164 Works

Data from: Factors associated with leucism in the common blackbird (Turdus merula)

Lucía Izquierdo, Robert L. Thomson, José I. Aguirre, Alazne Díez-Fernández, Bruno Faivre, Jordi Figuerola & Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo
Leucism is the total or partial lack of melanins in the skin and associate structures (i.e. hair or feathers). Little is known about the factors influencing this chromatic aberration although some local studies suggest that there is an effect of habitat, age and sex. To test these hypotheses and expand our knowledge on leucism, we carried out a large‐scale study using common blackbirds (Turdus merula) as our model species. Given the poor information available on...

Data from: Understanding the mechanisms of anti-tropical divergence in the seabird White-faced Storm-petrel (Procellariiformes: Pelagodroma marina) using a multi-locus approach

Monica C. Silva, Rafael Matias, Ross M. Wanless, Peter G. Ryan, Brent Stephenson, Mark Bolton, Nuno Ferrand & M. Manuela Coelho
Analytical methods that apply coalescent theory to multilocus data have improved inferences of demographic parameters that are critical to understanding population divergence and speciation. In particular, at the early stages of speciation, it is important to implement models that accommodate conflicting gene trees, and benefit from the presence of shared polymorphisms. Here, we employ eleven nuclear loci and the mitochondrial control region to investigate the phylogeography and historical demography of the pelagic seabird White-faced Storm-petrel...

Data from: Evolutionary factors affecting the cross-species utility of newly developed microsatellite markers in seabirds

Yoshan Moodley, Juan F. Masello, Gopi K. Munimanda, Theresa L. Cole, Marco R. Thali, Rachael Alderman, Richard J. Cuthbert, Manuel Marin, Melanie Massaro, Joan Navarro, Richard A. Phillips, Peter G. Ryan, Cristián G. Suazo, Yves Cherel, Henri Weimerskirch, Petra Quillfeldt & Luciano Calderon
Microsatellite loci are ideal for testing hypotheses relating to genetic segregation at fine spatio-temporal scales. They are also conserved among closely related species, making them potentially useful for clarifying interspecific relationships between recently diverged taxa. However, mutations at primer binding sites may lead to increased nonamplification, or disruptions that may result in decreased polymorphism in nontarget species. Furthermore, high mutation rates and constraints on allele size may also with evolutionary time, promote an increase in...

Data from: Quantifying network resilience: comparison before and after a major perturbation shows strengths and limitations of network metrics

Christine Moore, Graeme S. Cumming & John Grewar
1. The resilience literature often assumes that social–ecological reorganization will result in either the removal of deficient system elements (components, interactions) or social learning. Major perturbations are expected to lead to either adaptation or, if accompanied by a regime shift, transformation. This has led to a conflation of the concepts of resilience and adaptation, which has in turn made it difficult to quantitatively distinguish between cases in which a system returned to a previous state,...

Data from: Leaf traits of African woody savanna species across climate and soil fertility gradients: evidence for conservative vs. acquisitive resource use strategies

Benjamin J. Wigley, Jasper A. Slingsby, Sandra Diaz, William J. Bond, Herve Fritz & Corli Coetsee
1. Establishing trade-offs among traits and the degree to which they co-vary along environmental gradients has become a key focal point in the effort to develop community ecology into a predictive science. While there is evidence for these relationships across global datasets, they are often too broad in scale, and do not consider the particularities of local to regional species pools. This decreases their usefulness for developing predictive models at scales relevant for conservation and...

Data from: Pair complementarity influences reproductive output in the polymorphic black sparrowhawk (Accipiter melanoleucus)

Gareth Tate, Petra Sumasgutner, Ann Koeslag & Arjun Amar
How multiple morphs are maintained within populations of colour polymorphic bird species remains a challenging question in evolutionary ecology. In some systems, differential productivity or survival between morphs are thought to play a role. Here we examine key demographic parameters between the two discrete adult morphs that characterise the polymorphic black sparrowhawk Accipiter melanoleucus. Using long-term breeding and survival data from a population on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, we test for differences in reproductive...

Data from: Dietary studies in birds: testing a non-invasive method using digital photography in seabirds

Davide Gaglio, Timothée Cook, Maëlle Connan, Peter G. Ryan & Richard B. Sherley
Dietary studies give vital insights into foraging behaviour, with implications for understanding changing environmental conditions and the anthropogenic impacts on natural resources. Traditional diet sampling methods may be invasive or subject to biases, so developing non-invasive and unbiased methods applicable to a diversity of species is essential. We used digital photography to investigate the diet fed to chicks of a prey-carrying seabird and compared our approach (photo-sampling) to a traditional method (regurgitations) for the greater...

Heat dissipation behaviour of birds in seasonally hot, arid-zones: are there global patterns?

Nicholas Pattinson, Michelle Thompson, Michael Griego, Grace Russell, Nicola Mitchell, Rowan Martin, Blair Wolf, Ben Smit, Susan Cunningham & Andrew McKechnie
Quantifying organismal sensitivity to heat stress provides one means for predicting vulnerability to climate change. Birds are ideal for investigating this approach, as they display quantifiable fitness consequences associated with behavioural and physiological responses to heat stress. We used a recently developed method that examines correlations between readily-observable behaviours and air temperature (Tair) to investigate interspecific variation in avian responses to heat stress in seasonally hot, arid regions on three continents: the southwestern United States,...

Epiphytic bryophyte diversity and range distributions along an elevational gradient in Marojejy, Madagascar

Lovanomenjanahary Marline, Claudine Ah-Peng & Terry Hedderson
Describing spatial variation in species richness and understanding its links to ecological mechanisms are complementary approaches for explaining geographical patterns of richness. The study of elevational gradients holds enormous potential for understanding the factors underlying global diversity. This paper investigates the pattern of species richness and range-size distribution of epiphytic bryophytes along an elevational gradient in Marojejy National Park, North-east Madagascar. The main objectives are to describe bryophyte species composition and endemism in Marojejy National...

Data from: A predictive model for improving placement of wind turbines to minimise collision risk potential for a large soaring raptor

Megan Murgatroyd, Willem Bouten & Arjun Amar
1. With the rapid growth of wind energy developments worldwide, it is critical that the negative impacts on wildlife are considered and mitigated. This includes minimising the numbers of large soaring raptors which are killed when they collide with wind turbines. 2. To reduce the likelihood of raptor collisions, turbines should be placed at locations which are least used by sensitive species. For resident or breeding species, this is often delineated crudely through the use...

Data from: Urbanization is associated with increased breeding rate, but decreased breeding success in an urban population of near-threatened African Crowned Eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus)

Colleen Downs, Shane McPherson, Rebecca Muller, Petra Sumasgutner & Arjun Amar
Urban areas can be attractive to certain species because of increased food abundance and nesting availability which in turn may increase productivity or breeding rates. However, there are also potential costs associated with urban living such as higher nest failure, poorer body condition or increased prevalence of disease. These costs may result in species trading off the number of young produced against the condition of their young. African Crowned Eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) are a rare...

Khayelitsha Mitchell's Plain Survey 2000

Cape Area Study 2005

Sustainable Cities Survey 2018, Luanda

Sylvia Croese

Thermal properties and segregation behaviour of Pt nanowires modified with Au, Ag and Pd atoms: A Classical Molecular Dynamics Study - data

Thobani G Gambu, Umberto Terranova, David Santos-Carballal, Melissa A Petersen, Glenn Jones, Eric Van Steen & Nora H De Leeuw
The thermal properties of bimetallic Pt nanowires have been investigated using classical interatomic potentials. Edge decorated Pt nanowires may improve the inter-facet exchange of reaction intermediates resulting in improved oxygen reduction reaction activities at fuel call cathode electrodes. In this work we report on the melting behaviour of Pt-based nanowires where either an edge atomic row or atomic shell of Pt nanowires are substituted by Au, Ag or Pd. Our overall intention is to find...

Data from: Safety and immunogenicity of H1/IC31®, an adjuvanted TB subunit vaccine, in HIV-infected adults with CD4+ Lymphocyte counts greater than 350 cells/mm3: a phase II, multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Klaus Reither, Lynn Katsoulis, Trevor Beattie, Nicolene Gardiner, Nicole Lenz, Khadija Said, Elirehema Mfinanga, Christian Pohl, Katherine L. Fielding, Hannah Jeffery, Benjamin M. Kagina, Elisabeth J. Hughes, Thomas J. Scriba, Willem A. Hanekom, Søren T. Hoff, Peter Bang, Ingrid Kromann, Claudia Daubenberger, Peter Andersen & Gavin J. Churchyard
Background: Novel tuberculosis vaccines should be safe, immunogenic, and effective in various population groups, including HIV-infected individuals. In this phase II multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the novel H1/IC31 vaccine, a fusion protein of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (H1) formulated with the adjuvant IC31, was evaluated in HIV-infected adults. Methods: HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell counts >350/mm3 and without evidence of active tuberculosis were enrolled and followed until day 182. H1/IC31 vaccine or...

Data from: Cretaceous origins of the vibrotactile bill-tip organ in birds

Carla Du Toit, Anusuya Chinsamy & Susan Cunningham
Some probe-foraging birds locate their buried prey by detecting mechanical vibrations in the substrate using a specialised tactile bill-tip organ comprising mechanoreceptors embedded in densely clustered pits in the bone at the tip of their beak. This remarkable sensory modality is known as “remote-touch”, and the associated bill-tip organ is found in probe-foraging taxa belonging to both the paleognathous (in kiwi) and neognathous (in ibises and shorebirds) clades of modern birds. Intriguingly, a structurally similar...

Data from: Occupancy models for citizen-science data

Res Altwegg & James D. Nichols
1. Large-scale citizen science projects, such as atlases of species distribution, are an important source of data for macroecological research, for understanding the effects of climate change and other drivers on biodiversity, and for more applied conservation tasks, such as early-warning systems for biodiversity loss. 2. However, citizen-science data are challenging to analyse because the observation process has to be taken into account. Typically, the observation process leads to heterogeneous and non-random sampling, false absences,...

Data from: Efficient Bayesian analysis of occupancy models with logit link functions

Allan E. Clark & Res Altwegg
Occupancy models (Ecology, 2002; 83: 2248) were developed to infer the probability that a species under investigation occupies a site. Bayesian analysis of these models can be undertaken using statistical packages such as WinBUGS, OpenBUGS, JAGS, and more recently Stan, however, since these packages were not developed specifically to fit occupancy models, one often experiences long run times when undertaking an analysis. Bayesian spatial single‐season occupancy models can also be fit using the R package...

Data from: A thorny issue: woody plant defence and growth in an East African savanna

Benjamin J. Wigley, Corli Coetsee, David J. Augustine, Jayashree Ratnam, Dawood Hattas & Mahesh Sankaran
1. Recent work suggests that savanna woody plant species separate into two different strategies based on their defences against herbivory; a low nutrient/high chemical defence strategy and a nutrition paired with mostly architectural defences strategy. The concept that chemical and structural defences can augment each other and do not necessarily trade-off has emanated from this work. In this study we examine woody plant defence strategies, how these respond to herbivore removal and how they affect...

Data from: Genomics detects population structure within and between ocean basins in a circumpolar seabird: the white-chinned petrel

Kalinka Rexer-Huber, Andrew J. Veale, Paulo Catry, Yves Cherel, Ludovic Dutoit, Yasmin Foster, John C. McEwan, Graham C. Parker, Richard A. Phillips, Peter G. Ryan, Andrew J. Stanworth, Tracey Van Stijn, David R. Thompson, Jonathan Waters & Bruce C. Robertson
The Southern Ocean represents a continuous stretch of circumpolar marine habitat, but the potential physical and ecological drivers of evolutionary genetic differentiation across this vast ecosystem remain unclear. We tested for genetic structure across the full circumpolar range of the white-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis) to unravel the potential drivers of population differentiation and test alternative population differentiation hypotheses. Following range-wide comprehensive sampling, we applied genomic (genotyping-by-sequencing or GBS; 60,709 loci) and standard mitochondrial-marker approaches (cytochrome...

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