146 Works

Emergence patterns of novelty in European vegetation assemblages over the past 15 000 years

Walter Finsinger, Thomas Giesecke, Simon Brewer & Michelle Leydet
Plant communities are not stable over time and biological novelty is predicted to emerge due to climate change, the introduction of exotic species and land-use change. However, the rate at which this novelty may arise over longer time periods has so far received little attention. We reconstruct the emergence of novelty in Europe for a set of baseline conditions over the past 15 000 years to assess past rates of emergence and investigate underlying causes....

Integrating UCE phylogenomics with traditional taxonomy reveals a trove of New World Syscia species (Formicidae, Dorylinae)

Michael G. Branstetter & John T. Longino
The ant genus Syscia is part of the cryptic ant fauna inhabiting leaf litter and rotten wood in the Asian and American tropics. It is a distinct clade within the Dorylinae, the subfamily from which army ants arose. Prior to this work the genus comprised seven species, each known from a single or very few collections. Extensive collecting in Middle America revealed an unexpected and challenging diversity of morphological forms. Locally distinct forms could be...

Data and code for: Replay of innate vocal patterns during sleep in suboscines

Juan Francisco Döppler, Manon Peltier, Ana Amador, Franz Goller & Gabriel Mindlin
Activation of forebrain circuitry during sleep has been variably characterized as ‘pre- or replay’ and has been linked to memory consolidation. The evolutionary origins of this mechanism, however, are unknown. Sleep activation of the sensori-motor pathways of learned birdsong is a particularly useful model system because the muscles controlling the vocal organ are activated, revealing syringeal activity patterns for direct comparison with those of day-time vocal activity. Here we show that suboscine birds, which develop...

Microhabitats associated with solar energy development alter demography of two desert annuals

Karen Tanner, Kara Moore-O'Leary, Ingrid Parker, Bruce Pavlik, Sophia Haji & Rebecca Hernandez
Political and economic initiatives intended to increase energy production while reducing carbon emissions are driving demand for solar energy. Consequently, desert regions are now targeted for development of large-scale photovoltaic solar energy facilities. Where vegetation communities are left intact or restored within facilities, ground-mounted infrastructure may have negative impacts on desert-adapted plants because it creates novel rainfall runoff and shade conditions. We used experimental solar arrays in the Mojave Desert to test how these altered...

Enhancing understanding of the hydrological cycle via pairing of process‐oriented and isotope ratio tracers

Richard Fiorella, Nicholas Siler, Jesse Nusbaumer & David Noone
This dataset contains monthly average output files from the iCAM6 simulations used in the manuscript "Enhancing understanding of the hydrological cycle via pairing of process-oriented and isotope ratio tracers," in review at the Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems. A file corresponding to each of the tagged and isotopic variables used in this manuscript is included. Files are at 0.9° latitude x 1.25° longitude, and are in NetCDF format. Data from two simulations are...

A mathematical model of flow-mediated coagulation identifies factor V as a modifier of thrombin generation in hemophilia A

Michael Stobb, Kathryn Link, Matthew Sorrells, Maria Bortot, Katherine Ruegg, Marilyn Manco-Johnson, Jorge DiPaola, Suzanne Sindi, Aaron Fogelson, Karin Leiderman & Keith Neeves
Hemophilia A is a bleeding disorder categorized as severe, mild, and moderate deficiencies in factor VIII (FVIII). Within these categories the variance in bleeding severity is significant and the origins unknown. The number of parameters that could modify bleeding are so numerous that experimental approaches are not feasible for considering all possible combinations. Consequently, we turn to a mathematical model of coagulation under flow to act as a screening tool to identify parameters that are...

Data from: Impact protection potential of mammalian hair

David Carrier, Ethan Beseris & Steven Naleway
Because facial hair is one of the most sexually dimorphic features of humans (Homo sapiens) and is often perceived as an indicator of masculinity and social dominance, human facial hair has been suggested to play a role in male contest competition. Some authors have proposed that the beard may function similar to the long hair of a lion’s mane, serving to protect vital areas like the throat and jaw from lethal attacks. This is consistent...

TypeTE: a tool to genotype mobile element insertions from whole genome resequencing data

Clément Goubert, Jainy Thomas, Lindsay Payer, Jeffrey Kidd, Julie Feusier, W. Scott Watkins, Kathleen Burns, Lynn Jorde & Cédric Feschotte
Alu retrotransposons account for more than 10% of the human genome, and insertions of these elements create structural variants segregating in human populations. Such polymorphic Alu are powerful markers to understand population structure, and they represent variants that can greatly impact genome function, including gene expression. Accurate genotyping of Alu and other mobile elements has been challenging. Indeed, we found that Alu genotypes previously called for the 1000 Genomes Project are sometimes erroneous, which poses...

Phylogenomic species delimitation, taxonomy, and \"bird guide\" identification for the Neotropical ant genus Rasopone (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

John Longino & Michael Branstetter
Rasopone Schmidt & Shattuck is a poorly known lineage of ants that live in Neotropical forests. Informed by phylogenetic results from thousands of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) and mitochondrial DNA barcodes, we revise the genus, providing a new morphological diagnosis and a species-level treatment. Analysis of UCE data from many Rasopone samples and select outgroups revealed non-monophyly of the genus. Monophyly of Rasopone was restored by transferring several species to the unrelated genus Mayaponera Schmidt &...

Data from: Protein pheromone expression levels predict and respond to the formation of social dominance networks

Adam C. Nelson, Christopher B. Cunningham, James S. Ruff & Wayne K. Potts
Communication signals are key regulators of social networks and are thought to be under selective pressure to honestly reflect social status, including dominance status. The odours of dominants and nondominants differentially influence behaviour, and identification of the specific pheromones associated with, and predictive of, dominance status is essential for understanding the mechanisms of network formation and maintenance. In mice, major urinary proteins (MUPs) are excreted in extraordinary large quantities and expression level has been hypothesized...

Data from: Elevational changes in the avian community of a Mesoamerican cloud forest park

Montague H. C. Neate-Clegg, Samuel E. I. Jones, Oliver Burdekin, Merlijn Jocque & Çağan Hakkı Şekercioğlu.
Harboring many range-restricted and specialized species, high elevation tropical cloud forests are diverse habitats represented in many protected areas. Despite this, many such areas receive little practical protection from deforestation and land conversion. Moreover, montane species may be more sensitive to climate change owing to various factors affecting community assembly across elevational gradients. Few studies have used annual monitoring to assess how biological communities in cloud forests may be shifting in response to habitat or...

Data from: Revision of the early crocodylomorph Trialestes romeri (Archosauria, Suchia) from the lower Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation of Argentina: one of the oldest-known crocodylomorphs

Agustina Lecuona, Martín D. Ezcurra & Randall B. Irmis
Trialestes romeri (Reig) is an early crocodylomorph from the Ischigualasto Formation (late Carnian – early Norian; Ischigualasto – Villa Unión Basin, Argentina) and one of the oldest-known members of this clade. Two specimens of this species are known, the holotype (PVL 2561) and a referred specimen (PVL 3889), both consisting of associated cranial and postcranial remains. These specimens are incomplete and poorly preserved thus leading previous authors to propose different phylogenetic hypotheses for the species....

Data from: The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults

Carl S. Thummel & William E. Barry
Although mutations in HNF4A were identified as the cause of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young 1 (MODY1) two decades ago, the mechanisms by which this nuclear receptor regulates glucose homeostasis remain unclear. Here we report that loss of Drosophila HNF4 recapitulates hallmark symptoms of MODY1, including adult-onset hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). These defects are linked to a role for dHNF4 in promoting mitochondrial function as well as the expression...

Data from: Do pathogens limit the distributions of tropical trees across a rainfall gradient?

Erin R. Spear, Phyllis D. Coley & Thomas A. Kursar
1. Organisms are adapted to particular habitats; consequently, community composition changes across environmental gradients, enhancing regional diversity. In Panama, a rainfall gradient correlates with the spatial turnover of tree species. While strong evidence suggests that tree species common in the wetter forests are excluded from the drier forests by seasonal drought, the factor(s) excluding drought-tolerant species, common in the drier forests, from the wetter forests remain ambiguous. 2. Here, we show that seedlings were significantly...

Data from: Ambient temperature influences tolerance to plant secondary compounds in a mammalian herbivore

Patrice Kurnath, Natalie D. Merz & M. Denise Dearing
Growing evidence suggests that plant secondary compounds (PSCs) ingested by mammals become more toxic at elevated ambient temperatures, a phenomenon known as temperature-dependent toxicity. We investigated temperature-dependent toxicity in the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida), a herbivorous rodent that naturally encounters PSCs in creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), which is a major component of its diet. First, we determined the maximum dose of creosote resin ingested by woodrats at warm (28–29°C) or cool (21–22°C) temperatures. Second, we...

Data from: Meta-analysis reveals that hydraulic traits explain cross-species patterns of drought-induced tree mortality across the globe

William R. L. Anderegg, Tamir Klein, Megan Bartlett, Lawren Sack, Adam F. A. Pellegrini, Brendan Choat & Steven Jansen
Drought-induced tree mortality has been observed globally and is expected to increase under climate change scenarios, with large potential consequences for the terrestrial carbon sink. Predicting mortality across species is crucial for assessing the effects of climate extremes on forest community biodiversity, composition, and carbon sequestration. However, the physiological traits associated with elevated risk of mortality in diverse ecosystems remain unknown, although these traits could greatly improve understanding and prediction of tree mortality in forests....

Data from: Phytochemical changes in milkweed induced by elevated CO2 alter wing morphology but not toxin sequestration in monarch butterflies

Leslie E. Decker, Abrianna J. Soule, Jacobus C. De Roode & Mark D. Hunter
1. Environmental change has the potential to influence trophic interactions by altering the defensive phenotype of prey. 2. Here, we examine the effects of a pervasive environmental change driver, elevated atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (eCO2), on toxin sequestration and flight morphology of a specialist herbivore. 3. We fed monarch butterfly larvae, Danaus plexippus, foliage from four milkweed, Asclepias, species of varying chemical defense profiles grown under either ambient or eCO2. We also infected a subset...

Data from: Evidence for varying social strategies across the day in chacma baboons

Claudia Sick, Alecia J. Carter, Harry H. Marshall, Leslie A. Knapp, Torben Dabelsteen & Guy Cowlishaw
Strong social bonds can make an important contribution to individual fitness, but we still have only a limited understanding of the temporal period relevant to the adjustment of social relationships. While there is growing recognition of the importance of strong bonds that persist for years, social relationships can also vary over weeks and months, suggesting that social strategies may be optimized over shorter timescales. Using biological market theory as a framework, we explore whether temporal...

Data from: Evolution of the latitudinal gradient in the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole

Evan P. Economo, Jen-Pan Huang, Georg Fischer, Eli M. Sarnat, Nitish Narula, Milan Janda, Benoit Guénard, John T. Longino & L. Lacey Knowles
Aim: The latitudinal diversity gradient is the dominant pattern of life on Earth, but a consensus understanding of its origins has remained elusive. The analysis of recently diverged, hyper-rich invertebrate groups provides an opportunity to investigate latitudinal patterns with the statistical power of large trees while minimizing potentially confounding variation in ecology and history. Here, we synthesize global phylogenetic and macroecological data on a hyperdiverse (>1100 species) ant radiation, Pheidole, and test predictions of three...

Data from: Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees

Michael G. Branstetter, Bryan N. Danforth, James P. Pitts, Brant C. Faircloth, Philip S. Ward, Matthew L. Buffington, Michael W. Gates, Robert R. Kula & Seán G. Brady
The stinging wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) are an extremely diverse lineage of hymenopteran insects, encompassing over 70,000 described species and a diversity of life history traits, including ectoparasitism, cleptoparasitism, predation, pollen feeding (bees [Anthophila] and Masarinae) and eusociality (social vespid wasps, ants, and some bees) [1]. The most well-studied lineages of Aculeata are the ants, which are ecologically dominant in most terrestrial ecosystems [2], and the bees, the most important lineage of angiosperm-pollinating insects [3]. Establishing...

Data from: Modern pollen from small hollows reflects Athrotaxis cupressoides density across a wildfire gradient in subalpine forests of the Central Plateau, Tasmania, Australia

Philip E. Higuera, Jesse L. Morris, Simon Haberle & Cathy Whitlock
Pollen assemblages from 50 small hollows were used to resolve fire-caused vegetation patterns in a ~2-km2 subalpine landscape on the Central Plateau of Tasmania, Australia. Sites were characterized by varying abundance of the dominant tree species, Athrotaxis cupressoides, reflecting mortality from a wildfire that occurred 53 years prior to sampling. Sites were classified a priori based on fire-related Athrotaxis mortality as burned (100% standing dead), unburned (<5% standing dead), and mixed (intermediate proportions). Non-parametric analysis...

Data from: A disparity between locomotor economy and territory holding ability in male house mice

Jeremy S. Morris, James S. Ruff, Wayne K. Potts & David R. Carrier
Both economical locomotion and physical fighting are important performance traits to many species because of their direct influence on components of Darwinian fitness. Locomotion represents a substantial portion of the total daily energy budget of many animals. Fighting performance often determines individual reproductive fitness through the means of resource control, social dominance, and access to mates. However, phenotypic traits that improve either locomotor economy or fighting ability may diminish performance in the other. Here we...

Anatomy, ontogeny, and evolution of the archosaurian respiratory system: a case study on Alligator mississippiensis and Struthio camelus

Emma Schachner, Brandon Hedrick, Heather Richbourg, John Hutchinson & CG Farmer
The avian lung is highly specialized and is both functionally and morphologically distinct from that of their closest extant relatives, the crocodilians. It is highly partitioned, with a unidirectionally ventilated and immobilized gas-exchanging lung, and fully decoupled, compliant, poorly vascularized ventilatory air-sacs. To understand the evolutionary history of the archosaurian (birds, crocodilians and their common ancestors) respiratory system, it is essential to determine which anatomical characteristics are shared between birds and crocodilians and the role...

Supplemental material from: A population-based prevalence of myotonic dystrophy type 1

Nicholas Johnson, Russell Butterfield, Katie Mayne, Tara Newcomb, Carina Imburgia, Diane Dunn, Brett Duval, Marcia Feldkamp & Robert Weiss
Objective: To determine whether the genetic prevalence of the CTG expansion in the DMPK gene associated with myotonic dystrophy (DM1) in an unbiased cohort is higher than previously reported population estimates, ranging from 5-20 per 100,000 individuals. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional cohort of de-identified dried blood spots (DBS) from the newborn screening program in the state of New York, taken from consecutive births from 2013-2014. Blood spots were screened for the CTG repeat...

Data from: Differing climatic mechanisms control transient and accumulated vegetation novelty in Europe and eastern North America

Kevin Burke, John Williams, Simon Brewer, Walter Finsinger, Thomas Giesecke, David Lorenz & Alejandro Ordonez
Understanding the mechanisms that produce novel ecosystems is of joint interest to conservation biologists and paleoecologists. Here, we define and differentiate transient from accumulated novelty and evaluate four climatic mechanisms proposed to cause species to reshuffle into novel assemblages: high climatic novelty, high spatial rates of change (displacement), high variance among displacement rates for individual climate variables, and divergence among displacement vector bearings. We use climate simulations to quantify climate novelty, displacement, and divergence across...

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