141 Works

Data from: Managing seagrass resilience under cumulative dredging affecting light: predicting risk using dynamic Bayesian networks

Paul Pao-Yen Wu, Kathryn McMahon, Michael A. Rasheed, Gary A. Kendrick, Paul H. York, Kathryn Chartrand, M. Julian Caley & Kerrie Mengersen
Coastal development is contributing to ongoing declines of ecosystems globally. Consequently, understanding the risks posed to these systems, and how they respond to successive disturbances, is paramount for their improved management. We study the cumulative impacts of maintenance dredging on seagrass ecosystems as a canonical example. Maintenance dredging causes disturbances lasting weeks to months, often repeated at yearly intervals. We present a risk-based modelling framework for time varying complex systems centred around a dynamic Bayesian...

Developmental Cost Theory predicts thermal environment and vulnerability to global warming

Dustin Marshall, Amanda Pettersen, Michael Bode & Craig White
Metazoans must develop from zygotes to feeding organisms. In doing so, developing offspring consume up to 60% of the energy provided by their parent. The cost of development depends on two rates: metabolic rate, which determines the rate that energy is used; and developmental rate, which determines the length of the developmental period. Both development and metabolism are highly temperature-dependent such that developmental costs should be sensitive to the local thermal environment. Here we develop,...

Skull shape of a widely-distributed, endangered marsupial reveals little evidence of local adaptation between fragmented populations

Pietro Viacava, Vera Weisbecker, Simone P. Blomberg, Gabriele Sansalone, Thomas Guillerme, Skye F. Cameron, Robbie S. Wilson & Matthew J. Phillips
The biogeographical distribution of diversity among populations of threatened mammalian species is generally investigated using population genetics. However, intraspecific phenotypic diversity is rarely assessed beyond taxonomy-focused linear measurements or qualitative descriptions. Here, we use a technique widely used in the evolutionary sciences – geometric morphometrics – to characterize shape diversity in the skull of an endangered marsupial, the northern quoll, across its 5,000 km distribution range along Northern Australia. Skull shape is a proxy for...

Data from: Priorities and motivations of marine coastal restoration research

Elisa Bayraktarov, Shantala Brisbane, Phoebe J Stewart-Sinclair, Audrey Van Herwaarden, Keila Stark, Valerie Hagger, Carter S Smith, Kerrie A Wilson, Catherine E Lovelock, Chris Gillies, Andrew D L Steven & Megan I Saunders
Active restoration is becoming an increasingly important conservation intervention to counteract the degradation of marine coastal ecosystems. Understanding what has motivated the scientific community to research the restoration of marine coastal ecosystems and how restoration research projects are funded is essential if we want to scale-up restoration interventions to meaningful extents.Here, we systematically review and synthesize data to understand the motivations for research on the restoration of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, saltmarsh, and oyster reefs....

ISIMIP3b ocean input data

Matthias Büchner
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3b part of the third simulation round is dedicated to a quantification of climate-related risks at different levels of global warming and socio-economic change. ISIMIP3b group I simulations are based on historical...

Identification Of Two-Phase Coral Reef Recovery Patterns

D J Warne, K A Crossman, W Jin, K Mengersen, K Osborne, M J Simpson, A A Thompson, P Wu & J-C Ortiz

Mini-acoustic sensors reveal occupancy and threats to koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in private native forests

Brad Law, Isobel Kerr, Leroy Gonsalves, Traecey Brassil, Philip Eichinski, Anthony Truskinger & Paul Roe
1. Forests on private land have a wide range of uses that span activities such as recreation, primary production and nature conservation. Traditionally, it has been difficult for researchers to access private land to undertake systematic surveys. We used mini-acoustic sensors (Audiomoth) mailed via the postal service to overcome landholder concerns about researchers accessing private property, with a focus on properties used for private native forestry. 2. We surveyed koalas, an iconic threatened marsupial, in...

Sensing Science and Engineering Centre (SEC) Structural Data

Sixteen vibrating wire strain gauges mounted on sister bars to the steel reinforcement in the pile column. Twelve vibrating sensors report strain in four sides (North, South, East and West) at Vertical, North-South and East-West alignments, and the remaining four are mounted on the level above on four sides (North, South, East and West) at Vertical alignment. Sixteen strain gauges mounted on sister bars are also monitoring strain as a comparison to the vibrating wires....

Adherence to 24-hour movement guidelines among rural Brazalian preschool children: associations with parenting practices

Widjane Sheila Ferreira Goncalves, Rebecca Byrne, Pedro Israel Cabral de Lira, Marcelo Tavares Viana & Stewart G. Trost
Abstract Background: Young children residing in rural areas of low-and-middle income countries (LMICs) such as Brazil are at greater risk of obesity and related chronic health conditions. Yet, the extent to which rural preschool children from Brazil aged 3- to 6-years meet the World Health Organisation (WHO) 24-hour movement guidelines is unknown. Parents play a central role in the development of children’s movement behaviors with logistic support, co-participation, modelling, and setting rules and limits recognized...

Additional file 1 of Understanding how and under what circumstances decision coaching works for people making healthcare decisions: a realist review

Junqiang Zhao, Janet Jull, Jeanette Finderup, Maureen Smith, Simone Maria Kienlin, Anne Christin Rahn, Sandra Dunn, Yumi Aoki, Leanne Brown, Gillian Harvey & Dawn Stacey
Additional file 1: Appendix A: Demographic of executive and stakeholder group members. Appendix B: Initial program theory. Appendix C: Relevance rating checklist. Appendix D: Data extraction form.

Meal replacement as a weight loss strategy for night shift workers with obesity: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Piumika Sooriyaarachchi, Ranil Jayawardena, Toby Pavey & Neil A. King
Abstract Background Shift work is considered a risk factor for a number of chronic health conditions including obesity. Weight reduction in obese patients lowers the risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers, and mortality. Achieving a negative energy balance by providing low-calorie meal replacements is widely used for weight management. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a low-calorie “meal-replacement” on the weight and metabolic parameters of shift workers with obesity. Methods This trial...

Different epidemiology of bloodstream infections in COVID-19 compared to non-COVID-19 critically ill patients: a descriptive analysis of the Eurobact II study

Niccolò Buetti, Alexis Tabah, Ambre Loiodice, Stéphane Ruckly, Abdullah Tarik Aslan, Giorgia Montrucchio, Andrea Cortegiani, Nese Saltoglu, Bircan Kayaaslan, Firdevs Aksoy, Akova Murat, Özlem Akdoğan, Kemal Tolga Saracoglu, Cem Erdogan, Marc Leone, Ricard Ferrer, José-Artur Paiva, Yoshiro Hayashi, Mahesh Ramanan, Andrew Conway Morris, François Barbier & Jean-François Timsit
Abstract Background The study aimed to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HABSIs) between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 critically ill patients. Methods We used data from the Eurobact II study, a prospective observational multicontinental cohort study on HABSI treated in ICU. For the current analysis, we selected centers that included both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 critically ill patients. We performed descriptive statistics between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 in terms of patients’ characteristics, source of infection...

Integrated co-design: A model for co-designing with multiple stakeholder groups from the ‘fuzzy’ front-end to beyond project delivery

Jeremy Kerr, Michael Whelan, Okansa Zelenko, Keely Harper-Hill & Clare Villalba

Phylogenetic analysis of policistronic amino-acid sequences encoded by 116 flavivirus genomes

Lars Jermiin, Vivek Jayaswal & John Robinson
Recently, Genome Biology and Evolution (11:3341-3352) published three statistical tests for testing whether alignments of sequence data violate the phylogenetic assumption of evolution under homogeneous conditions. The tests extend the matched-pairs tests of symmetry, marginal symmetry, and internal symmetry for pairs of aligned homologous sequences to the case where a whole alignment is considered. Here we reveal that the new tests are misleading. We explain why this is so, reveal how the tests of whole...

Stress response during early sedation with dexmedetomidine compared with usual-care in ventilated critically ill patients

John P. R. Moore, Yahya Shehabi, Michael C. Reade, Michael Bailey, John F. Fraser, Lauren Murray, Christopher Anstey & Mervyn Singer
Abstract Background Sedative agents may variably impact the stress response. Dexmedetomidine is a sympatholytic alpha2-adrenergic agonist mainly used as a second-line sedative agent in mechanically ventilated patients. We hypothesised that early sedation with dexmedetomidine as the primary agent would result in a reduced stress response compared to usual sedatives in critically ill ventilated adults. Methods This was a prospective sub-study nested within a multi-centre randomised controlled trial of early sedation with dexmedetomidine versus usual care....

Cytotoxic flavonoids from the leaves of Callicarpa nudiflora hook

Jin-Lin Zhang, Yin Xiao, Lu Zhou, Shao-Yang Yin, Jia-Yin Long, Hong-Lin Xiang, Xi-Feng Sheng & Hui Zou
A new flavonoid glycoside, luteolin-3′-O-β-D-6″-acetyl glucopyranoside (1), along with six known flavonoids, were isolated from the leaves of Callicarpa nudiflora Hook. The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 6 exhibited potent cytotoxicity and compounds 1 and 7 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells.

Additional file 3 of Impact of a prospective feedback loop on care review activities in older patients at the end of life. A stepped-wedge randomised trial

Christine Brown, Xing J. Lee, Alison Farrington, Carla Shield, Hannah E. Carter, Steven M. McPhail, Magnolia Cardona, Kenneth Hillman, Leonie Callaway, Lindy Willmott, Ben P. White, Gillian Harvey, Nicholas Graves & Adrian G. Barnett
Additional file 3. Supplementary Figures and tables.

Impact of a prospective feedback loop on care review activities in older patients at the end of life. A stepped-wedge randomised trial

Christine Brown, Xing J. Lee, Alison Farrington, Carla Shield, Hannah E. Carter, Steven M. McPhail, Magnolia Cardona, Kenneth Hillman, Leonie Callaway, Lindy Willmott, Ben P. White, Gillian Harvey, Nicholas Graves & Adrian G. Barnett
Abstract Background Hospitalisation rates for older people are increasing, with end-of-life care becoming a more medicalised experience. Innovative approaches are warranted to support early identification of the end-of-life phase, communicate prognosis, provide care consistent with people’s preferences, and improve the use of healthcare resources. The Intervention for Appropriate Care and Treatment (InterACT) trial aimed to increase appropriate care and treatment decisions for older people at the end of life, through implementation of a prospective feedback...

CELPI: trial protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a Carer End of Life Planning Intervention in people dying with dementia

G Arendts, L Chenoweth, BJ Hayes, E Campbell, M Agar, C Etherton-Beer, K Spilsbury, K Howard, G Braitberg, M Cubitt, C Sheehan, L Magann, T Sudharshan, LM Schnitker, J Pearce, I Gilmore, N Cerra, J duPreez, R Jaworski, S-C Soh & A Celenza
Abstract Background Dementia is a leading cause of death in developed nations. Despite an often distressing and symptom laden end of life, there are systematic barriers to accessing palliative care in older people dying of dementia. Evidence exists that 70% of people living with severe dementia attend an emergency department (ED) in their last year of life. The aim of this trial is to test whether a Carer End of Life Planning Intervention (CELPI), co-designed...

Additional file 1 of Health service use for young males and females with a mental disorder is higher than their peers in a population-level matched cohort

Rebecca J Mitchell, Anne McMaugh, Reidar P Lystad, Cate M Cameron & Olav Nielssen
Additional file 1: Supplementary Table 1. Case identification and diagnostic classification. Supplementary Table 2. Health conditions and ICD-10-AM classifications. Supplementary Table 3. Principal diagnosis of the first read mission for young people hospitalised with a mental disorder by sex, linked health and mortality data NSW, 2005-2018. Supplementary Table 4. Rate ratio of further hospital admissions for young people hospitalised with a mental disorder and their matched comparison by sex, linked health and mortality data NSW,...

Data from: Genomic evidence for the parallel evolution of coastal forms in the Senecio lautus complex

Federico Roda, Luke Ambrose, Gregory M. Walter, Huanle L. Liu, Andrea Schaul, Andrew Lowe, Pieter B. Pelser, Peter Prentis, Loren H. Rieseberg & Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos
Instances of parallel ecotypic divergence where adaptation to similar conditions repeatedly cause similar phenotypic changes in closely related organisms are useful for studying the role of ecological selection in speciation. Here we used a combination of traditional and next generation genotyping techniques to test for the parallel divergence of plants from the Senecio lautus complex, a phenotypically variable groundsel that has adapted to disparate environments in the South Pacific. Phylogenetic analysis of a broad selection...

Data from: Evolutionary potential of the extrinsic incubation period of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti

Yixin H. Ye, Stephen F. Chenoweth, Alison M. Carrasco, Scott Lee Allen, Francesca D. Frentiu, Andrew F. Van Den Hurk, Nigel W. Beebe & Elizabeth A. McGraw
Dengue fever is the most common arboviral disease worldwide. It is caused by dengue viruses (DENV) and the mosquito Aedes aegypti is its primary vector. One of the most powerful determinants of a mosquito's ability to transmit DENV is the length of the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), the time it takes for a virus to be transmitted by a mosquito after consuming an infected blood meal. Here, we repeatedly measured DENV load in the saliva...

Data from: Mammalian herbivores affect leafhoppers associated with specific plant functional types at different timescales

Martijn L. Vandegehuchte, Valeria Trivellone, Martin Schütz, Jennifer Firn, Frederic De Schaetzen & Anita C. Risch
1. Theory predicts that mammalian herbivores affect the quantity and quality of plants on which they preferentially feed in the short term. In the longer term, they can promote either preferred or less preferred plants, depending on whether preferred plants are adapted or sensitive to grazing. Less clear are the short- and long-term responses of herbivorous insects to mammalian herbivory, and how these responses depend on the specific plants or plant functional types on which...

Data from: Herbivory and eutrophication mediate grassland plant nutrient responses across a global climatic gradient

T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schütz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg & Elizabeth T. Borer
Plant stoichiometry, the relative concentration of elements, is a key regulator of ecosystem functioning and is also being altered by human activities. In this paper we sought to understand the global drivers of plant stoichiometry and compare the relative contribution of climatic vs. anthropogenic effects. We addressed this goal by measuring plant elemental (C, N, P and K) responses to eutrophication and vertebrate herbivore exclusion at eighteen sites on six continents. Across sites, climate and...

Data from: Netted crop covers reduce honey bee foraging activity and colony strength in a mass flowering crop

Lisa J. Evans, Brian T. Cutting, Mateusz Jochym, Milena A. Janke, Crystal Felman, Sarah Cross, Marine Jacob & Mark Goodwin
The widespread use of protective covers in horticulture represents a novel landscape-level change, presenting challenges for crop pollination. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L) are pollinators of many crops, but their behaviour can be affected by conditions under covers. To determine how netting crop covers can affect honey bee foraging dynamics, colony health, and pollination services, we assessed the performance of 52 nucleus honey bee colonies in five covered and six uncovered kiwifruit orchards. Colony strength...

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Affiliations

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    141
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