59 Works

Herausforderung ethnographische Daten: Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse aus dem Pilotprojekt Ethnographische Datenarchivierung an der Universität Wien

Igor Eberhard
In der Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie gibt es komplexe und spezifische Anforderungen sowohl an die Forschung selbst als auch an das Forschungsdatenmanagement. Die vorwiegend qualitative ethnographische Forschung bedarf besonderer Maßstäbe an ethischen und rechtlichen Standards sowie an Datenmanagement- und Archivierungsstrategien. Im Pilotprojekt Ethnographische Datenarchivierung der Universitätsbibliothek Wien am Institut für Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie (2017–2019) wurden die Herausforderungen, Möglichkeiten und besonderen Chancen für ethnographische Datenarchive ausgelotet. Die Ergebnisse dieses Projekts bieten mögliche Antworten für das ganze Fach...

„Suizid-Bücher“ – Provenienzforschung und bibliothekarische Erinnerungsarbeit

Markus Stumpf & Jutta Fuchshuber
Der vorliegende Beitrag widmet sich dem in der Provenienzforschung bisher nur marginal behandelten Thema des Suizids. Durch die Demütigung, Diskriminierung, Enteignung und Verfolgung während des NS-Regimes stieg die Anzahl der Selbstmorde von Jüdinnen und Juden. Zunächst werden die in Österreich vorhandenen Quellenbestände exemplarisch aufgezeigt. Anhand des Fallbeispiels von Eleonora und Stefan Czember wird schließlich der Frage nachgegangen, wie mit Büchern umgangen werden soll, die zwar legal erworben wurden, aber eindeutig von Opfern des Holocaust stammen.

Vorwort

Christina Köstner-Pemsel, Elisabeth Stadler & Markus Stumpf

Tradition als Innovation. Finanzverwaltung in der Habsburgermonarchie um 1700

Franz-Stefan Seitschek
The paper deals with the process of introducing mercantile principles into the Habsburg financial administration. A lot of ideas were already suggested by the economic thinkers of the 2nd half of the 17th century such as Johann Joachim Becher or Philipp Wilhelm of Hörnigk. Of course this is well known but the article tries to illustrate the struggle of the Habsburg counselors for improving government and administration in the Habsburg lands. Only in the first...

Nachhaltiges Lernen

Andrea Lehner-Hartmann, Oskar Dangl & Martin Rothgangel
ÖRF - Jg. 28 (2020), H. Heft: H. 2: Nachhaltiges Lernen, S. 5-10

Data from: Mosses reduce soil nitrogen availability in a subarctic birch forest via effects on soil thermal regime and sequestration of deposited nitrogen

Marianne Koranda & Anders Michelsen
In high-latitude ecosystems, bryophytes are important drivers of ecosystem functions. Alterations in abundance of mosses due to global change may thus strongly influence carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and hence cause feedback on climate. The effects of mosses on soil microbial activity are, however, still poorly understood. Our study aims at elucidating how and by which mechanisms bryophytes influence microbial decomposition processes of soil organic matter and thus soil nutrient availability. We present results...

Native biodiversity collapse in the Eastern Mediterranean

Paolo G. Albano, Jan Steger, Marija Bošnjak, Beata Dunne, Zara Guifarro, Elina Turapova, Quan Hua, Darrell Kaufman, Gil Rilov & Martin Zuschin
Global warming causes the poleward shift of the trailing edges of marine ectotherm species distributions. In the semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea, continental masses and oceanographic barriers do not allow natural connectivity with thermophilic species pools: as trailing edges retreat, a net diversity loss occurs. We quantify this loss on the Israeli shelf, among the warmest areas in the Mediterranean, by comparing current native molluscan richness with the historical one obtained from surficial death assemblages. We recorded...

Unobtrusive tracking of interpersonal orienting and distance predicts the subjective quality of social interactions

Juha M Lahnakoski, Paul AG Forbes, Cade McCall & Leonhard Schilbach
Interpersonal coordination of behavior is essential for smooth social interactions. Measures of interpersonal behavior, however, often rely on subjective evaluations, invasive measurement techniques or gross measures of motion. Here, we constructed an unobtrusive motion tracking system that enables detailed analysis of behavior at the individual and interpersonal levels, which we validated using wearable sensors. We evaluate dyadic measures of joint orienting and distancing, synchrony and gaze behaviors to summarize data collected during natural conversation and...

Data from: The effectiveness of pseudomagic traits in promoting divergence and enhancing local adaptation

Maria R. Servedio & Bürger Reinhard
The first file contains the code necessary to generate figures in the style of Fig 1 of the associated manuscript. These figures show the divergence between both ecological traits and mating traits by the strength of mating preference. Different panels correspond to different rates of recombination between these loci that control these types of traits. Files S1 and S2 are Mathematica versions of the corresponding files in the Supplementary Information of the paper.

Morphometric variation at different spatial scales: coordination and compensation in the emergence of organismal form

Philipp Mitteroecker, Silvester Bartsch, Nicole Grunstra, Anne Le Maitre, Fred Bookstein & Corinna Erkinger
It is a classic aim of quantitative and evolutionary biology to infer genetic architecture and potential evolutionary responses to selection from the variance-covariance structure of measured traits. But a meaningful genetic or developmental interpretation of raw covariances is difficult, and classic concepts of morphological integration do not directly apply to modern morphometric data. Here we present a new morphometric strategy based on the comparison of morphological variation across different spatial scales. If anatomical elements vary...

Haunted Stages, Haunted Countries - How Theatre Remembers an Interrupted Performance

Senad Halilbašić
On 31 May 1990 the National Theatre of Zenica was staging its performance on the Serbian national hero Sveti Sava on the stage of Belgrade’s Yugoslav Drama Theatre. Following controversial protests against the fact that a non-Serbian theatre dares to touch the divine topic of Sveti Sava and portray him as a human being full of flaws, the actors were met with rigorous interruptions while attempting to act on the stage in Belgrade. A nationalist...

Rezension zu: Volker Garske: Das Schattenprinzip im Religionsunterricht. Entwicklungschancen für Lehrende und Lernende in interreligiösen Kontexten

David Novakovits
Österreichisches Religionspädagogisches Forum, 28(1), 291-295

Subjektivierungsprozesse in digitaler Welt

David Novakovits
Der folgende Text versucht bildhaften Subjektivierungsprozessen in der digitalen Kultur nachzugehen und eine religionspädagogische Hermeneutik solcher Prozesse zu entwickeln. Modernen Tendenzen verfügbarmachenden Denkens wird auch in digital-kulturellen Praktiken ein breiter Raum gegeben. Aus religionspädagogigscher Perspektive könnte es dagegen angezeigt sein, die Kategorie der Unverfügbarkeit als einen humanisierenden Faktor in den anthropologischen Diskurs der Digitalität produktiv einzuführen. Die Argumentation, die im Text zu entwickeln versucht wird, gestaltet sich in Auseinandersetzung mit historischen (Illich), philosophischen (Agamben, Benjamin)...

Dürfen Maschinen menschliche Barmherzigkeit ersetzen?

Karl Stöger
In den letzten Jahren wird – nicht zuletzt wegen einer Knappheit an Pflegekräften – immer mehr über die Anwendung neuer (digitaler) Techniken in der Pflege nachgedacht. Diese Digitalisierung der Pflege bringt nicht nur zahlreiche ethische, sondern auch rechtliche Herausforderungen mit sich. Einigen dieser rechtlichen Herausforderungen ist dieser Text gewidmet, der eine Ergänzung der ethischen Perspektive bieten möchte. Zuerst wird aus primär menschenrechtlicher Sicht die Frage behandelt, in welchem Umfang eine Ersetzung menschlicher Pflege durch maschinelle...

Digitale Kränkung?

Elisabeth Zissler
Der digitale Wandel und seine Auswirkungen auf den Menschen und seine (Um-)Welt machen einen wissenschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Diskurs über die Stellung des Menschen in einer IKT-dominierten Welt notwendig. In diesem Sinne geht der Beitrag der Frage nach, ob und in welcher Weise bisher gültige Grundkonstanten der conditio humana und darauf aufbauende Menschenbilder durch den Einsatz von Künstlicher Intelligenz und Robotik in Frage gestellt werden. In Anlehnung an die von Sigmund Freud beschriebenen „Kränkungen der Menschheit“...

Detecting phylogenetic signal and adaptation in papionin cranial shape by decomposing variation at different spatial scales

Nicole Grunstra, Anne Le Maítre, Silvester Bartsch & Philipp Mitteroecker
Phylogenetic reconstruction based on morphometric data is hampered by homoplasies. For example, many similarities in cranial form between primate taxa more strongly reflect ecological similarities rather than phylogenetic relatedness. However, the way in which the different cranial bones constitute cranial form is, if at all, of less functional relevance and thus largely hidden from selection. We propose that these “constructional details” are better indicators of phylogenetic history than any large-scale shape feature or raw form...

Atmospheric transport is a major pathway of microplastics to remote regions

Nikolaos Evangeliou, Henrik Grythe, Zbigniew Klimont, Chris Heyes, Sabine Eckhardt, Susana Lopez-Aparicio & Andreas Stohl
In the recent years, a large attention has been given to pollution from plastic products as a major environmental problem. Plastics degrade into smaller particles in the environment via photodegradation, physical abrasion, hydrolysis and biodegradation. Microplastics (1 um to 5 mm size particles) have been reported to affect coral reefs, marine and terrestrial animals, as well as humans. It has been reported that about 30% of microplastics in freshwater and oceanic ecosystems are tire wear...

Glucocorticoids link forest type to local abundance in tropical birds

Simone Messina, David Edwards, Valeria Marasco, Virginie Canoine, Cindy Cosset, Suzanne Tomassi, Suzan Benedick, Marcel Eens & David Costantini
Selective logging is a major driver of environmental changes in the tropics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in understanding which traits make bird species resilient or vulnerable to such changes. Physiological stress mediated by the steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) might underlie changes in local abundance of species because it regulates a range of body functions and behaviours to maintain homeostasis in changing environments. We conducted a three-year study to assess: (i) the variation in...

Data from: Ecological regime shift preserved in the Anthropocene stratigraphic record

Adam Tomasovych, Paolo Albano, Tomas Fuksi, Ivo Gallmetzer, Alexandra Haselmair, Michal Kowalewski, Rafał Nawrot, Vedrana Nerlovic, Daniele Scarponi & Martin Zuschin
Paleoecological data are unique historical archives that extend back far beyond the last several decades of ecological observations. However, the fossil record of continental shelves has been perceived as too coarse and incomplete to detect processes occurring at decadal scales relevant to ecology and conservation. Here we show that the youngest (Anthropocene) fossil record on a continental shelf of the Adriatic Sea provides decadal-scale temporal resolution that is adequate for documenting an abrupt ecological shift...

Data from: ‘In and out of’ the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Himalayas: centers of origin and diversification compared across five clades of Eurasian montane and alpine passerine birds

Martin Päckert, Adrien Favre, Jan Schnitzler, Jochen Martens, Yue-Hua Sun, Dieter Thomas Tietze, Frank Hailer, Ingo Michalak & Patrick Strutzenberger
Encompassing some of the major hotspots of biodiversity on Earth, large mountain systems have long held the attention of evolutionary biologists. The region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is considered a biogeographic source for multiple colonization events into adjacent areas including the northern Palearctic. The faunal exchange between the QTP and adjacent regions could thus represent a one-way street (‘out of’ the QTP). However, immigration into the QTP region has so far received only little...

Source pools and disharmony of the world’s island floras

Christian König, Patrick Weigelt, Amanda Taylor, Anke Stein, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Petr Pysek, Mark Van Kleunen, Marten Winter, Cyrille Chatelain, Jan Wieringa, Pavel Krestov & Holger Kreft
Island disharmony refers to the biased representation of higher taxa on islands compared to their mainland source regions and represents a central concept in island biology. Here, we develop a generalizable framework for approximating these source regions and conduct the first global assessment of island disharmony and its underlying drivers. We compiled vascular plant species lists for 178 oceanic islands and 735 mainland regions. Using mainland data only, we modelled species turnover as a function...

Data from: A unique hybodontiform skeleton provides novel insights into Mesozoic chondrichthyan life

Sebastian Stumpf, Faviel A. López-Romero, René Kindlimann, Frederic Lacombat, Burkhard Pohl & Jürgen Kriwet
Asteracanthus apparently was one of the most common Mesozoic hybodontiform chondrichthyans, as remains traditionally referred to this genus have been reported almost worldwide from Middle Triassic to Late Cretaceous strata so far. Asteracanthus was erected by Louis Agassiz for Late Jurassic fin spines with stellate tubercles. Later, Arthur Smith Woodward synonymized Strophodus, originally introduced by Agassiz for distinctive crushing teeth of Triassic to Cretaceous age, with Asteracanthus based on associated teeth and spines from the...

Learned predators enhance biological control via organizational upward and trophic top-down cascades

Peter Schausberger, Demet Cekin & Alena Litin
1. Learning is a behavioral change based on memory of previous experiences and a ubiquitous phenomenon in animals. Learning effects are commonly life stage- and age-specific. In many animals, early life experiences lead to pervasive and persistent behavioral changes. 2. There is broad consensus that learning has far-reaching implications to biological control. Proximate and ultimate factors of individual learning by parasitoids and true predators are relatively well understood, yet the consequences of learning to higher...

When Machines Talk: A Brief Analysis of Some Relations between Technology and Language

Mark Coeckelbergh
This essay for the inaugural issue of Technology and Language builds on sustained discussions of the relation of the (philosophy of) technology and the (philosophy of) language, for example in the suggestion that there are „technology games“ in analogy to „language games“ as forms of life. In light of recent technological developments, this essay takes another step by way of distinguishing three types of interaction between language and technology as one considers technology as a...

„Das Evangelium nach Mika“

Viera Pirker & Florian Mayrhofer
Interaktionale Bibeldidaktik initiiert Praktiken und Prozesse der Selbst-Einschreibung in Bibeltexte. Im Kontext einer zunehmend visuell geprägten Gesellschaft, die sich für SchülerInnen im Raum von Social Media-Plattformen vollzieht, stellen sich auch an die Religionsdidaktik im Kontext einer mediatisierten Gesellschaft neue Herausforderungen, die in diesem Beitrag für die textgebundene Bibeldidaktik aktualisiert werden. Wie erfahren und verstehen SchülerInnen biblische Texte und Erzählungen und deren Deutungsmuster heute und wie beziehen sie ihre Lebenswelt mit ein? Wie vollziehen sie visuelle...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    59

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    40
  • Text
    19

Affiliations

  • University of Vienna
    58
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    3
  • Research Institute for Nature and Forest
    2
  • Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2
  • University of Graz
    2
  • German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research
    2
  • University of Edinburgh
    2
  • University of Freiburg
    2
  • Northern Arizona University
    2