164 Works

Consuming Urban Poverty Survey 2016-2017

Surplus People Project Survey 1980-1981

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Post Apartheid Labour Market Series 1993-2019

Andrew Kerr

Survey of Jewish South Africans

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Range-wide population viability analyses reveal high sensitivity to wildflower harvesting in extreme environments

Martina Treurnicht, Frank Schurr, Jasper Slingsby, Karen Esler & Joern Pagel
The ecological effects of harvesting from wild populations are often uncertain, especially since the sensitivity of populations to harvesting can vary across species’ geographical ranges. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR, South Africa) biodiversity hotspot, wildflower harvesting is widespread and economically important, providing an income to many rural communities. However, with very few species studied to date, and without considering range-wide sensitivity to harvesting, there is limited information available to ensure the sustainability of wildflower...

Irradiations at the High-Energy Neutron Facility at iThemba LABS

A. Buffler, G. Reitz, S. Röttger, F. D. Smit & F. Wissmann
Abstract: Secondary high-energy neutrons are produced when high-energy particles (of several GeV) interact with matter as it is the case for cosmic radiation impinging on the Earth’s atmosphere, during ion-beam therapy or on shielding at high-energy particle accelerators. Especially, after traversing a large amount of matter, the residual neutron energy spectrum exhibits two energy regions which mainly contribute to the total ambient dose equivalent: around 1 MeV (evaporation peak) and around 100 MeV. Particle detectors...

Gambia Tobacco Survey 2017

Mongolia Illicit Cigarette Data 2017-2018.

Georgia Tobacco Survey 2017

OHS-LFS Consistent Series Weights 1994-2007

Nicola Branson

Employers and Self Employed Series 2001-2013

Data from: A tight balance between natural selection and gene flow in a southern African arid-zone endemic bird

Ângela Maria Ribeiro, Penn Lloyd & Rauri C. K. Bowie
Gene flow is traditionally thought to be antagonistic to population differentiation and local adaptation. However, recent studies have demonstrated that local adaptation can proceed provided that selection is greater than the homogenising effects of gene flow. We extend these initial studies by combining ecology (climate), phenotype (body size), physiological genetics (oxidative phosphorylation genes) and neutral loci (nuclear microsatellites and introns) to test whether selection can counter-balance gene flow and hence promote local adaptation in a...

Data from: Host-parasite arms races and rapid changes in bird egg appearance

Claire N. Spottiswoode & Martin Stevens
Coevolutionary arms races are a powerful force driving evolution, adaptation, and diversification. They can generate phenotypic polymorphisms which render it harder for a coevolving parasite or predator to exploit any one individual of a given species. In birds, egg polymorphisms should be an effective defense against mimetic brood parasites, and are extreme in the African tawny-flanked prinia (Prinia subflava) and its parasite the cuckoo finch (Anomalospiza imberbis). Here we use models of avian visual perception...

Data from: Bouldering: an alternative strategy to long-vertical climbing in root-climbing hortensias

Carolina Granados Mendoza, Sandrine Isnard, Tristan Charles-Dominique, Jan Van Den Bulcke, Nick P. Rowe, Joris Van Acker, Paul Goetghebeur & Marie-Stéphanie Samain
In the Neotropics, the genus Hydrangea of the popular ornamental hortensia family is represented by climbing species that strongly cling to their support surface by means of adhesive roots closely positioned along specialized anchoring stems. These root-climbing hortensia species belong to the nearly exclusive American Hydrangea section Cornidia and generally are long lianescent climbers that mostly flower and fructify high in the host tree canopy. The Mexican species Hydrangea seemannii, however, encompasses not only long...

Data from: Topography as a driver of diversification in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa

George Anthony Verboom, Nicola G. Bergh, Sarah A. Haiden, Vera Hoffmann & Matthew N. Britton
The rugged topography of the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), South Africa, is frequently invoked to explain the spectacular radiation of the Cape flora, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Where recent authors emphasize the importance of elevation gradients as stimuli for ecological speciation, earlier workers stressed the role of topography as an isolating mechanism, particularly in montane lineages. Using six Cape plant lineages, we tested whether elevation niches are phylogenetically conserved. We then assessed whether...

Data from: It's cool to be dominant: social status alters short-term risks of heat stress

Susan J. Cunningham, Michelle L. Thompson & Andrew E. McKechnie
Climate change has potential to trigger social change. As a first step towards understanding mechanisms determining the vulnerability of animal societies to rising temperatures, we investigated interactions between social rank and thermoregulation in three arid-zone bird species: fawn-coloured lark (Mirafra africanoides, territorial); African red-eyed bulbul (Pycnonotus nigricans, loosely social) and sociable weaver (Philetairus socius, complex cooperative societies). We assessed relationships between body temperature (Tb), air temperature (Ta) and social rank in captive groups in the...

Data from: Flexibility in the duration of parental care: female leopards prioritise cub survival over reproductive output

Guy A. Balme, Hugh S. Robinson, Ross T. Pitman & Luke T. B. Hunter
1.Deciding when to terminate care of offspring is a key consideration for parents. Prolonging care may increase fitness of current offspring, but it can also reduce opportunities for future reproduction. Despite its evolutionary importance, few studies have explored the optimal duration of parental care, particularly among large carnivores. 2.We used a 40-year dataset to assess the trade-offs associated with the length of maternal care in leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa. We...

Data from: Sex differences in the drivers of reproductive skew in a cooperative breeder

Martha J. Nelson-Flower, Tom P. Flower & Amanda R. Ridley
Many cooperatively breeding societies are characterized by high reproductive skew, such that some socially dominant individuals breed, while socially subordinate individuals provide help. Inbreeding avoidance serves as a source of reproductive skew in many high-skew societies, but few empirical studies have examined sources of skew operating alongside inbreeding avoidance, or compared individual attempts to reproduce (reproductive competition) with individual reproductive success. Here we use long-term genetic and observational data to examine factors affecting reproductive skew...

Data from: The evolution of hominoid cranial diversity: a quantitative genetic approach

Lauren Schroeder & Noreen Von Cramon-Taubadel
Hominoid cranial evolution is characterized by substantial phenotypic diversity, yet the cause of this variability has rarely been explored. Quantitative genetic techniques for investigating evolutionary processes underlying morphological divergence are dependent on the availability of good ancestral models, a problem in hominoids where the fossil record is fragmentary and poorly understood. Here, we use a maximum likelihood approach based on a Brownian motion model of evolutionary change to estimate nested hypothetical ancestral forms from 15...

Data from: Processes of community assembly in an environmentally heterogeneous, high biodiversity region

Matthew E. Aiello-Lammens, Jasper A. Slingsby, Cory Merow, Hayley Kilroy Mollmann, Douglas Euston-Brown, Cynthia S. Jones, & John A. Silander
Despite decades of study, the relative importance of niche-based versus neutral processes in community assembly remains largely ambiguous. Recent work suggests niche-based processes are more easily detectable at coarser spatial scales, while neutrality dominates at finer scales. Analyses of functional traits with multi-year multi-site biodiversity inventories may provide deeper insights into assembly processes and the effects of spatial scale. We examined associations between community composition, species functional traits, and environmental conditions for plant communities in...

Data from: Factors associated with leucism in the common blackbird (Turdus merula)

Lucía Izquierdo, Robert L. Thomson, José I. Aguirre, Alazne Díez-Fernández, Bruno Faivre, Jordi Figuerola & Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo
Leucism is the total or partial lack of melanins in the skin and associate structures (i.e. hair or feathers). Little is known about the factors influencing this chromatic aberration although some local studies suggest that there is an effect of habitat, age and sex. To test these hypotheses and expand our knowledge on leucism, we carried out a large‐scale study using common blackbirds (Turdus merula) as our model species. Given the poor information available on...

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