61 Works

Data from: Population structure of a global agricultural invasive pest, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Yu-Jia Qin, Matthew N. Krosch, Mark K. Schutze, Yue Zhang, Xiao-Xue Wang, Chandra S. Prabhakar, Agus Susanto, Alvin K.W. Hee, Sunday Ekesi, Kemo Badji, Mahfuza Khan, Yu-Bing Huang, Jia-Jiao Wu, Qiao-Ling Wang, Ge Yan, Li-Huan Zhu, Zi-Hua Zhao, Li-Jun Liu, Anthony R. Clarke, Zhi-Hong Li & Alvin K. W. Hee
Bactrocera dorsalis, the Oriental fruit fly, is one of the world’s most destructive agricultural insect pests and a major impediment to international fresh commodity trade. The genetic structuring of the species across its entire geographic range has never been undertaken, because under a former taxonomy B. dorsalis was divided into four distinct taxonomic entities, each with their own, largely non-overlapping, distributions. Based on the extensive sampling of six a priori groups from 63 locations, genetic...

Data from: Self-deception in nonhuman animals: weak crayfish escalated aggression as if they were strong

Michael Angilletta, Gregory Kubitz & Robbie Wilson
Humans routinely deceive themselves when communicating to others, but no one knows whether other animals do the same. We ask whether dishonest signaling between crayfish meets a condition required for self-deception: dishonest individuals and honest individuals escalate aggression according to their signals of strength rather than actual strength. Using game theory, we predicted how an animal’s knowledge of its strength should affect its decision to escalate aggression. At the evolutionary equilibrium, an animal that knows...

Data from: Larval dispersal and fishing pressure influence recruitment in a coral reef fishery

Richard J. Hamilton, Diego Lozano-Cortés, Michael Bode, Glenn Almany, Hugo B. Harrison, John Pita, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Colin Gereniu, Nate Peterson, Howard Choat, Peter A. Waldie & Michael L. Berumen
Understanding larval connectivity patterns in exploited fishes is a fundamental prerequisite for developing effective management strategies and assessing the vulnerability of a fishery to recruitment overfishing and localised extinction. To date however, researchers have not considered how regional variations in fishing pressure also influence recruitment. We used genetic parentage analyses and modelling to infer the dispersal patterns of bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) larvae in the Kia fishing grounds, Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. We then extrapolated...

Vegetation structure and ground cover attributes describe the occurrence of a newly discovered carnivorous marsupial on the Tweed Shield Volcano caldera, the endangered black-tailed dusky antechinus (Antechinus arktos).

Coral Pearce, Caitlin Riordan, W. McDonald, Ian Gynther & Andrew Baker
The black-tailed dusky antechinus (Antechinus arktos) is a recently discovered, endangered, carnivorous marsupial mammal endemic to the Tweed Shield Volcano caldera, straddling the border between Queensland and New South Wales in eastern Australia. The species’ preference for cool, high altitude habitats makes it particularly vulnerable to a shifting climate as these habitats recede. Aside from basic breeding ecology and dietary patterns the species’ biology is largely unknown. Understanding fine scale habitat attributes preferred by this...

Data from: Sexual selection in true fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): transcriptome and experimental evidences for phytochemicals increasing male competitive ability

Nagalingam Kumaran, Peter J. Prentis, Kalimuthu Palanivel Mangalam, Mark K. Schutze & Anthony R. Clarke
In male tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera, feeding on secondary plant compounds (sensu lato male lures = methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone and zingerone) increases male mating success. Ingested male lures alter the male pheromonal blend, normally making it more attractive to females and this is considered the primary mechanism for the enhanced mating success. However, the male lures raspberry ketone and zingerone are known, across a diverse range of other organisms, to be...

Data from: Using decision trees to understand structure in missing data

Nicholas J. Tierney, Fiona A. Harden, Maurice J. Harden & Kerrie L. Mengersen
Objectives: Demonstrate the application of decision trees—classification and regression trees (CARTs), and their cousins, boosted regression trees (BRTs)—to understand structure in missing data. Setting: Data taken from employees at 3 different industrial sites in Australia. Participants: 7915 observations were included. Materials and methods: The approach was evaluated using an occupational health data set comprising results of questionnaires, medical tests and environmental monitoring. Statistical methods included standard statistical tests and the ‘rpart’ and ‘gbm’ packages for...

Data from: Avian diversification patterns across the K-Pg boundary: influence of calibrations, datasets and model misspecification

Daniel T. Ksepka & Matthew J. Phillips
Birds represent the most diverse extant tetrapod clade, with ca. 10,000 extant species, and the timing of the crown avian radiation remains hotly debated. The fossil record supports a primarily Cenozoic radiation of crown birds, whereas molecular divergence dating analyses generally imply that this radiation was well underway during the Cretaceous. Furthermore, substantial differences have been noted between published divergence estimates. These have been variously attributed to clock model, calibration regime, and gene type. One...

Data from: SRUD: a simple non-destructive method for accurate quantification of plant diversity dynamics

Pengfei Zhang, George A. Kowalchuk, Merel B. Soons, Mariet M. Hefting, Chengjin Chu, Jennifer Firn, Cynthia S. Brown, Xianhui Zhou, Xiaolong Zhou, Zhi Guo, Zhigang Zhao, Guozhen Du & Yann Hautier
1. Predicting changes in plant diversity in response to human activities represents one of the major challenges facing ecologists and land managers striving for sustainable ecosystem management. Classical field studies have emphasized the importance of community primary productivity in regulating changes in plant species richness. However, experimental studies have yielded inconsistent empirical evidence, suggesting that primary productivity is not the sole determinant of plant diversity. Recent work has shown that more accurate predictions of changes...

Data from: Herbivores sculpt leaf traits differently in grasslands depending on life form and land-use histories

Jennifer Firn, Martin Schütz, Huong Nguyen & Anita C. Risch
Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores alter plant communities directly by selectively consuming plant species; and indirectly by inducing morphological and physiological changes to plant traits that provide competitive or survivorship advantages to some life forms over others. Progressively excluding aboveground herbivore communities (ungulates, medium and small sized mammals, invertebrates) over five growing seasons, we explored how leaf morphology (specific leaf area or SLA) and nutrition (nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, and calcium) of different plant life...

Data from: Perioperative medication management: expanding the role of the preadmission clinic pharmacist in a single centre, randomised controlled trial of collaborative prescribing

Andrew R. Hale, Ian D. Coombes, Julie Stokes, David McDougall, Karen Whitfield, Elizabeth Maycock & Lisa Nissen
Objectives: Current evidence to support non-medical prescribing is predominantly qualitative, with little evaluation of accuracy, safety and appropriateness. Our aim was to evaluate a new model of service for the Australia healthcare system, of inpatient medication prescribing by a pharmacist in an elective surgery pre admission clinic (PAC) against usual care, using an endorsed performance framework. Design: Single centre, randomised controlled, two arm trial Setting: Elective surgery pre admission clinic in Brisbane based tertiary hospital...

Data from: A multi-genome analysis approach enables tracking of the invasion of a single Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) clone throughout the New World

Le Kang, Bo Zhang, Susan Fuller & Owain Edwards
This study investigated the population genetics, demographic history and pathway of invasion of the Russian wheat aphid (RWA) from its native range in Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe to South Africa and the Americas. We screened microsatellite markers, mitochondrial DNA, and endosymbiont genes in 504 RWA clones from nineteen populations worldwide. Following pathway analyses of microsatellite and endosymbiont data, we postulate that Turkey and Syria were the most likely sources of invasion to...

Data from: Using virtual reality to estimate aesthetic values of coral reefs

Julie Vercelloni, Sam Clifford, M. Julian Caley, Alan R. Pearse, Ross Brown, Allan James, Bryce Christensen, Tomasz Bednarz, Ken Anthony, Manuel González-Rivero, Kerrie Mengersen & Erin E. Peterson
Aesthetic value, or beauty, is important to the relationship between humans and natural environments and is, therefore, a fundamental socioeconomic attribute of conservation alongside other ecosystem services. However, beauty is difficult to quantify and is not estimated well using traditional approaches to monitoring coral reef aesthetics. To improve the estimation of ecosystem aesthetic values, we developed and implemented a novel framework used to quantify features of coral reef aesthetics based on people’s perceptions of beauty....

Data from: Internal and external cooling methods and their effect on body temperature, thermal perception and dexterity

Matthew J. Maley, Geoffrey M. Minett, Aaron J.E. Bach, Stephani A. Zietek, Kelly L. Stewart, Ian B. Stewart, Aaron J. E. Bach & Stephanie A. Zietek
Objective: The present study aimed to compare a range of cooling methods possibly utilised by occupational workers, focusing on their effect on body temperature, perception and manual dexterity. Methods: Ten male participants completed eight trials involving 30 min of seated rest followed by 30 min of cooling or control of no cooling (CON) (34 °C, 58 % relative humidity). The cooling methods utilised were: ice cooling vest (CV0), phase change cooling vest melting at 14...

Effect of tomato-fruit cultivar and ripening stage on Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) egg and larval survival

Shirin Roohigohar
In studies of frugivorous tephritids, determining when offspring (i.e. egg and three larval instars) mortality occurs within the fruit can greatly improve the mechanistic understanding of the fly/host interaction. Previous research has demonstrated that the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, has differential offspring performance in two tomato cultivars Cherry and Roma, but when juvenile mortality was occurring was not determined. We examined B. tryoni egg and larval survival in three different ripening stages (immature-green (IG),...

Data from: Without management interventions, endemic wet-sclerophyll forest is transitioning to rainforest in World Heritage listed K’gari (Fraser Island), Australia

Vithya Krishnan, Nicole Robinson, Jennifer Firn, Grahame Applegate, John Herbohn & Susanne Schmidt
Wet-sclerophyll forests are unique ecosystems that can transition to dry-sclerophyll forests or to rainforests. Understanding of the dynamics of these forests for conservation is limited. We evaluated the long-term succession of wet-sclerophyll forest on World Heritage listed K’gari (Fraser Island)the world’s largest sand island. We recorded the presence and growth of tree species in three 0.4 hectare plots that had been subjected to selective logging, fire, and cyclone disturbance over 65 years, from 1952 to...

Reconstructing the historical fauna of a large continental island: a multispecies reintroduction risk analysis

Katie Peterson, Michael Bode, Cailan Jeynes-Smith, Megan Barnes, Cailan Jeynes-Smith, Saul Cowen, Lesley Gibson, Collen Sims, Christopher Baker & Michael Bode
1. Reintroduction projects, which are an important tool in threatened species conservation, are becoming more complex, often involving the translocation of multiple species. Ecological theory predicts that the sequence and timing of reintroductions will play an important role in their success or failure. Following the removal of sheep, goats and feral cats, the Western Australian government is sequentially reintroducing 13 native fauna species to restore the globally important natural and cultural values of Dirk Hartog...

Data from: Mixture models of nucleotide sequence evolution that account for heterogeneity in the substitution process across sites and across lineages

Vivek Jayaswal, Thomas K. F. Wong, John Robinson, Leon Poladian, Lars S. Jermiin & Thomas K.F. Wong
Molecular phylogenetic studies of homologous sequences of nucleotides often assume that the underlying evolutionary process was globally stationary, reversible and homogeneous (SRH), and that a model of evolution with one or more site-specific and time-reversible rate matrices (e.g., the GTR rate matrix) is enough to accurately model the evolution of data over the whole tree. However, an increasing body of data suggests that evolution under these conditions is an exception, rather than the norm. To...

Data from: \"NGS based generation of expressed sequence tags for Lymantria dispar and Lymantria monacha, two closely related lepidopteran species with different responses to parasitism by Glyptapanteles liparidis\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 December 2013 to 31 January 2014

Wolfgang Arthofer, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner, Florian M. Steiner, Christa Schafellner, Gregor A. Wachter, Anthony R. Clarke, Nagalingam Kumaran & Peter J. Prentis
Introduction: The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and the nun moth, Lymantria monacha, are closely related species (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae), co-seasonal and economically important forest pests on broadleaf and coniferous trees. In Central Europe, gypsy moth larvae are frequently parasitized by the gregarious, endoparasitic wasp Glyptapanteles liparidis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). At oviposition, the female wasp injects between 10 and up to 100 eggs into the hemocoel of a single host larva, together with venom and calyx fluid containing...

Data from: Tradeoffs between maize silage yield and nitrate leaching in a Mediterranean nitrate-vulnerable zone under current and projected climate scenarios

Bruno Basso, Pietro Giola, Benjamin Dumont, Massimiliano De Antoni Migliorati, Davide Cammarano, Giovanni Pruneddu, Francesco Giunta & Massimiliano De Antoni Migliorati
Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i) evaluate the ability of the SALUS crop model to reproduce experimental crop yield and soil nitrate dynamics results under different N fertilizer treatments in a farmer’s field, ii) use the SALUS model to estimate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments on NO3- leaching under...

Data from: Sensitivity of global soil carbon stocks to combined nutrient enrichment

Thomas W. Crowther, Charlotte Riggs, Eric M. Lind, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Sarah E. Hobbie, E. R. Jasper Wubs, Peter B. Adler, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Johannes M. H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens & Devin Routh
Soil stores approximately twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and fluctuations in the size of the soil carbon pool directly influence climate conditions. We used the Nutrient Network global change experiment to examine how anthropogenic nutrient enrichment might influence grassland soil carbon storage at a global scale. In isolation, enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorous had minimal impacts on soil carbon storage. However, when these nutrients were added in combination with potassium and micronutrients, soil...

Data from: More salt, please: global patterns, responses, and impacts of foliar sodium in grasslands

Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric M. Lind, Jennifer Firn, Eric W. Seabloom, T. Michael Anderson, Elizabeth S. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew S. MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, Anita C. Risch, Martin Schutz & Carly J. Stevens
Sodium is unique among abundant elemental nutrients, because most plant species do not require it for growth or development, whereas animals physiologically require sodium. Foliar sodium influences consumption rates by animals and can structure herbivores across landscapes. We quantified foliar sodium in 201 locally abundant, herbaceous species representing 32 families and, at 26 sites on four continents, experimentally manipulated vertebrate herbivores and elemental nutrients to determine their effect on foliar sodium. Foliar sodium varied taxonomically...

Data from: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs

Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Eric Harvey, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Martin Schütz, Yvonne M. Buckley, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew M. MacDougall, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Erica Porter, Emma Ladouceur, Charlotte Allen, Karine H. Moromizato, John W. Morgan, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Nico Eisenhauer, Justin P. Wright, Peter B. Adler, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker … & Anita C. Risch
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus...

Data from: Has open data arrived at the British Medical Journal (BMJ)? An observational study

Anisa Rowhani-Farid & Adrian G. Barnett
Objective: To quantify data sharing policy compliance at the BMJ by analysing the rate of data sharing practices, and investigate attitudes and examine barriers towards data sharing. Design: Observational study. Setting: The BMJ research archive. Participants: 160 randomly sampled BMJ research articles, excluding meta-analysis and systematic reviews. Main outcome measures: Percentages of research articles that indicated the availability of their raw datasets in their data sharing statements and those that provided their datasets upon request....

Data from: Australian rodents reveal conserved craniofacial evolutionary allometry across 10 million years of murid evolution

Ariel Emily Marcy, Thomas Guillerme, Emma Sherratt, Kevin C. Rowe, Matthew J. Phillips & Vera Weisbecker
Among vertebrates, placental mammals are particularly variable in the covariance between cranial shape and body size (allometry), with rodents a major exception. Australian murid rodents allow an assessment of the cause of this anomaly because they radiated on an ecologically diverse continent notably lacking other terrestrial placentals. Here we use 3D geometric morphometrics to quantify species-level and evolutionary allometries in 38 species (317 crania) from all Australian murid genera. We ask if ecological opportunity resulted...

Determining the efficacy of camera traps, live capture traps, and detection dogs for locating cryptic small mammal species

Morgan Thomas, Lynn Baker, James Beattie & Andrew Baker
Metal box (e.g., Elliott, Sherman) traps and remote cameras are two of the most commonly employed methods presently used to survey terrestrial mammals. However, their relative efficacy at accurately detecting cryptic small mammals has not been adequately assessed. The present study therefore compared the effectiveness of metal box (Elliott) traps and vertically oriented, close range, white flash camera traps in detecting small mammals occurring in the Scenic Rim of eastern Australia. We also conducted a...

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