256 Works

Jes 7,1–17: Immanuel – ist Gott mit uns?

Agnethe Siquans

Adoption Costs of Financial Innovation: Evidence from Italian ATM Cards

Kim Huynh, Philipp Schmidt-Dengler, Gregor W. Smith & Angelika Welte
The discrete choice to adopt a financial innovation affects a household’s exposure to inflation and transactions costs. We model this adoption decision as being subject to an unobserved cost. Estimating the cost requires a dynamic structural model, to which we apply a conditional choice simulation estimator. A novel feature of our method is that preference parameters are estimated separately, from the Euler equations of a shopping-time model, to aid statistical efficiency. We apply this method...

Religiöse Vielfalt im Bereich der Bildung

Henning Schluß
In seinem Artikel diskutiert der Autor die Frage der religiösen Vielfalt in Bezug auf den Bereich der Bildung in der Opposition von Störfaktor und Chance und zeigt – anhand klassischer, Bildungsbegriffe, aktueller empirischer Bildungsforschung sowie Beobachtungen in der Lebenswelt – dass religiöse Vielfalt, gerade weil sie Störfaktor sein kann, Bildungschancen bietet.

Herausforderung ethnographische Daten: Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse aus dem Pilotprojekt Ethnographische Datenarchivierung an der Universität Wien

Igor Eberhard
In der Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie gibt es komplexe und spezifische Anforderungen sowohl an die Forschung selbst als auch an das Forschungsdatenmanagement. Die vorwiegend qualitative ethnographische Forschung bedarf besonderer Maßstäbe an ethischen und rechtlichen Standards sowie an Datenmanagement- und Archivierungsstrategien. Im Pilotprojekt Ethnographische Datenarchivierung der Universitätsbibliothek Wien am Institut für Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie (2017–2019) wurden die Herausforderungen, Möglichkeiten und besonderen Chancen für ethnographische Datenarchive ausgelotet. Die Ergebnisse dieses Projekts bieten mögliche Antworten für das ganze Fach...

„Suizid-Bücher“ – Provenienzforschung und bibliothekarische Erinnerungsarbeit

Markus Stumpf & Jutta Fuchshuber
Der vorliegende Beitrag widmet sich dem in der Provenienzforschung bisher nur marginal behandelten Thema des Suizids. Durch die Demütigung, Diskriminierung, Enteignung und Verfolgung während des NS-Regimes stieg die Anzahl der Selbstmorde von Jüdinnen und Juden. Zunächst werden die in Österreich vorhandenen Quellenbestände exemplarisch aufgezeigt. Anhand des Fallbeispiels von Eleonora und Stefan Czember wird schließlich der Frage nachgegangen, wie mit Büchern umgangen werden soll, die zwar legal erworben wurden, aber eindeutig von Opfern des Holocaust stammen.

Vorwort

Christina Köstner-Pemsel, Elisabeth Stadler & Markus Stumpf

Tradition als Innovation. Finanzverwaltung in der Habsburgermonarchie um 1700

Franz-Stefan Seitschek
The paper deals with the process of introducing mercantile principles into the Habsburg financial administration. A lot of ideas were already suggested by the economic thinkers of the 2nd half of the 17th century such as Johann Joachim Becher or Philipp Wilhelm of Hörnigk. Of course this is well known but the article tries to illustrate the struggle of the Habsburg counselors for improving government and administration in the Habsburg lands. Only in the first...

Nachhaltiges Lernen

Andrea Lehner-Hartmann, Oskar Dangl & Martin Rothgangel
ÖRF - Jg. 28 (2020), H. Heft: H. 2: Nachhaltiges Lernen, S. 5-10

Politische Gewalt als Möglichkeitserweiterung? Zwischen Tortenwurf und Terror: Überlegungen zu einer Hauntology politischer Gewalt

Nikolaus Lehner
Are there forms of violence that are likely to expand our possibilities? Usually we associate political violence with terror and repression, i.e. with forms of violence that lead to the restriction of possibilities or to the consolidation of social conditions. In this article, I examine various approaches that promote the use of grassroots based political violence as midwife of expanded possibilities and discuss different shortcomings of these approaches. In the second part of the article...

Data from: The rediscovery of a long described species reveals additional complexity in speciation patterns of poeciliid fishes in sulfide springs

Maura Palacios, Lenin Arias-Rodrigues, Martin Plath, Constanze Eifert, Hannes Lerp, Anton Lamboj, Gary Voelker, Michael Tobler & Lenin Arias-Rodriguez
The process of ecological speciation drives the evolution of locally adapted and reproductively isolated populations in response to divergent natural selection. In Southern Mexico, several lineages of the freshwater fish species of the genus Poecilia have independently colonized toxic, hydrogen sulfide-rich springs. Even though ecological speciation processes are increasingly well understood in this system, aligning the taxonomy of these fish with evolutionary processes has lagged behind. While some sulfide spring populations are classified as ecotypes...

Data from: Evolution of body shape in sympatric versus non-sympatric Tropheus populations of Lake Tanganyika

Michaela Kerschbaumer, Philipp Mitteroecker & Christian Sturmbauer
Allopatric speciation often yields ecologically equivalent sister species, so that their secondary admixis enforces competition. The shores of Lake Tanganyika harbor about 120 distinct populations of the cichlid genus Tropheus, but only some are sympatric. When alone, Tropheus occupies a relatively broad depth zone, but in sympatry, fish segregate by depth. To assess the effects of competition, we studied the partial co-occurrence of Tropheus moorii ‘Kaiser’ and ‘Kirschfleck’ with Tropheus polli. A previous study demonstrated...

Data from: The utility of cranial ontogeny for phylogenetic inference: a case study in crocodylians using geometric morphometrics

Akinobu Watanabe & Dennis E. Slice
The degree to which the ontogeny of organisms could facilitate our understanding of phylogenetic relationships has long been a subject of contention in evolutionary biology. The famed notion that ‘ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny’ has been largely discredited, but there remains an expectation that closely related organisms undergo similar morphological transformations throughout ontogeny. To test this assumption, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometric methods to characterize the cranial morphology of 10 extant crocodylian species and construct allometric trajectories...

Data from: Drivers shaping the diversity and biogeography of total and active bacterial communities in the South China Sea

Yao Zhang, Zihao Zhao, Minhan Dai, Nianzhi Jiao & Gerhard J. Herndl
To test the hypothesis that different drivers shape the diversity and biogeography of the total and active bacterial community, we examined the bacterial community composition along two transects, one from the inner Pearl River estuary to the open waters of the South China Sea (SCS) and the other from the Luzon Strait to the SCS basin, using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene (V1-3 regions) and thereby, characterizing the active and...

Data from: Studying developmental variation with Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis (GMIA)

Christine Mayer, Brian D. Metscher, Gerd B. Müller & Philipp Mitteroecker
The ways in which embryo development can vary across individuals of a population determine how genetic variation translates into adult phenotypic variation. The study of developmental variation has been hampered by the lack of quantitative methods for the joint analysis of embryo shape and the spatial distribution of cellular activity within the developing embryo geometry. By drawing from the strength of geometric morphometrics and pixel/voxel-based image analysis, we present a new approach for the biometric...

Data from: Light availability impacts structure and function of phototrophic stream biofilms across domains and trophic levels

Mia M. Bengtsson, Karoline Wagner, Clarissa Schwab, Tim Urich & Tom J. Battin
Phototrophic biofilms are ubiquitous in freshwater and marine environments where they are critical for biogeochemical cycling, food webs and in industrial applications. In streams, phototrophic biofilms dominate benthic microbial life and harbor an immense prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial biodiversity with biotic interactions across domains and trophic levels. Here, we examine how community structure and function of these biofilms respond to varying light availability, as the crucial energy source for phototrophic biofilms. Using metatranscriptomics, we found...

Data from: Reciprocal transplantations reveal strong niche differentiation among ploidy-differentiated species of the Senecio carniolicus aggregate (Asteraceae) in the easternmost Alps

Karl Hülber, Michaela Sonnleitner, Julian Haider, Martin Schwentenwein, Manuela Winkler, Gerald M. Schneeweiss & Peter Schönswetter
Phenotypic changes conferred by polyploidisation likely alter the ecological niche of polyploids, coming along with differences in performance compared to their diploid ancestors. However, it is largely unknown, whether these performance differences remain constant during the life history of plants. Diploid S. noricus, tetraploid S. disjunctus and hexaploid S. carniolicus s. str. of the autopolyploid species-complex of Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) from the easternmost Alps were reciprocally transplanted to address the following questions: Are there differences...

Data from: The EGA+GNM framework: an integrative approach to modelling behavioural syndromes

Jordan S. Martin, Jorg J. M. Massen, Vedrana Šlipogor, Thomas Bugnyar, Adrian V. Jaeggi & Sonja E. Koski
1. Behavioural syndromes refer to correlated suites of behavioural traits exhibiting consistent among-individual variation, i.e. personality. Factor analysis (FA) is currently the dominant method for modelling behavioural syndromes in humans and animals. Although FA is useful for inferring the latent causes underlying trait correlations, it does not account for pairwise behavioural interactions that also contribute to syndrome structure. Given that latent factors and pairwise interactions are likely ubiquitous causes of trait covariation, both should be...

Data from: Mosses reduce soil nitrogen availability in a subarctic birch forest via effects on soil thermal regime and sequestration of deposited nitrogen

Marianne Koranda & Anders Michelsen
In high-latitude ecosystems, bryophytes are important drivers of ecosystem functions. Alterations in abundance of mosses due to global change may thus strongly influence carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and hence cause feedback on climate. The effects of mosses on soil microbial activity are, however, still poorly understood. Our study aims at elucidating how and by which mechanisms bryophytes influence microbial decomposition processes of soil organic matter and thus soil nutrient availability. We present results...

Native biodiversity collapse in the Eastern Mediterranean

Paolo G. Albano, Jan Steger, Marija Bošnjak, Beata Dunne, Zara Guifarro, Elina Turapova, Quan Hua, Darrell Kaufman, Gil Rilov & Martin Zuschin
Global warming causes the poleward shift of the trailing edges of marine ectotherm species distributions. In the semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea, continental masses and oceanographic barriers do not allow natural connectivity with thermophilic species pools: as trailing edges retreat, a net diversity loss occurs. We quantify this loss on the Israeli shelf, among the warmest areas in the Mediterranean, by comparing current native molluscan richness with the historical one obtained from surficial death assemblages. We recorded...

Data from: The effectiveness of pseudomagic traits in promoting divergence and enhancing local adaptation

Maria R. Servedio & Bürger Reinhard
The first file contains the code necessary to generate figures in the style of Fig 1 of the associated manuscript. These figures show the divergence between both ecological traits and mating traits by the strength of mating preference. Different panels correspond to different rates of recombination between these loci that control these types of traits. Files S1 and S2 are Mathematica versions of the corresponding files in the Supplementary Information of the paper.

Unobtrusive tracking of interpersonal orienting and distance predicts the subjective quality of social interactions

Juha M Lahnakoski, Paul AG Forbes, Cade McCall & Leonhard Schilbach
Interpersonal coordination of behavior is essential for smooth social interactions. Measures of interpersonal behavior, however, often rely on subjective evaluations, invasive measurement techniques or gross measures of motion. Here, we constructed an unobtrusive motion tracking system that enables detailed analysis of behavior at the individual and interpersonal levels, which we validated using wearable sensors. We evaluate dyadic measures of joint orienting and distancing, synchrony and gaze behaviors to summarize data collected during natural conversation and...

Data from: Exploring actinobacteria associated with rhizosphere and endosphere of the native Alpine medicinal plant Leontopodium nivale Subspecies alpinum

Martina Oberhofer, Jaqueline Hess, Marlene Leutgeb, Florian Gössnitzer, Thomas Rattei, Christoph Wawrosch & Sergey B. Zotchev
The rhizosphere of plants is enriched in nutrients facilitating growth of microorganisms, some of which are recruited as endophytes. Endophytes, especially Actinobacteria, are known to produce a plethora of bioactive compounds. We hypothesized that Leontopodium nivale subsp. alpinum (Edelweiss), a rare alpine medicinal plant, may serve as yet untapped source for uncommon Actinobacteria associated with this plant. Rhizosphere soil of native Alpine plants was used, after physical and chemical pretreatments, for isolating Actinobacteria. Isolates were...

An explicit test of Pleistocene survival in peripheral versus nunatak refugia in two high mountain plant species

Da Pan, Wolfgang Willner, Karl Hülber & Gerald M. Schneeweiss
Pleistocene climate fluctuations had profound influence on the biogeographic history of many biota. As large areas in higher latitudes and high mountain ranges were covered by glaciers, biota were forced either to peripheral refugia (and possibly beyond to lowland refugia) or to interior refugia (nunataks), but nunatak survival remains controversial as it solely relies on correlative genetic evidence. Here, we test the nunatak hypothesis using two high alpine plant species of contrasting pollination modes (insect-pollinated...

Morphometric variation at different spatial scales: coordination and compensation in the emergence of organismal form

Philipp Mitteroecker, Silvester Bartsch, Nicole Grunstra, Anne Le Maitre, Fred Bookstein & Corinna Erkinger
It is a classic aim of quantitative and evolutionary biology to infer genetic architecture and potential evolutionary responses to selection from the variance-covariance structure of measured traits. But a meaningful genetic or developmental interpretation of raw covariances is difficult, and classic concepts of morphological integration do not directly apply to modern morphometric data. Here we present a new morphometric strategy based on the comparison of morphological variation across different spatial scales. If anatomical elements vary...

Data from: Where have all the tadpoles gone? Individual genetic tracking of amphibian larvae until adulthood.

Eva Ringler, Rosanna Mangione & Max Ringler
Reliably marking larvae and reidentifying them after metamorphosis is a challenge that has hampered studies on recruitment, dispersal, migration and survivorship of amphibians for a long time, as conventional tags are not reliably retained through metamorphosis. Molecular methods allow unique genetic fingerprints to be established for individuals. Although microsatellite markers have successfully been applied in mark–recapture studies on several animal species, they have never been previously used in amphibians to follow individuals across different life...

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