187 Works

Data from: Sensitivity of global soil carbon stocks to combined nutrient enrichment

Thomas W. Crowther, Charlotte Riggs, Eric M. Lind, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Sarah E. Hobbie, E. R. Jasper Wubs, Peter B. Adler, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Johannes M. H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens & Devin Routh
Soil stores approximately twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and fluctuations in the size of the soil carbon pool directly influence climate conditions. We used the Nutrient Network global change experiment to examine how anthropogenic nutrient enrichment might influence grassland soil carbon storage at a global scale. In isolation, enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorous had minimal impacts on soil carbon storage. However, when these nutrients were added in combination with potassium and micronutrients, soil...

Data from: Does prey encounter and nutrient content affect prey selection in wolf spiders inhabiting Bt cotton fields?

Dalila Rendon, Phillip W. Taylor, Shawn M. Wilder & Mary E.A. Whitehouse
Wolf spiders are abundant and voracious predators at the soil-plant interface in cotton crops. Among other prey, they attack late-instar larvae of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa spp., an economically important pest. Consequently, wolf spiders in transgenic Bt cotton could provide significant biological control of Bt-resistant Helicoverpa larvae that descend to the soil to pupate. The predator-prey interactions between wolf spiders and Helicoverpa could, however, be constrained by the presence of alternative prey and intraguild predators....

Data from: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs

Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Eric Harvey, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Martin Schütz, Yvonne M. Buckley, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew M. MacDougall, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Erica Porter, Emma Ladouceur, Charlotte Allen, Karine H. Moromizato, John W. Morgan, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Nico Eisenhauer, Justin P. Wright, Peter B. Adler, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker … & Anita C. Risch
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus...

Data from: Changing landscapes of Southeast Asia and rodent-borne diseases: decreased diversity but increased transmission risks

Serge Morand, Kim Blasdell, Frédéric Bordes, Philippe Buchy, Bernard Carcy, Kittipong Chaisiri, Yannick Chaval, Julien Claude, Jean-François Cosson, Marc Desquesnes, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Tawisa Jiyipong, Anamika Karnchanabanthoen, Pumhom Pornpan, Jean-Marc Rolain & Annelise Tran
The reduction in biodiversity through land use changes due to urbanization and agricultural intensification, appears linked to major epidemiological changes in many human diseases. Increasing disease risks and the emergence of novel pathogens appear to result from increased contact between wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. We investigate how increasing human domination of the environment may favor generalist and synanthropic rodent species and affect the diversity and prevalence of rodent-borne pathogens in Southeast Asia, a hotspot...

Data from: An environmental DNA-based method for monitoring spawning activity: a case study, using the endangered Macquarie perch (Macquaria australasica)

Jonas Bylemans, Elise M. Furlan, Christopher M. Hardy, Prudence McGuffie, Mark Lintermans & Dianne M. Gleeson
Determining the timing and location of reproductive events is critical for efficient management of species. However, methods currently used for aquatic species are costly, time intensive, biased and often require destructive or injurious sampling. Hence, developing a non-invasive sampling method to accurately determine the timing and location of reproduction for aquatic species would be extremely valuable. We conducted an experimental and field study to determine the influence of spawning, and the mass release of spermatozoa...

Data from: Capturing open ocean biodiversity: comparing environmental DNA metabarcoding to the continuous plankton recorder

Leonie Suter, Andrea Polanowski, Laurence Clarke, John Kitchener & Bruce Deagle
Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding is emerging as a novel, objective tool for monitoring marine metazoan biodiversity. Zooplankton biodiversity in the vast and important open ocean is currently monitored through continuous plankton recorder (CPR) surveys, using ship-based bulk plankton sampling and morphological identification. We assessed whether eDNA metabarcoding (2 L filtered seawater) could capture similar Southern Ocean biodiversity as conventional CPR bulk sampling (~1500 L filtered seawater per CPR sample). We directly compared eDNA metabarcoding with...

Genetic barcoding of museum eggshell improves data integrity of avian biological collections

Alicia Grealy, Naomi Langmore, Leo Joseph & Clare Holleley
Natural history collections are often plagued by missing or inaccurate metadata for collection items, particularly for specimens that are difficult to verify or rare. Avian eggshell in particular can be challenging to identify due to extensive morphological ambiguity among taxa. Species identifications can be improved using DNA extracted from museum eggshell; however, the suitability of current methods for use on small museum eggshell specimens has not been rigorously tested, hindering uptake. In this study, we...

High elevation increases the risk of Y chromosome loss in Alpine skink populations with sex reversal

Arthur Georges, Duminda Dissanayake, Clare Holleley & Janine Deakin
The view genotypic sex determination (GSD) and environmental sex determination (ESD) are mutually exclusive states has been contradicted by the discovery that chromosomal sex and environmental influences can co-exist within the same species, hinting at a continuum of intermediate states. Systems where genes and the environment interact to determine sex present the opportunity for sex reversal to occur, where the phenotypic sex is the opposite of that predicted by their sex chromosome complement. The skink...

Self-compatible blueberry cultivars require fewer floral visits to maximise fruit production than a partially self-incompatible cultivar

Liam K. Kendall, Vesna Gagic, Lisa Evans, Brian Cutting, Jessica Scalzo, Yolanda Hanusch, Jeremy Jones, Maurizio Rocchetti, Carolyn Sonter, Matthew Keir & Romina Rader
Effective pollination is a complex phenomenon determined by the outcome of the interaction between pollen transfer and a plants’ pollinator dependency, yet most studies investigate pollinator effectiveness without consideration of plant mating system differences. We investigated pollinator effectiveness in three types of blueberry that differed in their degree of pollinator dependency as measured by plant mating system: two self-compatible highbush cultivars and one partially self-incompatible rabbiteye cultivar. We quantified pollinator effectiveness as a function of...

Data from: Avian mitochondrial genomes retrieved from museum eggshell

Alicia Grealy, Michael Bunce & Clare Holleley
Avian eggshell is a bio-ceramic material with exceptional properties for preserving DNA within its crystalline structure, presenting an opportunity to retrieve genomic information from extinct or historic populations of birds. However, intracrystalline DNA has only been recovered from the large, thick eggshell of palaeognaths; members of their more-diverse sister group (neognaths) lay smaller, thinner eggs that may not exhibit the same propensity for DNA preservation. Here, we use three 40-60 year-old museum eggshell specimens of...

Data from: Gigapixel big data movies provide cost‐effective seascape scale direct measurements of open‐access coastal human use such as recreational fisheries

David J. H. Flynn, Tim P. Lynch, Neville S. Barrett, Lincoln S. C. Wong, Carlie Devine & David Hughes
Collecting data on unlicensed open‐access coastal activities, such as some types of recreational fishing, has often relied on telephone interviews selected from landline directories. However, this approach is becoming obsolete due to changes in communication technology such as a switch to unlisted mobile phones. Other methods, such as boat ramp interviews, are often impractical due to high labor cost. We trialed an autonomous, ultra‐high‐resolution photosampling method as a cost effect solution for direct measurements of...

Data from: Optimal soil carbon sampling designs to achieve cost-effectiveness: a case study in blue carbon ecosystems

Mary A. Young, Peter I. Macreadie, Clare Duncan, Paul E. Carnell, Emily Nicholson, Oscar Serrano, Carlos M. Duarte, Glenn Shiell, Jeff Baldock & Daniel Ierodiaconou
Researchers are increasingly studying carbon (C) storage by natural ecosystems for climate mitigation, including coastal ‘blue carbon’ ecosystems. Unfortunately, little guidance on how to achieve robust, cost-effective estimates of blue C stocks to inform inventories exists. We use existing data (492 cores) to develop recommendations on the sampling effort required to achieve robust estimates of blue C. Using a broad-scale, spatially explicit dataset from Victoria, Australia, we applied multiple spatial methods to provide guidelines for...

Data from: A phylogenetic analysis of macroevolutionary patterns in fermentative yeasts

Rocío Paleo-López, Julian Fernando Quintero-Galvis, Jaiber J. Solano-Iguaran, Angela M. Sanchez-Salazar, Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Roberto F. Nespolo & Juan D. Gaitan-Espitia
When novel sources of ecological opportunity are available, physiological innovations can trigger adaptive radiations. This could be the case of yeasts (Saccharomycotina), in which an evolutionary novelty is represented by the capacity to exploit simple sugars from fruits (fermentation). During adaptive radiations, diversification and morphological evolution are predicted to slow-down after early bursts of diversification. Here, we performed the first comparative phylogenetic analysis in yeasts, testing the “early burst” prediction on species diversification and also...

Data from: Exploring the in meso crystallization mechanism by characterizing the lipid mesophase microenvironment during the growth of single transmembrane α-helical peptide crystals

, Konstantin Knoblich, Shane A. Seabrook, Nigel M. Kirby, Stephen T. Mudie, Deborah Lau, Xu Li, Sally L. Gras, Xavier Mulet, Matthew E. Call, Melissa J. Call, Calum J. Drummond & Charlotte E. Conn
The proposed mechanism for in meso crystallisation of transmembrane proteins suggests that a protein or peptide is initially uniformly dispersed in the lipid self-assembly cubic phase but that crystals grow from a local lamellar phase, which acts as a conduit between the crystal and the bulk cubic phase. However, there is very limited experimental evidence for this theory. We have developed protocols to investigate the lipid mesophase microenvironment during crystal growth using standard procedures readily...

Data from: Controlled comparison of species- and community-level models across novel climates and communities

Kaitlin Clare Maguire, Diego Nieto-Lugilde, Jessica Blois, Matthew Fitzpatrick, John Williams, Simon Ferrier & David Lorenz
Species distribution models (SDMs) assume species exist in isolation and do not influence one another's distributions, thus potentially limiting their ability to predict biodiversity patterns. Community-level models (CLMs) capitalize on species co-occurrences to fit shared environmental responses of species and communities, and therefore may result in more robust and transferable models. Here, we conduct a controlled comparison of five paired SDMs and CLMs across changing climates, using palaeoclimatic simulations and fossil-pollen records of eastern North...

Data from: Adaptation services of floodplains and wetlands under transformational climate change

Matthew J. Colloff, Sandra Lavorel, Russell M. Wise, Michael Dunlop, Ian C. Overton & Kristen J. Williams
Adaptation services are the ecosystem processes and services that benefit people by increasing their ability to adapt to change. Benefits may accrue from existing but newly-used services where ecosystems persist, or from novel services supplied following ecosystem transformation. Ecosystem properties that enable persistence or transformation are important adaptation services because they support future options. The adaptation services approach can be applied to decisions on trade-offs between currently valued services and benefits from maintaining future options....

Data from: When to monitor and when to act: value of information theory for multiple management units and limited budgets

Joseph R. Bennett, Sean L. Maxwell, Amanda E. Martin, Iadine Chadès, Lenore Fahrig & Benjamin Gilbert
1.The question of when to monitor and when to act is fundamental to applied ecology, and notoriously difficult to answer. Value of information (VOI) theory holds great promise to help answer this question for many management problems. However, VOI theory in applied ecology has only been demonstrated in single-decision problems, and has lacked explicit links between monitoring and management costs. 2.Here, we present an extension of VOI theory for solving multi-unit decisions of whether to...

Data from: The history of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype C: the first known extinct serotype?

David Paton, Antonello Di Nardo, Nick Knowles, Jemma Wadsworth, Edviges Pituco, Ottorino Cosivi, Alejandro Rivera, Labib Kassimi, Emiliana Brocchi, Kris De Clercq, Consuelo Carrillo, Francois Maree, Raj Singh, Wilna Vosloo, Min-Kyung Park, Keith Sumption, Anna Ludi & Donald King
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious animal disease caused by an RNA virus subdivided into seven serotypes that are unevenly distributed in Asia, Africa and South America. Despite the challenges of controlling FMD, since 1996 there have been only two outbreaks attributed to serotype C, in Brazil and in Kenya, in 2004. This review describes the historical distribution and origins of serotype C and its disappearance. The serotype was first described in Europe in...

Data from: Genome-wide scans reveal cryptic population structure in a dry-adapted eucalypt

Dorothy A. Steane, Brad M. Potts, Elizabeth McLean, Lesley Collins, Suzanne M. Prober, William D. Stock, René E. Vaillancourt & Margaret Byrne
Genome-wide DArTseq scans of 268 individuals of Eucalyptus salubris, distributed along an aridity gradient in southwestern Australia, revealed cryptic population structure that appears to signal hitherto unappreciated ecotypic differentiation and barriers to gene flow. Genome-wide scans were undertaken on 30 wild-sampled individuals from each of nine populations; 10 individuals per population were measured for habit and functional traits. DArTseq generated 16,122 high-quality markers, of which 56.3 % located to E. grandis chromosomes. Genetic affinities of...

Data from: Multiple host-shifts by the emerging honeybee parasite, Varroa jacobsoni

John M. K. Roberts, Denis L. Anderson & Wee Tek Tay
Host shifts are a key mechanism of parasite evolution and responsible for the emergence of many economically important pathogens. Varroa destructor has been a major factor in global honeybee (Apis mellifera) declines since shifting hosts from the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana) > 50 years ago. Until recently, only two haplotypes of V. destructor (Korea and Japan) had successfully host shifted to A. mellifera. In 2008, the sister species V. jacobsoni was found for the first...

Data from: Local origin of global contact numbers in frictional ellipsoid packings

Fabian M. Schaller, Max Neudecker, Mohammad Saadatfar, Gary W. Delaney, Gerd E. Schröder-Turk & Matthias Schröter
In particulate soft matter systems the average number of contacts Z of a particle is an important predictor of the mechanical properties of the system. Using x-ray tomography, we analyze packings of frictional, oblate ellipsoids of various aspect ratios α, prepared at different global volume fractions ϕg. We find that Z is a monotonically increasing function of ϕg for all α. We demonstrate that this functional dependence can be explained by a local analysis where...

Data from: Larval settlement: the role of surface topography for sessile coral reef invertebrates

Steve Whalan, Muhammad A. Abdul Wahab, Susanne Sprungala, Andrew J. Poole & Rocky De Nys
For sessile marine invertebrates with complex life cycles, habitat choice is directed by the larval phase. Defining which habitat-linked cues are implicated in sessile invertebrate larval settlement has largely concentrated on chemical cues which are thought to signal optimal habitat. There has been less effort establishing physical settlement cues, including the role of surface microtopography. This laboratory based study tested whether surface microtopography alone (without chemical cues) plays an important contributing role in the settlement...

Data from: Evolutionary history shapes patterns of mutualistic benefit in Acacia-rhizobial interactions

Luke Barrett, Peter Zee, James D. Bever, Joseph T. Miller, Peter Thrall, Luke G. Barrett & Peter H. Thrall
The ecological and evolutionary factors that drive the emergence and maintenance of variation in mutualistic benefit (i.e. the benefits provided by one partner to another) in mutualistic symbioses are not well understood. In this study we evaluated the role that host and symbiont phylogeny might play in determining patterns of mutualistic benefit (host response) for interactions among nine species of Acacia and 31 strains of nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. Using phylogenetic comparative methods we compared patterns...

Data from: Population assignment in autopolyploids

David L. Field, Linda M. Broadhurst, Carole P. Elliot & Andrew G. Young
Understanding patterns of contemporary gene dispersal within and among populations is of critical importance to population genetics and in managing populations for conservation. In contrast to diploids, there are few studies of gene dispersal in autopolyploids, in part due to complex polysomic inheritance and genotype ambiguity. Here we develop a novel approach for population assignment for codominant markers for autotetraploids and autohexaploids. This method accounts for polysomic inheritance, unreduced gametes and unknown allele dosage. It...

Data from: Herbivores safeguard plant diversity by reducing variability in dominance

Brent Mortensen, Brent Danielson, Stan W. Harpole, Juan Alberti, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Marc W. Cadotte, John M. Dwyer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Pablo Luis Peri, Eric W. Seabloom & W. Stanley Harpole
1. Reductions in community evenness can lead to local extinctions as dominant species exclude subordinate species; however, herbivores can prevent competitive exclusion by consuming otherwise dominant plant species, thus increasing evenness. While these predictions logically result from chronic, gradual reductions in evenness, rapid, temporary pulses of dominance may also reduce species richness. Short pulses of dominance can occur as biotic or abiotic conditions temporarily favor one or a few species, manifested as increased temporal variability...

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