Data from: Is computer-assisted instruction more effective than other educational methods in achieving ECG competence amongst medical students and residents? A systematic review and meta-analysis.Charle Viljoen, Rob Scott Millar, Mark Engel, Mary Shelton & Vanessa Burch
Objectives It remains unclear whether computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is more effective than other teaching methods in acquiring and retaining ECG competence amongst medical students and residents. Design This systematic review and meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Data sources Electronic literature searches of PubMed, databases via EBSCOhost, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and grey literature were conducted on 28 November 2017. We subsequently reviewed the citation indexes...
Data from: Senescence in the city: exploring ageing patterns of a long‐lived raptor across an urban gradientPetra Sumasgutner, Ann Koeslag & Arjun Amar
In many vertebrates, productivity and survival usually increase with age and then start to decline above a certain age; processes known as reproductive and actuarial senescence. Senescence is widely believed to be driven by the accumulation of somatic damage or mutations. Thus, levels of such cellular damage, and therefore senescence could, in theory, differ between different habitats if they experience different stressors. Urban environments expose animals to a wide range of stressors that pose a...
Species selection, the effect of heritable traits in generating between-lineage diversification rate differences, provides a valuable conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between traits, diversification and phylogenetic tree shape. An important challenge, however, is that the nature of real diversification landscapes – curves or surfaces which describe the propensity of species-level lineages to diversify as a function of one or more traits – remains poorly understood. Here we present a novel, time-stratified extension of the...
Quantifying organismal sensitivity to heat stress provides one means for predicting vulnerability to climate change. Birds are ideal for investigating this approach, as they display quantifiable fitness consequences associated with behavioural and physiological responses to heat stress. We used a recently developed method that examines correlations between readily-observable behaviours and air temperature (Tair) to investigate interspecific variation in avian responses to heat stress in seasonally hot, arid regions on three continents: the southwestern United States,...
1. Recent work suggests that savanna woody plant species separate into two different strategies based on their defences against herbivory; a low nutrient/high chemical defence strategy and a nutrition paired with mostly architectural defences strategy. The concept that chemical and structural defences can augment each other and do not necessarily trade-off has emanated from this work. In this study we examine woody plant defence strategies, how these respond to herbivore removal and how they affect...
Data from: Genomics detects population structure within and between ocean basins in a circumpolar seabird: the white-chinned petrelKalinka Rexer-Huber, Andrew J. Veale, Paulo Catry, Yves Cherel, Ludovic Dutoit, Yasmin Foster, John C. McEwan, Graham C. Parker, Richard A. Phillips, Peter G. Ryan, Andrew J. Stanworth, Tracey Van Stijn, David R. Thompson, Jonathan Waters & Bruce C. Robertson
The Southern Ocean represents a continuous stretch of circumpolar marine habitat, but the potential physical and ecological drivers of evolutionary genetic differentiation across this vast ecosystem remain unclear. We tested for genetic structure across the full circumpolar range of the white-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis) to unravel the potential drivers of population differentiation and test alternative population differentiation hypotheses. Following range-wide comprehensive sampling, we applied genomic (genotyping-by-sequencing or GBS; 60,709 loci) and standard mitochondrial-marker approaches (cytochrome...
Aim: Does complex topography facilitate the establishment and persistence of fire‐ sensitive (forest) vegetation in a fire‐prone landscape? We test the prediction that fire‐sensitive vegetation will establish and persist in areas where the fire return interval is lower due to a topographic hindrance on fire spread. Location: Hluhluwe–iMfolozi Park, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Methods: Using aerial photographs from six time periods between 1937 and 2013, we mapped vegetation changes in Hluhluwe–iMfolozi Park (HiP). Using a...
A framework for mapping the distribution of seabirds by integrating tracking, demography and phenologyAna P. B. Carneiro, Elizabeth J. Pearmain, Steffen Oppel, Thomas A. Clay, Richard A. Phillips, Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun, Ross M. Wanless, Edward Abraham, Yvan Richard, Joel Rice, Jonathan Handley, Tammy E. Davies, Ben J. Dilley, Peter G. Ryan, Cleo Small, Javier Arata, John P. Y. Arnould, Elizabeth Bell, Leandro Bugoni, Letizia Campioni, Paulo Catry, Jaimie Cleeland, Lorna Deppe, Graeme Elliott, Amanda Freeman … & Maria P. Dias
1. The identification of geographic areas where the densities of animals are highest across their annual cycles is a crucial step in conservation planning. In marine environments, however, it can be particularly difficult to map the distribution of species, and the methods used are usually biased towards adults, neglecting the distribution of other life-history stages even though they can represent a substantial proportion of the total population. 2. Here we develop a methodological framework for...
Data from: Dynamic multi-species occupancy models reveal individualistic habitat preferences in a high-altitude grassland bird communityDavid H. Maphisa, Hanneline Smit-Robinson & Res Altwegg
Moist, high-altitude grasslands of eastern South African harbour rich avian diversity and endemism. This area is also threatened by increasingly intensive agriculture and land conversion for energy production. This conflict is particularly evident at Ingula, an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area located within the least conserved high-altitude grasslands and which is also the site of a new Pumped Storage Scheme. The new management seeks to maximise biodiversity through manipulation of the key habitat variables: grass...
Data from: Local forage fish abundance influences foraging effort and offspring condition in an Endangered marine predatorKate J. Campbell, Antje Steinfurth, Les G. Underhill, Janet C. Coetzee, Bruce M. Dyer, Katrin Ludynia, Azwianewi B. Makhado, Dagmar Merkle, Johan Rademan, Leshia Upfold & Richard B. Sherley
1. Understanding the functional relationship between marine predators and their prey is vital to inform ecosystem-based management. However, collecting concurrent data on predator behaviour and their prey at relevant scales is challenging. Moreover, opportunities to study these relationships in the absence of industrial fishing are extremely rare. 2. We took advantage of an experimental fisheries closure to study how local prey abundance influences foraging success and chick condition of Endangered African penguins Spheniscus demersus in...
Data from: The contribution of land tenure diversity to the spatial resilience of protected area networksAlta De Vos & Graeme S. Cumming
1. The relationship between diversity and resilience is relatively well-established for ecological systems, but remains much less explored for socioeconomic systems. Institutional diversity may have particular relevance for protected areas, whose managerial responses to environmental change depend on their legal basis, ability to make and enforce rules, and socio-political acceptance and endorsement. 2. Protected area expansion strategies are increasingly turning to private land conservation to increase the configuration and connectivity of national protected area networks....
University of Cape Town17
Centre d'Etudes Biologiques de Chizé2
University of Otago2
British Antarctic Survey2
Department of Environmental Affairs2
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research2
South African National Biodiversity Institute1
Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive1
University of Pretoria1