28 Works

Data from: Factors associated with leucism in the common blackbird (Turdus merula)

Lucía Izquierdo, Robert L. Thomson, José I. Aguirre, Alazne Díez-Fernández, Bruno Faivre, Jordi Figuerola & Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo
Leucism is the total or partial lack of melanins in the skin and associate structures (i.e. hair or feathers). Little is known about the factors influencing this chromatic aberration although some local studies suggest that there is an effect of habitat, age and sex. To test these hypotheses and expand our knowledge on leucism, we carried out a large‐scale study using common blackbirds (Turdus merula) as our model species. Given the poor information available on...

Data from: Sex differences in the drivers of reproductive skew in a cooperative breeder

Martha J. Nelson-Flower, Tom P. Flower & Amanda R. Ridley
Many cooperatively breeding societies are characterized by high reproductive skew, such that some socially dominant individuals breed, while socially subordinate individuals provide help. Inbreeding avoidance serves as a source of reproductive skew in many high-skew societies, but few empirical studies have examined sources of skew operating alongside inbreeding avoidance, or compared individual attempts to reproduce (reproductive competition) with individual reproductive success. Here we use long-term genetic and observational data to examine factors affecting reproductive skew...

Data from: Individual dispersal decisions in a cooperative breeder: ecological constraints, the benefits of philopatry, and the social queue for dominance

Martha J. Nelson-Flower, Elizabeth M. Wiley, Thomas P. Flower, Amanda R. Ridley & Tom P. Flower
1. Delayed dispersal is a key step in the evolution of familial animal societies and cooperative breeding. However, no consensus has been reached on the ecological and social circumstances driving delayed dispersal. 2. Here we test predictions from the ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry hypotheses as well as the recently-proposed dual benefits hypothesis to better understand the evolution of group-living and cooperative breeding. Furthermore, we consider how individual social circumstances within groups affect dispersal...

Data from: Efficient Bayesian analysis of occupancy models with logit link functions

Allan E. Clark & Res Altwegg
Occupancy models (Ecology, 2002; 83: 2248) were developed to infer the probability that a species under investigation occupies a site. Bayesian analysis of these models can be undertaken using statistical packages such as WinBUGS, OpenBUGS, JAGS, and more recently Stan, however, since these packages were not developed specifically to fit occupancy models, one often experiences long run times when undertaking an analysis. Bayesian spatial single‐season occupancy models can also be fit using the R package...

Data from: Growth affects dispersal success in social mole-rats, but not the duration of philopatry

Miquel Torrents Ticó, Nigel C. Bennett, Jennifer U.M Jarvis & Markus Zoettl
In naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), some non-breeding males show faster growth and are more likely to disperse than others. These differences have been suggested to be the result of a specialized developmental strategy leading to shorter philopatry and independent breeding, as opposed to extended philopatry as non-reproductive helpers. However, it is unclear whether fast-growing males disperse sooner than slow-growing males. An alternative explanation is that variation in quality between individuals causes high-quality individuals to grow...

Data from: Occupancy models for citizen-science data

Res Altwegg & James D. Nichols
1. Large-scale citizen science projects, such as atlases of species distribution, are an important source of data for macroecological research, for understanding the effects of climate change and other drivers on biodiversity, and for more applied conservation tasks, such as early-warning systems for biodiversity loss. 2. However, citizen-science data are challenging to analyse because the observation process has to be taken into account. Typically, the observation process leads to heterogeneous and non-random sampling, false absences,...

Data from: Non-invasive measurement of metabolic rates in wild, free-living birds using doubly labelled water

Amanda R. Bourne, Andrew E. McKechnie, Susan J. Cunningham, Amanda R. Ridley, Stephan M. Woodborne & William H. Karasov
1. Doubly labelled water (DLW) is routinely used to measure energy expenditure and water turnover in free-ranging animals. Standard methods involve capture, blood sampling for baseline measurement, injection with isotopic tracers, captivity for an equilibration period, post-dose blood sampling, release, and subsequent re-capture for final blood sampling. Single sampling methods that minimise disturbance by reducing capture and handling time have been developed and tested. Sampling faeces rather than blood could further reduce disturbance to study...

Data from: Urban nectarivorous bird communities in Cape Town, South Africa, are structured by ecological generalisation and resource distribution

Anina Coetzee, Phoebe Barnard & Anton Pauw
Biological communities are increasingly faced with novel urban habitats and their response may depend on a combination of biological and habitat traits. The response of pollinator species to urban habitats are of particular importance because all species involved in the pollination mutualism may be affected. Nectarivorous bird communities worldwide show varying tolerances to urban areas, but studies from Africa are lacking. We investigated nectarivorous bird communities in a medium-sized South African city and asked which...

Data from: Sacrificial males: the potential role of copulation and predation in contributing to copepod sex-skewed ratios

Ryan J. Wasserman, Mark Weston, Olaf L.F. Weyl, P. William Froneman, Rebecca J. Welch, Tim J.F. Vink, Tatenda Dalu & Tim J. F. Vink
Predation is thought to play a selective role in the emergence of behavioural traits in prey. Differences in behaviour between prey demographics may, therefore, be driven by predation with select components of the population being less vulnerable to predators. While under controlled conditions prey demography has been shown to have consequences for predation success, investigations linking these implications to natural prey population demographics are scarce. Here we assess predator-prey dynamics between notonectid predators (backswimmers) and...

Data from: Energetic fitness: field metabolic rates assessed via 3D accelerometry complement conventional fitness metrics

David Gremillet, Amelie Lescroel, Grant Ballard, Katie M. Dugger, Melanie Massaro, Elizabeth L. Porzig & David G. Ainley
1) Evaluating the fitness of organisms is an essential step towards understanding their responses to environmental change. Connections between energy expenditure and fitness have been postulated for nearly a century. However, testing this premise among wild animals is constrained by difficulties in measuring energy expenditure while simultaneously monitoring conventional fitness metrics such as survival and reproductive output. 2) We addressed this issue by exploring the functional links between field metabolic rate (FMR), body condition, sex,...

Data from: Heaviside's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus heavisidii) relax acoustic crypsis to increase communication range

Morgan J. Martin, Tess Gridley, Simon H. Elwen & Frants H. Jensen
The costs of predation may exert significant pressure on the mode of communication used by an animal, and many species balance the benefits of communication (e.g. mate attraction) against the potential risk of predation. Four groups of toothed whales have independently evolved narrowband high-frequency (NBHF) echolocation signals. These signals help NBHF species avoid predation through acoustic crypsis by echolocating and communicating at frequencies inaudible to predators such as mammal-eating killer whales. Heaviside’s dolphins (Cephalorhynchus heavisidii)...

Data from: The benefits of pair bond tenure in the cooperatively breeding pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor)

Elizabeth M. Wiley & Amanda R. Ridley
The benefits of stable pair bonds (that persist between breeding attempts) have been well described, but are relatively less well known in cooperatively breeding species. If pair bonds are beneficial, then it is possible that the bond between the behaviorally and socially dominant pair may influence factors such as reproductive success and group stability in cooperative species. Here we used long-term data to investigate the relationships between pair bond tenure, reproductive success and group stability...

Data from: Internal acoustic structuring in pied babbler recruitment cries specifies the form of recruitment

Sabrina Engesser, Amanda R Ridley, Marta B Manser, Andri Manser & Simon W Townsend
Language is inherently combinatorial, and parallels of this combinatorial capacity are found in nonhuman systems, with animals combining sounds and calls into larger meaningful structures. However, further analogue examples are central in unveiling the diversity, distribution, and evolutionary drivers of combinatoriality. Here, we provide evidence for internal “meaning-refining” acoustic variation within a larger stereotyped signal in pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor). Using acoustic analyses, we demonstrate that males produce 2 long, raucous, “cry-like” structures, both starting...

Data from: Logical validation and evaluation of practical feasibility for the SCRuM (School Clinical Rugby Measure) test battery developed for young adolescent rugby players in a resource-constrained environment

Matthew Chiwaridzo, Danai Chandahwa, Sander Oorschot, Cathrine Tadyanemhandu, Jermaine M. Dambi, Gillian Ferguson, Bouwien C.M. Smits-Engelsman & Bouwien C. M. Smits-Engelsman
There is a growing impetus towards usage of test batteries in talent identification (TID) programmes in rugby. Consequently, there are many test batteries in existence profiling anthropometric, physiological characteristics and rugby-specific skills. There is no consensus in the literature on the constituent variables and corresponding tests required to inform TID programs. Following development of a new test battery called the SCRuM (School Clinical Rugby Measure), this study aimed at establishing face, logical validity and practical...

Data from: Biophysical models reveal the relative importance of transporter proteins and impermeant anions in chloride homeostasis

Kira Michaela Düsterwald, Christopher Brian Currin, Richard Joseph Burman, Colin J. Akerman, Alan R. Kay & Joseph Valentino Raimondo
Fast synaptic inhibition in the nervous system depends on the transmembrane flux of Cl- ions based on the neuronal Cl- driving force. Established theories regarding the determinants of Cl- driving force have recently been questioned. Here we present biophysical models of Cl- homeostasis using the pump-leak model. Using numerical and novel analytic solutions, we demonstrate that the Na+/K+-ATPase, ion conductances, impermeant anions, electrodiffusion, water fluxes and cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) play roles in setting the Cl-...

Data from: Sex-specific patterns of reproductive senescence in a long-lived reintroduced raptor

Megan Murgatroyd, Staffan Roos, Richard Evans, Alex Sansom, D. Philip Whitfield, David Sexton, Robin Reid, Justin Grant & Arjun Amar
1) For many species there is evidence that breeding performance changes as an individual ages. In iteroparous species, breeding performance often increases through early-life and is expected to level out or even decline (senesce) later in life. Furthermore, an individual’s sex and conditions experienced in early-life can affect breeding performance and how this changes with age. 2) Long-term monitoring of individuals from reintroduced populations can provide unique opportunities to explore age-related trends in breeding performance...

Data from: TAPBPR mediates peptide dissociation from MHC class I using a leucine lever

F. Tudor Ilca, Andreas Neerincx, Clemens Hermann, Ana Marcu, Stefan Stevanović, Janet E. Deane & Louise H. Boyle
Tapasin and TAPBPR are known to perform peptide editing on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules, however, the precise molecular mechanism(s) involved in this process remain largely enigmatic. Here, using immunopeptidomics in combination with novel cell-based assays that assess TAPBPR-mediate peptide exchange, we reveal a critical role for the K22-D35 loop of TAPBPR in mediating peptide exchange on MHC I. We identify a specific leucine within this loop that enables TAPBPR to facilitate...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Data from: Seascape genetics of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus in the Western Indian Ocean: understanding how oceanographic features shape the genetic structure of species with high larval dispersal potential

Sohana P. Singh, Johan C. Groeneveld, Michael G. Hart-Davis, Björn C. Backeberg & Sandi Willows-Munro
This study examines the fine-scale population genetic structure and phylogeography of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus in the Western Indian Ocean. A seascape genetics approach was used to relate the observed genetic structure based on 21 microsatellite loci to ocean circulation patterns, and to determine the influence of latitude, sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean turbidity (KD490) on population-level processes. At a geospatial level, the genetic clusters recovered corresponded to three putative subspecies, P. h....

Data from: Are forest‐shrubland mosaics of the Cape Floristic Region an example of alternate stable states?

Michael D. Cramer, Simon C. Power, Anastas Belev, Lindsay Gillson, William J. Bond, Michael Timm Hoffman, Lars O. Hedin & Lindsey Gillson
The idea of alternate stable states (ASS) has been used to explain the juxtaposition of distinct vegetation types within the same climate regime. ASS may explain the co‐existence of relatively inflammable closed‐canopy Afrotemperate Forest patches (“Forest”) within fire‐prone open‐canopy Fynbos in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) on sandstone‐derived soils. We evaluated the hypothesis that although fire and local topography and hydrology likely determined the paleogeographic boundaries of Forest, present‐day boundaries are additionally imposed by emergent...

Data from: The costs of kleptoparasitism: a study of mixed-species seabird breeding colonies

Davide Gaglio, Richard B. Sherley, Timothée R. Cook, Peter G. Ryan & Tom Flower
Mixed-species assemblages are common in nature, providing mutual benefits to associating species including anti-predator advantages or resource facilitation. However, associating with other species may also impose costs through kleptoparasitism (food theft). Identification of these costs, and how they vary when different species breed alongside one another, is essential to understand the payoffs of mixed-species assemblages. We explore the costs of kleptoparasitism for greater crested terns Thalasseus bergii provisioning offspring at a single-species colony, where individuals...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    28

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    28

Affiliations

  • University of Cape Town
    28
  • University of Pretoria
    3
  • University of Western Australia
    3
  • South African National Biodiversity Institute
    2
  • Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier
    2
  • Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • Simon Fraser University
    2
  • Nelson Mandela University
    2
  • University of British Columbia
    2