301 Works

Jes 7,1–17: Immanuel – ist Gott mit uns?

Agnethe Siquans

Adoption Costs of Financial Innovation: Evidence from Italian ATM Cards

Kim Huynh, Philipp Schmidt-Dengler, Gregor W. Smith & Angelika Welte
The discrete choice to adopt a financial innovation affects a household’s exposure to inflation and transactions costs. We model this adoption decision as being subject to an unobserved cost. Estimating the cost requires a dynamic structural model, to which we apply a conditional choice simulation estimator. A novel feature of our method is that preference parameters are estimated separately, from the Euler equations of a shopping-time model, to aid statistical efficiency. We apply this method...

Vom Anfang und Ende der Bick-Medaille

Christina Köstner-Pemsel & Justus Düren
75 Jahre VÖB. 1946–2021, Hg. v. Alker-Windbichler, Bauer und Köstner-Pemsel, 2021, S. 309–331

Data from: Postglacial determinants of regional species pools in alpine grasslands

Borja Jiménez-Alfaro, Wolfgang Willner, Eszter Ruprecht, Kiril Vassilev, Nevena Kuzmanovic, Renata Ćušterevska, Djordjije Milanovic, Josef Sibik, Sylvain Abdulhak, Angela Stanisci, Maria Luisa Carranza, Ariel Bergamini, Corrado Marcenó & Gianpietro Giusso Del Galdo
Aim: Alpine habitats support unique biodiversity confined to high-elevation areas in the current interglacial. Plant diversity in these habitats responds to area, environment, connectivity and isolation, yet these factors have been rarely evaluated in concert. Here we investigate major determinants of regional species pools in alpine grasslands, and the responses of their constituent species groups. Location: European mountains below 50ºN. Time Period: Between 1928 and 2019. Major Taxa Studied: Vascular plants. Methods: We compiled species...

Gravity maps of the contact region of the Bohemian Massif, Eastern Alps, Vienna Basin and Western Carpathians

Jan Švancara, Bruno Meurers, Miroslav Bielik & Petr Špaček
A collection of gravity maps of the broader contact region of the Bohemian Massif, the Eastern Alps, the Vienna Basin and the Western Carpathians. Includes maps with basic topography and georeferenced raster images without topography, from which layers can be created in GIS. It includes a map of complete Bouguer anomalies, a map of horizontal gravity gradients and 3 types of maps of residual gravity anomalies.

Religiöse Vielfalt im Bereich der Bildung

Henning Schluß
In seinem Artikel diskutiert der Autor die Frage der religiösen Vielfalt in Bezug auf den Bereich der Bildung in der Opposition von Störfaktor und Chance und zeigt – anhand klassischer, Bildungsbegriffe, aktueller empirischer Bildungsforschung sowie Beobachtungen in der Lebenswelt – dass religiöse Vielfalt, gerade weil sie Störfaktor sein kann, Bildungschancen bietet.

Herausforderung ethnographische Daten: Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse aus dem Pilotprojekt Ethnographische Datenarchivierung an der Universität Wien

Igor Eberhard
In der Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie gibt es komplexe und spezifische Anforderungen sowohl an die Forschung selbst als auch an das Forschungsdatenmanagement. Die vorwiegend qualitative ethnographische Forschung bedarf besonderer Maßstäbe an ethischen und rechtlichen Standards sowie an Datenmanagement- und Archivierungsstrategien. Im Pilotprojekt Ethnographische Datenarchivierung der Universitätsbibliothek Wien am Institut für Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie (2017–2019) wurden die Herausforderungen, Möglichkeiten und besonderen Chancen für ethnographische Datenarchive ausgelotet. Die Ergebnisse dieses Projekts bieten mögliche Antworten für das ganze Fach...

„Suizid-Bücher“ – Provenienzforschung und bibliothekarische Erinnerungsarbeit

Markus Stumpf & Jutta Fuchshuber
Der vorliegende Beitrag widmet sich dem in der Provenienzforschung bisher nur marginal behandelten Thema des Suizids. Durch die Demütigung, Diskriminierung, Enteignung und Verfolgung während des NS-Regimes stieg die Anzahl der Selbstmorde von Jüdinnen und Juden. Zunächst werden die in Österreich vorhandenen Quellenbestände exemplarisch aufgezeigt. Anhand des Fallbeispiels von Eleonora und Stefan Czember wird schließlich der Frage nachgegangen, wie mit Büchern umgangen werden soll, die zwar legal erworben wurden, aber eindeutig von Opfern des Holocaust stammen.

Vorwort

Christina Köstner-Pemsel, Elisabeth Stadler & Markus Stumpf

An explicit test of Pleistocene survival in peripheral versus nunatak refugia in two high mountain plant species

Da Pan, Wolfgang Willner, Karl Hülber & Gerald M. Schneeweiss
Pleistocene climate fluctuations had profound influence on the biogeographic history of many biota. As large areas in higher latitudes and high mountain ranges were covered by glaciers, biota were forced either to peripheral refugia (and possibly beyond to lowland refugia) or to interior refugia (nunataks), but nunatak survival remains controversial as it solely relies on correlative genetic evidence. Here, we test the nunatak hypothesis using two high alpine plant species of contrasting pollination modes (insect-pollinated...

Unobtrusive tracking of interpersonal orienting and distance predicts the subjective quality of social interactions

Juha M Lahnakoski, Paul AG Forbes, Cade McCall & Leonhard Schilbach
Interpersonal coordination of behavior is essential for smooth social interactions. Measures of interpersonal behavior, however, often rely on subjective evaluations, invasive measurement techniques or gross measures of motion. Here, we constructed an unobtrusive motion tracking system that enables detailed analysis of behavior at the individual and interpersonal levels, which we validated using wearable sensors. We evaluate dyadic measures of joint orienting and distancing, synchrony and gaze behaviors to summarize data collected during natural conversation and...

Data from: The effectiveness of pseudomagic traits in promoting divergence and enhancing local adaptation

Maria R. Servedio & Bürger Reinhard
The first file contains the code necessary to generate figures in the style of Fig 1 of the associated manuscript. These figures show the divergence between both ecological traits and mating traits by the strength of mating preference. Different panels correspond to different rates of recombination between these loci that control these types of traits. Files S1 and S2 are Mathematica versions of the corresponding files in the Supplementary Information of the paper.

Data from: Autofertility and self-compatibility moderately benefit island colonization of plants

Mialy Razanajatovo, Mark Van Kleunen, Holger Kreft, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Marten Winter & Patrick Weigelt
Aim: The current geographical distribution of species largely reflects colonization success after natural long‐distance dispersal or introduction by humans. Plants with selfing ability should have an advantage when establishing on islands where mates and pollinators are limited (Baker's law). However, high percentages of dioecious and self‐incompatible species have been reported for some islands, possibly resulting from post‐colonization evolution. Given that such evolution is less likely to apply to alien species recently introduced to islands by...

Data from: Where have all the tadpoles gone? Individual genetic tracking of amphibian larvae until adulthood.

Eva Ringler, Rosanna Mangione & Max Ringler
Reliably marking larvae and reidentifying them after metamorphosis is a challenge that has hampered studies on recruitment, dispersal, migration and survivorship of amphibians for a long time, as conventional tags are not reliably retained through metamorphosis. Molecular methods allow unique genetic fingerprints to be established for individuals. Although microsatellite markers have successfully been applied in mark–recapture studies on several animal species, they have never been previously used in amphibians to follow individuals across different life...

Data from: Studying developmental variation with Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis (GMIA)

Christine Mayer, Brian D. Metscher, Gerd B. Müller & Philipp Mitteroecker
The ways in which embryo development can vary across individuals of a population determine how genetic variation translates into adult phenotypic variation. The study of developmental variation has been hampered by the lack of quantitative methods for the joint analysis of embryo shape and the spatial distribution of cellular activity within the developing embryo geometry. By drawing from the strength of geometric morphometrics and pixel/voxel-based image analysis, we present a new approach for the biometric...

Data from: Evolution of body shape in sympatric versus non-sympatric Tropheus populations of Lake Tanganyika

Michaela Kerschbaumer, Philipp Mitteroecker & Christian Sturmbauer
Allopatric speciation often yields ecologically equivalent sister species, so that their secondary admixis enforces competition. The shores of Lake Tanganyika harbor about 120 distinct populations of the cichlid genus Tropheus, but only some are sympatric. When alone, Tropheus occupies a relatively broad depth zone, but in sympatry, fish segregate by depth. To assess the effects of competition, we studied the partial co-occurrence of Tropheus moorii ‘Kaiser’ and ‘Kirschfleck’ with Tropheus polli. A previous study demonstrated...

Data from: Drivers shaping the diversity and biogeography of total and active bacterial communities in the South China Sea

Yao Zhang, Zihao Zhao, Minhan Dai, Nianzhi Jiao & Gerhard J. Herndl
To test the hypothesis that different drivers shape the diversity and biogeography of the total and active bacterial community, we examined the bacterial community composition along two transects, one from the inner Pearl River estuary to the open waters of the South China Sea (SCS) and the other from the Luzon Strait to the SCS basin, using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene (V1-3 regions) and thereby, characterizing the active and...

Data from: The utility of cranial ontogeny for phylogenetic inference: a case study in crocodylians using geometric morphometrics

Akinobu Watanabe & Dennis E. Slice
The degree to which the ontogeny of organisms could facilitate our understanding of phylogenetic relationships has long been a subject of contention in evolutionary biology. The famed notion that ‘ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny’ has been largely discredited, but there remains an expectation that closely related organisms undergo similar morphological transformations throughout ontogeny. To test this assumption, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometric methods to characterize the cranial morphology of 10 extant crocodylian species and construct allometric trajectories...

Data from: Differentiating self-projection from simulation during mentalizing: evidence from fMRI

Matthias Schurz, Christoph Kogler, Thomas Scherndl, Martin Kronbichler & Anton Kühberger
We asked participants to predict which of two colors a similar other (student) and a dissimilar other (retiree) likes better. We manipulated if color-pairs were two hues from the same color-category (e.g. green) or two conceptually different colors (e.g. green versus blue). In the former case, the mental state that has to be represented (i.e., the percept of two different hues of green) is predominantly non-conceptual or phenomenal in nature, which should promote mental simulation...

Data from: Reciprocal transplantations reveal strong niche differentiation among ploidy-differentiated species of the Senecio carniolicus aggregate (Asteraceae) in the easternmost Alps

Karl Hülber, Michaela Sonnleitner, Julian Haider, Martin Schwentenwein, Manuela Winkler, Gerald M. Schneeweiss & Peter Schönswetter
Phenotypic changes conferred by polyploidisation likely alter the ecological niche of polyploids, coming along with differences in performance compared to their diploid ancestors. However, it is largely unknown, whether these performance differences remain constant during the life history of plants. Diploid S. noricus, tetraploid S. disjunctus and hexaploid S. carniolicus s. str. of the autopolyploid species-complex of Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) from the easternmost Alps were reciprocally transplanted to address the following questions: Are there differences...

Data from: Light availability impacts structure and function of phototrophic stream biofilms across domains and trophic levels

Mia M. Bengtsson, Karoline Wagner, Clarissa Schwab, Tim Urich & Tom J. Battin
Phototrophic biofilms are ubiquitous in freshwater and marine environments where they are critical for biogeochemical cycling, food webs and in industrial applications. In streams, phototrophic biofilms dominate benthic microbial life and harbor an immense prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial biodiversity with biotic interactions across domains and trophic levels. Here, we examine how community structure and function of these biofilms respond to varying light availability, as the crucial energy source for phototrophic biofilms. Using metatranscriptomics, we found...

Data from: Selection against recombinant hybrids maintains reproductive isolation in hybridizing Populus species despite F1 fertility and recurrent gene flow

Camille Christie, Kai N. Stölting, Luisa Bresadola, Barbara Fussi, Berthold Heinze, Daniel Wegmann, Christian Lexer & Camille Christe
Natural hybrid zones have proven to be precious tools for understanding the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation (RI) and therefore species. Most available genomic studies of hybrid zones using whole- or partial-genome resequencing approaches have focused on comparisons of the parental source populations involved in genome admixture, rather than exploring fine-scale patterns of chromosomal ancestry across the full admixture gradient present between hybridizing species. We have studied three well-known European ‘replicate’ hybrid zones of...

Data from: Massive structural redundancies in species composition patterns of floodplain forest moths

Christine Truxa & Konrad Fiedler
Terrestrial arthropod communities usually consist of very large species numbers. Data from experiments or long time-series would be required to ascertain the functional significance of individual species. Both are largely unavailable for species-rich natural communities. Recognising structural redundancies in species composition allows for an alternative approach to address how strong functional redundancy might be in natural assemblages, if structural and functional redundancies are related to each other. Determining structural redundancies is a regular topic in...

Data from: The EGA+GNM framework: an integrative approach to modelling behavioural syndromes

Jordan S. Martin, Jorg J. M. Massen, Vedrana Šlipogor, Thomas Bugnyar, Adrian V. Jaeggi & Sonja E. Koski
1. Behavioural syndromes refer to correlated suites of behavioural traits exhibiting consistent among-individual variation, i.e. personality. Factor analysis (FA) is currently the dominant method for modelling behavioural syndromes in humans and animals. Although FA is useful for inferring the latent causes underlying trait correlations, it does not account for pairwise behavioural interactions that also contribute to syndrome structure. Given that latent factors and pairwise interactions are likely ubiquitous causes of trait covariation, both should be...

Data from: Genetic differentiation and admixture between sibling allopolyploids in the Dactylorhiza majalis complex

Ovidiu Paun, Francisco Balao, Maria Tannhäuser, Maria Teresa Lorenzo & Mikael Hedrén
Allopolyploidization often happens recurrently, but the evolutionary significance of its iterative nature is not yet fully understood. Of particular interest are the gene flow dynamics and the mechanisms that allow young sibling polyploids to remain distinct while sharing the same ploidy, heritage and overlapping distribution areas. By using eight highly variable nuclear microsatellites, newly reported here, we investigate the patterns of divergence and gene flow between 386 polyploid and 42 diploid individuals, representing the sibling...

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