95 Works

Data from: Sex determination in the wild: a field application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification successfully determines sex across three raptor species

Alejandro Centeno-Cuadros, Ibrahim Abbasi & Ran Nathan
PCR-based methods are the most common technique for sex determination of birds. Although these methods are fast, easy and accurate, they still require special facilities that preclude their application outdoors. Consequently, there is a time lag between sampling and obtaining results that impedes researchers to take decisions in situ and in real time considering individuals’ sex. We present an outdoor technique for sex determination of birds based on the amplification of the duplicated sex-chromosome-specific gene...

Data from: Extensive heterosis in growth of yeast hybrids is explained by a combination of genetic models

Rachel Shapira, Tal Levy, Silvia Shaked, Eyal Fridman & Lior David
Heterosis, also known as hybrid vigor, is the superior performance of a heterozygous hybrid relative to its homozygous parents. Despite the scientific curiosity of this phenotypic phenomenon and its significance for food production in agriculture, its genetic basis is insufficiently understood. Studying heterosis in yeast can potentially yield insights into its genetic basis, can allow one to test the different hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the phenomenon and allows better understanding of how...

Data from: Fine-scale spatial genetic dynamics over the life-cycle of the tropical tree Prunus africana

Dana G. Berens, Carsten Braun, Santiago C. González-Martínez, Eva M. Griebeler, Ran Nathan & Katrin Böhning-Gaese
Studying fine-scale spatial genetic patterns across life stages is a powerful approach to identify ecological processes acting within tree populations. We investigated spatial genetic dynamics across five life stages in the insect-pollinated and vertebrate-dispersed tropical tree Prunus africana in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Using six highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we assessed genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure (SGS) from seed rain and seedlings, and different sapling stages to adult trees. We found significant SGS in all...

Data from: Mass seasonal bioflows of high-flying insect migrants

Gao Hu, Ka S. Lim, Nir Horvitz, Suzanne J. Clark, Don R. Reynolds, Nir Sapir & Jason W. Chapman
Migrating animals have an impact on ecosystems directly via influxes of predators, prey, and competitors and indirectly by vectoring nutrients, energy, and pathogens. Although linkages between vertebrate movements and ecosystem processes have been established, the effects of mass insect “bioflows” have not been described. We quantified biomass flux over the southern United Kingdom for high-flying (>150 meters) insects and show that ~3.5 trillion insects (3200 tons of biomass) migrate above the region annually. These flows...

Data from: A comprehensive analysis of autocorrelation and bias in home range estimation

Michael J. Noonan, Marlee A. Tucker, Christen H. Fleming, Tom S. Akre, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Jeanne Altmann, Pamela C. Antunes, Jerrold L. Belant, Dean Beyer, Niels Blaum, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, , Rogerio De Paula Cunha, Jasja Dekker, Jonathan Drescher-Lehman, Nina Farwig, Claudia Fichtel, Christina Fischer, Adam T. Ford, Jacob R. Goheen, René Janssen, Florian Jeltsch, Matthew Kauffman, Peter M. Kappeler … & Justin M. Calabrese
Home range estimation is routine practice in ecological research. While advances in animal tracking technology have increased our capacity to collect data to support home range analysis, these same advances have also resulted in increasingly autocorrelated data. Consequently, the question of which home range estimator to use on modern, highly autocorrelated tracking data remains open. This question is particularly relevant given that most estimators assume independently sampled data. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of...

Data from: Macro-detritivores assist resolving the dryland decomposition conundrum by engineering an underworld heaven for decomposers

Nevo Sagi, Moshe Zaguri & Dror Hawlena
Litter decomposition in most terrestrial ecosystems is regulated by moisture-dependent microorganism activity, among other things. Decomposition models typically underestimate rates of plant litter decomposition in drylands, suggesting the existence of additional drivers of decomposition. Attempts to reveal these drivers have predominantly focused on abiotic degradation agents, alternative moisture sources, and soil-litter mixing. The role of burrowing animals in promoting decomposition has received less attention despite greatly contributing to plant litter transfer from the harsh desert...

Care-giver identity impacts offspring development and performance in an annually social bumble bee

Claudineia Costa, Kaleigh Fisher, Blanca Guillén, Naoki Yamanaka, Guy Bloch & S Hollis Woodard
Background: The developmental fates of offspring have the potential to be influenced by the identity of their care-givers and by the nature of the care that they receive. In animals that exhibit both parental and alloparental care, such as the annually eusocial insects, the influence of care-giver identity can be directly assessed to yield mechanistic and evolutionary insights into the origins and elaboration of brood care. Here, we performed a comparative investigation of maternal and...

Phylogenomics of scorpions reveal a co-diversification of scorpion mammalian predators and mammal-specific sodium channel toxins

Carlos Santibanez, Shlomi Aharon, Jesús Ballesteros, Guilherme Gainett, Caitlin Baker, Edmundo González-Santillán, Mark Harvey, Mohamed Hassans, Ali Abu-Almaaty, Shorouk Aldeyarbi, Lionel Monod, Andrés Ojanguren-Affilastro, Robert Raven, Ricardo Pinto Da Rocha, Yoram Zvik, Efrat Gavish-Regev & Prashant Sharma
Scorpions constitute a charismatic lineage of arthropods and comprise more than 2,500 described species. Found throughout various tropical and temperate habitats, these predatory arachnids have a long evolutionary history, with a fossil record that began in the Silurian. While all scorpions are venomous, the asymmetrically diverse family Buthidae harbors nearly half the diversity of extant scorpions, and all but one of the 58 species that are medically significant to humans. Many aspects of scorpion evolutionary...

Effect of data source on estimates of regional bird richness in northeastern United States

Roi Ankori-Karlinsky, Ronen Kadmon, Michael Kalyuzhny, Katherine F. Barnes, Andrew M. Wilson, Curtis Flather, Rosalind Renfrew, Joan Walsh & Edna Guk
Standardized data on large-scale and long-term patterns of species richness are critical for understanding the consequences of natural and anthropogenic changes in the environment. The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is one of the largest and most widely used sources of such data, but so far, little is known about the degree to which BBS data provide accurate estimates of regional richness. Here we test this question by comparing estimates of regional richness based...

Snail mucus increases the CO2 efflux of biological soil crusts

Shelby Rinehart, Netta Shamir Weller & Dror Hawlena
Biological soil crusts (hereafter, biocrusts) are communities of microorganisms that regulate key ecosystem processes such as water distribution, soil erosion, and nutrient cycling in drylands worldwide. The nature of biocrust function can be influenced by multiple environmental factors, including climatic conditions (e.g., precipitation), interactions with plants, and anthropogenic disturbances. Animal regulation of biocrust function has received less research attention, focusing primarily on livestock trampling and to a much lesser extent on biocrust consumption by mesofauna....

Separating planetary reflex Doppler shifts from stellar variability in the wavelength domain (code)

Andrew Collier Cameron, E. B. Ford, S. Shahaf & A. Mortier

Mate searching context of prey influences predator-prey space race

Viraj R. Torsekar & Maria Thaker
Predation risk is a strong driver of prey distribution and movement. However, fitness-influencing behaviours, such as mating, can alter risk and influence predator-prey space-use dynamics. In tree crickets, Oecanthus henryi, mate searching involves acoustic signalling by immobile males and phonotactic movement by females. Space-use patterns in tree crickets relative to their primary predators, green lynx spiders (Peucetia viridans), should therefore depend on their current mate-searching state; whether males are calling or non-calling and whether females...

Нимфа Эхо у Ахматовой

Роман Тименчик
Рассматривается развертывание мотива из античной мифологии «Нарцисс и Эхо» на всем протяжении творчества Ахматовой и на фоне обращения к нему у ее современников. Ключевые слова: Анна Ахматова, Нарцисс, Эхо, Ксавер Шаффготш.

Processed microphysical profiles of convective cloud scenes from satellite over ATTO

AVIHAY EFRAIM, Oliver Lauer, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ramon Braga, Marco Franco, Leslie Kremper, Yannian Zhu, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Meinrat Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alessandro De Araújo & Mira Pohlker
We present a new approach of analyzing and interpreting vertical profiles of cloud microstructure obtained by satellite remote sensing. The method is based on a spectral bin microphysics adiabatic parcel model and aims to elucidate the effects of aerosols on the evolution of convective clouds and related microphysical processes, including the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), the growth of cloud droplets, and the formation of precipitation. Characteristic features in the vertical profiles of effective...

Data from: Effects of forest plantations on the genetic composition of conspecific native Aleppo pine populations

Ofer Steinitz, Juan J. Robledo-Arnuncio & Ran Nathan
Afforestation is a common and widespread management practice throughout the world, yet its implications for the genetic diversity of native populations are still poorly understood. We examined the effect of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) plantations on the genetic composition of nearby conspecific native populations. We focused on two native populations in Israel with different levels of isolation from the surrounding plantations and compared the genetic diversity of naturally established young trees within the native populations...

Data from: Islands and streams: clusters and gene flow in wild barley populations from the Levant

Sariel Hübner, Torsten Günther, Andrew Flavell, Eyal Fridman, Andreas Graner, Abraham Korol & Karl J. Schmid
The domestication of plants frequently results in a high level of genetic differentiation between domesticated plants and their wild progenitors. This process is counteracted by gene flow between wild and domesticated plants because they are usually able to inter-mate and to exchange genes. We investigated the extent of gene flow between wild barley Hordeum spontaneum and cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare, and its effect on population structure in wild barley by analyzing a collection of 896...

Data from: Composite collective decision making

Tomer J. Czaczkes, Benjamin Czaczkes, Carolin Iglhaut & Jürgen Heinze
Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first...

Data from: Projecting pest population dynamics under global warming: the combined effect of inter- and intra-annual variations

Royi Zidon, Hirotsugu Tsueda, Efrat Morin & Shai Morin
The typical short generation length of insects makes their population dynamics highly sensitive not only to mean annual temperatures but also to their intra-annual variations. To consider the combined effect of both thermal factors under global warming, we propose a modeling framework that links general circulation models (GCMs) with a stochastic weather generator and population dynamics models to predict species population responses to inter- and intra-annual temperature changes. This framework was utilized to explore future...

Data from: Biotic and abiotic modifications of leaf litter during dry periods affect litter mass loss and nitrogen loss during wet periods

Daniel Gliksman, Sabine Haenel & José M. Grünzweig
1. Decomposition of organic matter in semiarid ecosystems is a key component of the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. The well-known inaccuracies in predicting litter decay in water-limited regions were lessened by considering solar radiation as an abiotic decay driver of photodegradation. Moreover, exposure to high solar irradiance in dry periods often led to massive facilitation of litter decay in subsequent wet periods (“photoacceleration”), though in many studies this effect was absent. 2. Recently, water vapor...

Data from: The role of species pools in determining species diversity in spatially heterogeneous communities

Ronen Ron, Ori Fragman-Sapir & Ronen Kadmon
1. The 'habitat-specific species pool hypothesis' proposes that differences between habitats in the sizes of their species pools are the main drivers of diversity responses to habitat heterogeneity. Empirical tests of this hypothesis are not trivial since species might be missing from ecologically suitable habitats due to limited dispersal, while others may occur in unsuitable habitats by means of source-sink dynamics and mass effect. 2. We tested the habitat-specific species pool hypothesis in a local,...

Data from: Drought-adapted plants dramatically downregulate dinitrogen fixation: evidences from Mediterranean legume shrubs

Guy Dovrat, Tania Masci, Hila Bakhshian, Einav Mayzlish Gati, Sivan Golan & Efrat Sheffer
1. The importance of symbiotic dinitrogen (N2) fixation in shaping the coupled nitrogen-carbon cycle is now known for most humid terrestrial ecosystems. However, whether N2 fixation can play a key role in the nitrogen and carbon budget of water-limited and seasonally dry ecosystems remains a mystery. 2. The maintenance of metabolically and physiologically costly symbiotic fixation in water-limited environments is highly complex. These costs are particularly high during the first developmental season, when allocation to...

Data from: A critical analysis of the potential for EU Common Agricultural Policy measures to support wild pollinators on farmland

Lorna Cole, David Kleijn, Lynn Dicks, Jane Stout, Simon Potts, Matthias Albrecht, Mario Balzan, Ignasi Bartomeus, Penelope Bebeli, Danilo Bevk, Jacobus Biesmeijer, Róbert Chlebo, Anželika Dautartė, Nikolaos Emmanouil, Chris Hartfield, John Holland, Andrea Holzschuh, Nieke Knoben, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Yael Mandelik, Heleni Panou, Robert Paxton, Theodora Petanidou, Miguel Pinheiro De Carvalho, … & Jeroen Scheper
1. Agricultural intensification and associated loss of high-quality habitats are key drivers of insect pollinator declines. With the aim of decreasing the environmental impact of agriculture, the 2014 EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) defined a set of habitat and landscape features (Ecological Focus Areas: EFAs) farmers could select from as a requirement to receive basic farm payments. To inform the post-2020 CAP, we performed a European-scale evaluation to determine how different EFA options vary in...

Data from: Burrowing detritivores regulate nutrient cycling in a desert ecosystem

Nevo Sagi, José Grünzweig & Dror Hawlena
Nutrient cycling in most terrestrial ecosystems is thought to be controlled by moisture-dependent decomposer activity. In arid ecosystems, plant litter cycling exceeds rates predicted based on precipitation amounts, suggesting that additional factors are involved in these systems. Attempts to reveal these factors have predominantly focused on abiotic degradation, precipitation frequency, soil-litter mixing, and alternative moisture sources. Our aim was to explore an additional hypothesis that macro-detritivores control litter cycling in deserts. We quantified the role...

Limited divergent adaptation despite a substantial environmental cline in wild pea

Timo Hellwig, Shahal Abbo, Amir Sherman, Clarice Coyne, Yehoshua Saranga, Doreen Main, Ping Zheng, Simcha Lev-Yadun & Ron Ophir
Isolation by environment (IBE) is a wide spread phenomenon in nature. It is commonly expected that the degree of differences among environments is proportional to the level of divergence between populations in these environments. Consequentially, it is assumed that species’ genetic diversity displays pattern of IBE in the presence of a strong environmental cline if geneflow does not mitigate isolation. We tested this common assumption by analyzing the genetic diversity and demographic history of Pisum...

Imagine All the People: Negotiating and Mediating Moral Concern through Intergroup Encounters

Ifat Maoz & Paul Frosh

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  • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
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