162 Works

Data from: Is computer-assisted instruction more effective than other educational methods in achieving ECG competence amongst medical students and residents? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Charle Viljoen, Rob Scott Millar, Mark Engel, Mary Shelton & Vanessa Burch
Objectives It remains unclear whether computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is more effective than other teaching methods in acquiring and retaining ECG competence amongst medical students and residents. Design This systematic review and meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Data sources Electronic literature searches of PubMed, databases via EBSCOhost, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and grey literature were conducted on 28 November 2017. We subsequently reviewed the citation indexes...

Data from: Senescence in the city: exploring ageing patterns of a long‐lived raptor across an urban gradient

Petra Sumasgutner, Ann Koeslag & Arjun Amar
In many vertebrates, productivity and survival usually increase with age and then start to decline above a certain age; processes known as reproductive and actuarial senescence. Senescence is widely believed to be driven by the accumulation of somatic damage or mutations. Thus, levels of such cellular damage, and therefore senescence could, in theory, differ between different habitats if they experience different stressors. Urban environments expose animals to a wide range of stressors that pose a...

Can time-to-detection models with fewer survey replicates provide a robust alternative to traditional site-occupancy models?

Dominic Henry, Alan Lee & Res Altwegg
Occupancy models are widely used in ecology because they explicitly separate the observation and state processes and hence account for imperfect species detection. Traditional occupancy models that record detection/non-detection (DND) of a species typically rely on either spatial or temporal survey replication to estimate model parameters. Recording the time until a species is first encountered after starting a survey is often possible with little extra effort and such time-to-detection (TTD) surveys may be more efficient...

Foraging in a dynamic environment: response of four sympatric sub-Antarctic albatross species to interannual environmental variability

Tegan Carpenter-Kling, Ryan Reisinger, Florian Orgeret, Maelle Connan, Kim Stevens, Peter Ryan, Azwianewi Makhado & Pierre Pistorius
Seasonal and annual climate variations are linked to fluctuations in the abundance and distribution of resources, posing a significant challenge to animals that need to adjust their foraging behaviour accordingly. Particularly during adverse conditions, and while energetically constrained when breeding, animals ideally need to be flexible in their foraging behaviour. Such behavioural plasticity may separate ‘winners’ from ‘losers’ in light of rapid environmental changes due to climate change. Here, the foraging behaviour of four sub-Antarctic...

Data from: Species Selection Regime and Phylogenetic Tree Shape

George Verboom, Florian Boucher, David Ackerly, Lara Wootton & William Freyman
Species selection, the effect of heritable traits in generating between-lineage diversification rate differences, provides a valuable conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between traits, diversification and phylogenetic tree shape. An important challenge, however, is that the nature of real diversification landscapes – curves or surfaces which describe the propensity of species-level lineages to diversify as a function of one or more traits – remains poorly understood. Here we present a novel, time-stratified extension of the...

Data from: Disruptive viability selection on a black plumage trait associated with dominance

Paul Acker, Arnaud Grégoire, Margaux Rat, Claire N. Spottiswoode, René E. Van Dijk, Matthieu Paquet, Jennifer C. Kaden, Roger Pradel, Ben J. Hatchwell, Rita Covas & Claire Doutrelant
Traits used in communication, such as colour signals, are expected to have positive consequences for reproductive success, but their associations with survival are little understood. Previous studies have mainly investigated linear relationships between signals and survival, but both hump-shaped and U-shaped relationships can also be predicted, depending on the main costs involved in trait expression. Furthermore, few studies have taken the plasticity of signals into account in viability selection analyses. The relationship between signal expression...

Data from: Interspecific signalling between mutualists: food-thieving drongos use a cooperative sentinel call to manipulate foraging partners

Bruce D. Baigrie, Alex M. Thomspon & Tom P. Flower
Interspecific communication is common in nature, particularly between mutualists. However, whether signals evolved for communication with other species, or are in fact conspecific signals eavesdropped upon by partners, is often unclear. Fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) associate with mixed-species groups and often produce true alarms at predators, whereupon associating species flee to cover, but also false alarms to steal associating species' food (kleptoparasitism). Despite such deception, associating species respond to drongo non-alarm calls by increasing their...

Data from: Bottom-up effects of a no-take zone on endangered penguin demographics

Richard B. Sherley, Henning Winker, Res Altwegg, Carl D. Van Der Lingen, Stephen C. Votier & Robert J. M. Crawford
Marine no-take zones can have positive impacts for target species and are increasingly important management tools. However, whether they indirectly benefit higher order predators remains unclear. The endangered African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) depends on commercially exploited forage fish. We examined how chick survival responded to an experimental 3-year fishery closure around Robben Island, South Africa, controlling for variation in prey biomass and fishery catches. Chick survival increased by 18% when the closure was initiated, which...

Data from: The Victoria West: earliest prepared core technology in the Acheulean at Canteen Kopje and implications for the cognitive evolution of early hominids

Hao Li, Kathleen Kuman, Matt G. Lotter, George M. Leader & Ryan J. Gibbon
Prepared core technology illustrates in-depth planning and the presence of a mental template during the core reduction process. This technology is, therefore, a significant indicator in studying the evolution of abstract thought and the cognitive abilities of hominids. Here, we report on Victoria West cores excavated from the Canteen Kopje site in central South Africa, with a preliminary age estimate of approximately 1 Ma (million years ago) for these cores. Technological analysis shows that the...

Data from: Changing patterns of cataract services in North-West Nigeria: 2005–2016

Nasiru Muhammad, Muhammad D. Adamu, Mpyet Caleb, Nuhu Mohammed Maishanu, Aliyu M. Jabo, Muhammad M. Rabiu, Covadonga Bascaran, Sunday Isiyaku & Allen Foster
Purpose This study was conducted to assess the impact of the eye care programme on cataract blindness and cataract surgical services in Sokoto, Nigeria over a 12 year period 2005-2016. Methods Data from the 2005 population based cross-sectional study of blindness in Sokoto state was re-analysed to obtain baseline estimates of the prevalence of cataract blindness and cataract surgical coverage for persons 50 years and over in Wurno health zone. A population based survey of...

Data from: Cats, connectivity and conservation: incorporating datasets and integrating scales for wildlife management

Ross T. Pitman, Julien Fattebert, Samual T. Williams, Kathryn S. Williams, Russell A. Hill, Luke T. B. Hunter, Hugh Robinson, John Power, Lourens Swanepoel, Rob Slotow & Guy A. Balme
Understanding resource selection and quantifying habitat connectivity are fundamental to conservation planning for both land-use and species management plans. However, datasets available to management authorities for resource selection and connectivity analyses are often highly limited and fragmentary. As a result, measuring connectivity is challenging, and often poorly integrated within conservation planning and wildlife management. To exacerbate the challenge, scale-dependent resource use makes inference across scales problematic, resource use is often modelled in areas where the...

Data from: Woody encroachment over 70 years in South African savannas: overgrazing, global change or extinction aftershock?

Nicola Stevens, Barend Erasmus, Sally Archibald & William Bond
Woody encroachment in “open” biomes like grasslands and savannas is occurring globally.Both local and global drivers, including elevated CO2, have been implicated in these increases. The relative importance of different processes is unresolved as there are few multisite, multi land-use, evaluations of woody plant encroachment. We measured 70 years of woody cover changes over a 1020km2 area covering four land uses (commercial ranching, conservation with elephants, conservation without elephants and communal rangelands) across a rainfall...

Data from: The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: an assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods

Mana Dembo, Davorka Radovčić, Heather M. Garvin, Myra F. Laird, Lauren Schroeder, Jill E. Scott, Juliet Brophy, Rebecca R. Ackermann, Charles M. Musiba, Darryl J. De Ruiter, Arne Ø. Mooers, Mark Collard & Chares M. Musiba
Homo naledi is a recently discovered species of fossil hominin from South Africa. A considerable amount is already known about H. naledi but some important questions remain unanswered. Here we report a study that addressed two of them: “Where does H. naledi fit in the hominin evolutionary tree?” and “How old is it?” We used a large supermatrix of craniodental characters for both early and late hominin species and Bayesian phylogenetic techniques to carry out...

Data from: Coupled range dynamics of brood parasites and their hosts responding to climate and vegetation changes

Guillaume Péron, Res Altwegg, Gabriel A. Jamie & Claire N. Spottiswoode
As populations shift their ranges in response to global change, local species assemblages can change, setting the stage for new ecological interactions, community equilibria, and evolutionary responses. Here we focus on the range dynamics of four avian brood parasite species and their hosts in southern Africa, in a context of bush encroachment (increase in woody vegetation density in places previously occupied by savanna-grassland mosaics) favouring some species at the expense of others. We first tested...

Data from: Climate change leads to increasing population density and impacts of a key island invader

Greg T.W. McClelland, Res Altwegg, Rudi J. Van Aarde, Sam Ferreira, Alan E. Burger, Steven L. Chown & Gregory T. W. McClelland
The considerable threats of invasive rodents to island biodiversity are likely to be compounded by climate change. Forecasts for such interactions have been most pronounced for the Southern Ocean islands where ameliorating conditions are expected to decrease thermal and resource restrictions on rodents. Firm evidence for changing rodent populations in response to climate change, and demonstrations of associated impacts on the terrestrial environment, are nonetheless entirely absent for the region. Using data collected over three...

Data from: Phylogenetic diversity and coevolutionary signals among trophic levels change across a habitat edge

Guadalupe Peralta, Carol M. Frost, Raphael K. Didham, Arvind Varsani & Jason M. Tylianakis
1. Incorporating the evolutionary history of species into community ecology enhances understanding of community composition, ecosystem functioning and responses to environmental changes. 2. Phylogenetic history might partly explain the impact of fragmentation and land-use change on assemblages of interacting organisms, and even determine potential cascading effects across trophic levels. However, it remains unclear whether phylogenetic diversity of basal resources is reflected at higher trophic levels in the food web. In particular, phylogenetic determinants of community...

Data from: Biophysical models reveal the relative importance of transporter proteins and impermeant anions in chloride homeostasis

Kira Michaela Düsterwald, Christopher Brian Currin, Richard Joseph Burman, Colin J. Akerman, Alan R. Kay & Joseph Valentino Raimondo
Fast synaptic inhibition in the nervous system depends on the transmembrane flux of Cl- ions based on the neuronal Cl- driving force. Established theories regarding the determinants of Cl- driving force have recently been questioned. Here we present biophysical models of Cl- homeostasis using the pump-leak model. Using numerical and novel analytic solutions, we demonstrate that the Na+/K+-ATPase, ion conductances, impermeant anions, electrodiffusion, water fluxes and cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) play roles in setting the Cl-...

Data from: Sex-specific patterns of reproductive senescence in a long-lived reintroduced raptor

Megan Murgatroyd, Staffan Roos, Richard Evans, Alex Sansom, D. Philip Whitfield, David Sexton, Robin Reid, Justin Grant & Arjun Amar
1) For many species there is evidence that breeding performance changes as an individual ages. In iteroparous species, breeding performance often increases through early-life and is expected to level out or even decline (senesce) later in life. Furthermore, an individual’s sex and conditions experienced in early-life can affect breeding performance and how this changes with age. 2) Long-term monitoring of individuals from reintroduced populations can provide unique opportunities to explore age-related trends in breeding performance...

Data from: Microgeographic socio-genetic structure of an African cooperative breeding passerine revealed: integrating behavioural and genetic data.

Ângela M Ribeiro, Penn Lloyd, Kevin A Feldheim & Rauri C K Bowie
Dispersal can be motivated by multiple factors including sociality. Dispersal behaviour affects population genetic structure that in turn reinforces social organization. We combined observational information with individual-based genetic data in the Karoo scrub-robin, a facultative cooperatively breeding bird, to understand how social bonds within familial groups affect mating patterns, cause sex asymmetry in dispersal behavior and ultimately influence the evolution of dispersal. Our results revealed that males and females do not have symmetrical roles in...

Data from: Extending ecological niche models to the past 120 000 years corroborates the lack of strong phylogeographic structure in the Crested Drongo (Dicrurus forficatus forficatus) on Madagascar

Jérôme Fuchs, Juan L. Parra, Steven M. Goodman, Marie Jeanne Raherilalao, Jeremy Vanderwal & Rauri C. K. Bowie
We conduct a phylogeographic study of the Crested Drongo (Dicrurus forficatus forficatus), a broadly distributed bird species on Madagascar. We first determined the demographic and spatial pattern inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear data, and then compared these results with predictions from a present to 0.120-Myr-old reconstruction of the spatial dynamics of the range of D. f. forficatus on Madagascar, enabling putative areas of stability (lineage persistence) to be detected. Weak genetic structure along an east–west...

Data from: The influence of fledgling location on adult provisioning: a test of the blackmail hypothesis

Alex M. Thompson, Nichola J. Raihani, Philip A. R. Hockey, Adam Britton, Fiona M. Finch & Amanda R. Ridley
One theory to explain the existence of conspicuous solicitation is that it is a way for young to ‘blackmail’ care-givers into provisioning them, by threatening their own destruction. Fledgling birds offer a unique opportunity to investigate the ‘blackmail theory’, as their mobility enables them to influence the predation risk they face. We investigated a novel solicitation behaviour in fledgling pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), where fledglings use their location to influence provisioning rates. We show that...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Data from: TAPBPR mediates peptide dissociation from MHC class I using a leucine lever

F. Tudor Ilca, Andreas Neerincx, Clemens Hermann, Ana Marcu, Stefan Stevanović, Janet E. Deane & Louise H. Boyle
Tapasin and TAPBPR are known to perform peptide editing on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules, however, the precise molecular mechanism(s) involved in this process remain largely enigmatic. Here, using immunopeptidomics in combination with novel cell-based assays that assess TAPBPR-mediate peptide exchange, we reveal a critical role for the K22-D35 loop of TAPBPR in mediating peptide exchange on MHC I. We identify a specific leucine within this loop that enables TAPBPR to facilitate...

Survey of Jewish South Africans 2005

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  • University of Cape Town
  • University of Cambridge
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of Pretoria
  • Stellenbosch University
  • South African National Biodiversity Institute
  • Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
  • Nelson Mandela University
  • Panthera Corporation
  • University of KwaZulu-Natal