Avril, Patrick Tran Van, Junxia Zhang, Timothée Brütsch, Liselotte Sundström, Heikki Helanterä & Michel Chapuisat
Supergenes, clusters of tightly linked genes, play a key role in the evolution of complex adaptive variation. While supergenes have been identified in many species, we lack an understanding of their origin, evolution and persistence. Here, we uncover 20-40 MY of evolutionary history of a supergene associated with polymorphic social organization in Formica ants. We show that five Formica species exhibit homologous divergent haplotypes spanning 11 Mbp on chromosome 3. Despite the size of the...

Data from: Rapid evolution and plasticity of genitalia

E. Dale Broder, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Corey A. Handelsman, Emily W. Ruell, David N. Reznick & Lisa M. Angeloni
Genital morphology exhibits tremendous variation and is intimately linked with fitness. Sexual selection, nonmating natural selection, and neutral forces have been explored as potential drivers of genital divergence. Though less explored, genitalia may also be plastic in response to the developmental environment. In poeciliid fishes, the length of the male intromittent organ, the gonopodium, may be driven by sexual selection if longer gonopodia attract females or aid in forced copulation attempts, or by nonmating natural...

Development of the early Cambrian oryctocephalid trilobite Oryctocarella duyunensis from western Hunan, China

Tao Dai, Nigel Hughes, Xingliang Zhang & Shanchi Peng
Abundant articulated specimens of the oryctocarine trilobite Oryctocarella duyunensis from the lower Cambrian (Stage 4, Series 2) Balang Formation at the Bulin section in western Hunan Province, South China, permit the description of all meraspid degrees. The maximum number of thoracic segments observed in this collection is 11. Meraspid growth was accompanied by progressive and gradual change in overall form, and this animal showed an homonomously segmented trunk with variation in the number of pygidial...

Holy Fire Headwater Sediment Dynamics, Santa Ana Mts, CA - Leach Canyon TLS U-075 PS01 SV01

Andrew Gray, Nicolas Barth & James Guilinger

Data for differential feeding responses of several bee species to sugar sources containing Iridomyrmecin, an Argentine ant trail pheromone component

Erin Wilson Rankin, Jacob Cecala, Dong-Hwan Choe & Nohely Hernandez Pineda
These data describe the bioassays associated with published article, doi: 10.1007/s10905-020-09748-8 (Differential Feeding Responses of Several Bee Species to Sugar Sources Containing Iridomyrmecin, an Argentine Ant Trail Pheromone Component). We investigated the response of three commercially important pollinator species to a pheromone deposited by Argentine ants at a food source. The Argentine ant Linepithema humile is one of the most invasive and problematic ant species; it has been introduced to Mediterranean-type habitats around the globe....

California grid electrical energy storage requirements for select renewables integration and fleet electrification scenarios

Arun S.K. Raju & Alexander Vu
Significant electrification of the transportation sector is necessary for the State to achieve several important greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and renewable energy targets. The State’s electricity generation and transmission capabilities must increase in order to meet the demand generated by increasing levels of fleet electrification. The increased demand, combined with the Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) targets will require significantly increased energy storage capabilities that can accommodate demand while integrating renewable power sources into the grid....

Holy Fire Headwater Sediment Dynamics, Santa Ana Mts, CA - Leach Canyon SfM U-075 PS01 SV06

Andrew Gray, Nicolas Barth & James James Guilinger

Environment shapes the microbiome of the Blue Orchard Bee, Osmia lignaria

Hamutahl Cohen
Wild bees encounter and collect environmental microbes whilst foraging. While environmental context affects bee diversity, little is known about it how affects the wild bee microbiome. We used field surveys in 17 urban gardens to examine whether and how variation in local and landscape habitat features shapes the microbiome of the solitary Blue Orchard Bee, Osmia lignaria. We installed O. lignaria cocoons at each site, allowed bees to emerge and forage, then collected them. We...

Data from: Floral bagging differentially affects handling behaviors and single-visit pollen deposition by honey bees and native bees

Jacob Cecala, Pierre Lau & Joan Leong
Measurements of pollinator performance are crucial to pollination studies, enabling researchers to quantify the relative value of different pollinator species to plant reproduction. One of the most widely employed measures of pollinator performance is single-visit pollen deposition, the number of conspecific pollen grains deposited to a stigma after one pollinator visit. To ensure a pollen-free stigma, experimenters must first bag flowers before exposing them to a pollinator. Bagging flowers, however, may unintentionally manipulate floral characteristics...

Social context, but not individual personality, alters immigrant viability in a spider with mixed social structure

Jessica Purcell, Spencer Ingley, Jonathan Pruitt & Inon Scharf
Immigrant viability is a major determinant of the realized rate of gene flow across populations. For social organisms, the social context in which immigrants disperse across contrasting environments may have important implications for their viability post dispersal. Here, we use social spiders whose individual personalities as well as group personality compositions vary across sites to test whether the strength of selection against immigrants (i.e. mortality rates) differs depending on whether spiders are transplanted (1) as...

Data from: Mark-recapture experiments reveal foraging behavior and plant fidelity of native bees in plant nurseries

Jacob Cecala & Erin Wilson Rankin
Understanding the spatial and temporal foraging patterns of pollinators is essential to conserving these organisms in human‐modified landscapes, such as agroecosystems (Cranmer et al. 2011). Particularly, understanding foraging fidelity (i.e., returns to a particular plant species or area) is crucial for providing supportive habitats. Numerous approaches have been used to discern the movement and foraging of individual bees (reviewed by Mola and Williams 2019), ranging from highly technological to more traditional methods like mark–release–recapture experiments....

Data from: Estimating egg mass-body mass relationships in birds

John Rotenberry & Priya Balasubramaniam
The mass of a bird’s egg is a critical attribute of the species’ life history and represents a fundamental component of reproductive effort. Indeed, the trade-off between the number of eggs in a clutch and clutch mass lies at the heart of understanding how environmental attributes such as nest predation or adult mortality influence reproductive investment. However, egg masses have not been reported for the majority of avian species. We capitalized on the strong allometric...

Subspecies differentiation in an enigmatic chaparral shrub species

Yi Huang, Glen Morrison & Amy Litt
Delimiting biodiversity units is difficult in organisms in which differentiation is obscured by hybridization, plasticity, and other factors that blur phenotypic boundaries. Such work is more complicated when the focal units are subspecies, the definition of which has not been broadly explored in the era of modern genetic methods. Eastwood manzanita (Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw.) is a widely distributed and morphologically complex chaparral shrub species with much subspecific variation that has proven challenging to categorize. Currently...

Holy Fire Headwater Sediment Dynamics, Santa Ana Mts, CA - Leach Canyon SfM U-075 PS01 SV08

Andrew Gray, Nicolas Barth & James Guilinger

Role of endogenous and exogenous attention in task-relevant visual perceptual learning

Kieu N. Nguyen, Takeo Watanabe & George J. Andersen
The present study examined the role of exogenous and endogenous attention in task relevant visual perceptual learning (TR-VPL). VPL performance was assessed by examining the learning to a trained stimulus feature and transfer of learning to an untrained stimulus feature. To assess the differential role of attention in VPL, two types of attentional cues were manipulated; exogenous and endogenous. In order to assess the effectiveness of the attentional cue, the two types of attentional cues...

Species complex diversification by host plant use in an herbivorous insect: The source of Puerto Rican cactus mealybug pest and implications for biological control

Daniel Poveda-Martínez, María Aguirre, Guillermo Logarzo, Stephen D. Hight, Serguei Triapitsyn, Hilda Diaz-Soltero, Marcelo Vitorino & Esteban Hasson
Cryptic taxa have often been observed in the form of host‐associated species that diverged as the result of adaptation to alternate host plants. Untangling cryptic diversity in species complexes that encompass invasive species is a mandatory task for pest management. Moreover, investigating the evolutionary history of a species complex may help to understand the drivers of their diversification. The mealybug Hypogeococcus pungens was believed to be a polyphagous species from South America and has been...

Data from: Environmental change, if unaccounted, prevents detection of cryptic evolution in a wild population

Tomos Potter, Ronald D. Bassar, Paul Bentzen, Emily W. Ruell, Julián Torres-Dowdall, Corey A. Handelsman, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Joseph Travis, David N. Reznick & Tim Coulson
Detecting contemporary evolution requires demonstrating that genetic change has occurred. Mixed-effects models allow estimation of quantitative genetic parameters and are widely used to study evolution in wild populations. However, predictions of evolution based on these parameters frequently fail to match observations. Furthermore, such studies often lack an independent measure of evolutionary change against which to verify predictions. Here, we applied three commonly used quantitative genetic approaches to predict the evolution of size at maturity in...

Holy Fire Headwater Sediment Dynamics, Santa Ana Mts, CA - Leach Canyon TLS U-075 PS01 SV07

Andrew Gray, Nicolas Barth & James Guilinger

Holy Fire Headwater Sediment Dynamics, Santa Ana Mts, CA - Leach Canyon TLS U-075 PS01 SV05

Andrew Gray, Nicolas Barth & James Guilinger

Oahu windward beaches microplastics survey

Janet Franklin
We report microplastic densities on windward beaches of Oahu, Hawai`i, USA. Microplastic densities, surveyed on six Oahu beaches, were highest on the beaches with the coarsest sands, associated with high wave energy. On those beaches, densities were very high (700-1700 particles m-2), as high as those recorded on other remote island beaches worldwide.

Pigmentation Genes Show Evidence of Repeated Divergence and Multiple Bouts of Introgression in Setophaga Warblers

David Toews, Marcella Baiz, Andrew Wood, Alan Brelsford & Irby Lovette
Species radiations have long served as model systems in evolutionary biology. However, it has only recently become possible to study the genetic bases of the traits responsible for diversification, and only in a small number of model systems. Here we use genomes of 36 species of North, Central, and South American warblers to highlight the role of pigmentation genes—involved in melanin and carotenoid processing—in the diversification of this group. We show that agouti signaling protein...

Data from: Experimental study of species invasion – early population dynamics and role of disturbance in invasion success

David Reznick, Sebastiano De Bona, Andres Lopez-Sepulcre, Mauricio Torres, Ronald Bassar, Paul Bentzen & Joseph Travis
Much of our understanding of natural invasions is retrospective, based on data acquired after invaders become established. As a consequence, we know little about the characteristics of the early population growth and habitat use of the invaders during establishment. Here we report on experimental introductions of guppies into natural streams in which we conducted monthly censuses of each population. Two of the four introductions were in streams with thinned canopies, which mimics a common form...

Data from: Recurrent mutualism breakdown events in a legume rhizobia metapopulation

Joel Sachs, Kelsey Gano-Cohen, Camille Wendlandt, Khadija Al Moussawi, Peter Stokes, Kenjiro Quides, Alexandra Weisberg & Jeff Chang
Bacterial mutualists generate major fitness benefits for eukaryotes, reshaping the host phenotype and its interactions with the environment. Yet microbial mutualist populations are predicted to generate mutants that defect from providing costly services to hosts while maintaining the capacity to exploit host resources. Here, we examined the mutualist service of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a metapopulation of root-nodulating Bradyrhizobium spp. that associate with the native legume Acmispon strigosus. We quantified mutualism traits of 85 Bradyrhizobium...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    62

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    56
  • Model
    5
  • Text
    1

Affiliations

  • University of California, Riverside
    62
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    3
  • Imperial College London
    3
  • University of California, Irvine
    3
  • Cornell University
    3
  • University of Montana
    2
  • University of California, Merced
    2
  • University of California, San Diego
    2
  • Dalhousie University
    2
  • San Diego State University
    2