146 Works

Data from: Revision of the first therocephalian, Theriognathus Owen (Therapsida: Whaitsiidae), and implications for cranial ontogeny and allometry in nonmammaliaform eutheriodonts

Adam Huttenlocker & Fernando Abdala
Historically, the whaitsiid therocephalian Theriognathus Owen was one of the earliest described nonmammalian therapsids, its morphology helping to link phylogenetically the Paleozoic synapsids of North America and southern Africa to their mammalian successors. However, decades of taxonomic over-splitting and superficial descriptions obscured the morphologic diversity of the genus, hindering its utility as a study system for the evolution of synapsid cranial function as well as its biostratigraphic significance in the Late Permian of southern Africa....

Data from: New material and systematic re-evaluation of Medusaceratops lokii (Dinosauria: Ceratopsidae) from the Judith River Formation (Campanian, Montana)

Kentaro Chiba, Michael J. Ryan, Federico Fanti, Mark A. Loewen & David C. Evans
Medusaceratops lokii is an enigmatic taxon of ceratopsid represented by partial parietals from the Mansfield bonebed in the Campanian Judith River Formation, Montana. Originally, all ceratopsid material collected from this bonebed was referred to the centrosaurine ceratopsid Albertaceratops, but subsequently two parietals were designated the types of the chasmosaurine, M. lokii, in part, because they were interpreted to have three epiparietals bilaterally. Here we describe new material from the bonebed that allows a systematic revision...

Data from: Phoretic dispersal influences parasite population genetic structure

Emily DiBlasi, Kevin P. Johnson, Sydney A. Stringham, Angela N. Hansen, Andrew B. Beach, Dale H. Clayton & Sarah E. Bush
Dispersal is a fundamental component of the life history of most species. Dispersal influences fitness, population dynamics, gene flow, genetic drift, and population genetic structure. Even small differences in dispersal can alter ecological interactions and trigger an evolutionary cascade. Linking such ecological processes with evolutionary patterns is difficult, but can be done in the proper comparative context. Here we investigate how differences in phoretic dispersal influence the population genetic structure of two different parasites of...

Data from: Reproduction does not adversely affect liver mitochondrial respiratory function but results in lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidants in house mice

Annelise V. Mowry, Andreas N. Kavazis, Aubrey E. Sirman, Wayne K. Potts & Wendy R. Hood
Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a...

Data from: Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolism genes modulate field fitness

Rachel Kerwin, Julie Feusier, Jason Corwin, Matthew Rubin, Catherine Lin, Alise Muok, Brandon Larson, Baohua Li, Bindu Joseph, Marta Francisco, Daniel Copeland, Cynthia Weinig & Daniel J. Kliebenstein
Natural populations persist in complex environments, where biotic stressors, such as pathogen and insect communities, fluctuate temporally and spatially. These shifting biotic pressures generate heterogeneous selective forces that can maintain standing natural variation within a species. To directly test if genes containing causal variation for the Arabidopsis thaliana defensive compounds, glucosinolates (GSL) control field fitness and are therefore subject to natural selection, we conducted a multi-year field trial using lines that vary in only specific...

Data from: Fossil evidence of the avian vocal organ from the Mesozoic

Julia A. Clarke, Sankar Chatterjee, Zhiheng Li, Tobias Riede, Federico Angolin, Franz Goller, Marcelo P. Isasi, Daniel R. Martinioni, Francisco J. Mussel & Fernando E. Novas
From complex songs to simple honks, birds produce sounds using a unique vocal organ called the syrinx1, 2. Located close to the heart at the tracheobronchial junction, vocal folds or membranes attached to modified mineralized rings vibrate to produce sound1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Syringeal components were not thought to commonly enter the fossil record6, and the few reported fossilized parts of the syrinx are geologically young8, 9, 10, 11 (from the Pleistocene...

Emergence patterns of novelty in European vegetation assemblages over the past 15 000 years

Walter Finsinger, Thomas Giesecke, Simon Brewer & Michelle Leydet
Plant communities are not stable over time and biological novelty is predicted to emerge due to climate change, the introduction of exotic species and land-use change. However, the rate at which this novelty may arise over longer time periods has so far received little attention. We reconstruct the emergence of novelty in Europe for a set of baseline conditions over the past 15 000 years to assess past rates of emergence and investigate underlying causes....

Integrating UCE phylogenomics with traditional taxonomy reveals a trove of New World Syscia species (Formicidae, Dorylinae)

Michael G. Branstetter & John T. Longino
The ant genus Syscia is part of the cryptic ant fauna inhabiting leaf litter and rotten wood in the Asian and American tropics. It is a distinct clade within the Dorylinae, the subfamily from which army ants arose. Prior to this work the genus comprised seven species, each known from a single or very few collections. Extensive collecting in Middle America revealed an unexpected and challenging diversity of morphological forms. Locally distinct forms could be...

Data and code for: Replay of innate vocal patterns during sleep in suboscines

Juan Francisco Döppler, Manon Peltier, Ana Amador, Franz Goller & Gabriel Mindlin
Activation of forebrain circuitry during sleep has been variably characterized as ‘pre- or replay’ and has been linked to memory consolidation. The evolutionary origins of this mechanism, however, are unknown. Sleep activation of the sensori-motor pathways of learned birdsong is a particularly useful model system because the muscles controlling the vocal organ are activated, revealing syringeal activity patterns for direct comparison with those of day-time vocal activity. Here we show that suboscine birds, which develop...

Microhabitats associated with solar energy development alter demography of two desert annuals

Karen Tanner, Kara Moore-O'Leary, Ingrid Parker, Bruce Pavlik, Sophia Haji & Rebecca Hernandez
Political and economic initiatives intended to increase energy production while reducing carbon emissions are driving demand for solar energy. Consequently, desert regions are now targeted for development of large-scale photovoltaic solar energy facilities. Where vegetation communities are left intact or restored within facilities, ground-mounted infrastructure may have negative impacts on desert-adapted plants because it creates novel rainfall runoff and shade conditions. We used experimental solar arrays in the Mojave Desert to test how these altered...

Enhancing understanding of the hydrological cycle via pairing of process‐oriented and isotope ratio tracers

Richard Fiorella, Nicholas Siler, Jesse Nusbaumer & David Noone
This dataset contains monthly average output files from the iCAM6 simulations used in the manuscript "Enhancing understanding of the hydrological cycle via pairing of process-oriented and isotope ratio tracers," in review at the Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems. A file corresponding to each of the tagged and isotopic variables used in this manuscript is included. Files are at 0.9° latitude x 1.25° longitude, and are in NetCDF format. Data from two simulations are...

Parallel and Soft Representations of Climate Change: A Review of Astrid Bracke’s Climate Crisis and the 21st Century British Novel

Elizabeth Callaway
Elizabeth Callaway reviews Astrid Bracke's Climate Crisis and the 21st Century British Novel, which she uses as a jumping off point to explore the possibilities of a "soft" representation of climate in realist literary fiction, in particular Zadie Smith's NW.

Vibrant Wreckage: Salvation and New Materialism in Moby-Dick and Ambient Parking Lot

Dale Enggass
Instead of simply reviewing Vibrant Matter by Jane Bennett (Duke 2010), author Dale Enggass applies Bennett's "Political Ecology of Things" to longstanding (and not yet resolved) themes of salvation, materialism and transcendence in Melville's Moby-Dick and Pamela Lu's Ambient Parking Lot.

Learning Interactions of Local and Non-Local Phonotactic Constraints from Positive Input

Aniello De Santo & Alëna Aksënova

Data from: Functional biogeography of dietary strategies in birds

Jean-Yves Barnagaud, Nathan Mazet, François Munoz, Matthias Grenié, Pierre Denelle, Mar Sobral, W. Daniel Kissling, Çağan H. Sekercioglu & Cyrille Violle
Aim: Diet is key to understanding species’ resource use, relationships with their environment and biotic interactions. We aimed to identify the major strategies that shape birds’ diet space, and to investigate their spatial distributions in association with biogeographic, bioclimatic and anthropogenic drivers. Location: Global Time period: Current Major taxa studied: Birds Methods: We analysed score-based assessments of eight diet categories for 8937 out of 10964 extant bird species. We constructed a multivariate diet space by...

Data from: The evolution of locomotor rhythmicity in tetrapods

Callum F. Ross, Richard W. Blob, David R. Carrier, Monica A. Daley, Stephen M. Deban, Brigitte Demes, Janaya L. Gripper, Jose Iriarte-Diaz, Brandon Michael Kilbourne, Tobias Landberg, John D. Polk, Nadja Schilling & Bieke Vanhooydonck
Differences in rhythmicity (relative variance in cycle period) between mammal, fish, and lizard feeding systems have been hypothesized to be associated with differences in their sensorimotor control systems. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether the locomotion of tachymetabolic tetrapods (birds and mammals) is more rhythmic than that of bradymetabolic tetrapods (lizards, alligators, turtles, salamanders). Species averages of intra-individual coefficients of variation in cycle period were compared while controlling for gait and substrate. Variance in...

Data from: Identification of the Minimal Cytolytic Unit for Streptolysin S and an Expansion of the Toxin Family

Evelyn M. Molloy, Sherwood R. Casajens, Courtney L. Cox, Tucker Maxson, Nicole A. Ethridge, Gabriele Margos, Volker Fingerle & Douglas A. Mitchell
Background: Streptolysin S (SLS) is a cytolytic virulence factor produced by the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes and other Streptococcus species. Related “SLS-like” toxins have been characterized in select strains of Clostridium and Listeria, with homologous clusters bioinformatically identified in a variety of other species. SLS is a member of the thiazole/oxazole-modified microcin (TOMM) family of natural products. The structure of SLS has yet to be deciphered and many questions remain regarding its structure-activity relationships. Results:...

Video of nest predation of an African Paradise Flycatcher (Terpsiphone viridis) by an Olive Sunbird (Cyanomitra olivacea)

William Newmark & Victor Mkongewa
Nest predation is the dominant cause of nest failure in the tropics. However, our knowledge about tropical nest predator identity and community structure is still quite limited. On 9 January 2019, we video-recorded an Olive Sunbird (Cyanomitra olivacea) removing and flying off with an egg from an African Paradise Flycatcher (Terpsiphone viridis) nest in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. This observation is surprising because the Olive Sunbird is a specialized nectarivore. Nectar, however, is a...

Providing virtual nature experiences to incarcerated men reduces stress and increases interest in the environment

James Ruff, Nalini Nadkarni, Tierney Thys, Allison Anholt, Jeff Treviño, Sara Yeo, Nalini M. Nadkarni, Tierney M. Thys, James S. Ruff & Sara K. Yeo
Humans gain multiple health benef­­­its through contact with the green and blue parts of the world . However, many people do not have access to such places, including more than two million adults who are incarcerated. Building on studies that have shown positive emotional and mood effects when inmates in solitary confinement were exposed to nature videos featuring non-human built environments in their cellblocks, we measured physiological effects of interventions of nature visual imagery and...

Data from: Pathogenic effect of TP73 gene variants in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Kristi Russell
Objective: To identify novel disease associated loci for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we utilized sequencing data and performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to demonstrate pathogenicity of mutations identified in TP73. Methods: We analyzed exome sequences of 87 sporadic ALS patients and 324 controls, with confirmatory sequencing in independent ALS cohorts of >2,800 patients. For the top hit, TP73, a regulator of apoptosis, differentiation, and a binding partner as well as homolog of the...

Data from: Functional innovation promotes diversification of form in the evolution of an ultrafast trap-jaw mechanism

Douglas Booher, Joshua Gibson, Cong Liu, John Longino, Brian Fisher, Milan Janda, Nitish Narula, Evropi Toulkeridou, Alexander Mikheyev, Andrew Suarez & Evan Economo
Evolutionary innovations underlie the rise of diversity and complexity—the two long-term trends in the history of life. How does natural selection redesign multiple interacting parts to achieve a new emergent function? We investigated the evolution of a biomechanical innovation, the latch-spring mechanism of trap-jaw ants, to address two outstanding evolutionary problems: how form and function change in a system during the evolution of new complex traits, and whether such innovations and the diversity they beget...

Processes underlying complex patterns of song trait evolution in a Setophaga hybrid zone

Jay Love & Franz Goller
During secondary contact between two species when hybrids are less fit than parents, mating signals are expected to diverge while aggressive signals are expected to converge. If a single signal trait is used in both mating and aggression, then the dynamics between these two forces could influence the evolutionary trajectory of that trait. We studied such a situation in an avian hybrid zone between two Setophaga species, where birdsong is used in both mate attraction...

Data from: Different frequency control mechanisms and the exploitation of frequency space in passerines

Franz Goller, Jay Love & Gabriel Mindlin
1. Birdsong is used in reproductive context and, consequently, has been shaped by strong natural and sexual selection. The acoustic performance includes a multitude of acoustic and temporal characteristics that are thought to honestly reveal the quality of the singing individual. 2. One major song feature is frequency and its modulation. Sound frequency can be actively controlled, but the control mechanisms differ between different groups. Two described mechanisms are pressure-driven frequency changes in suboscines and...

CPCP-1: Thermal demagnetization data

Ziaul Haque, John Geissman, Randall Irmis, Paul Olsen, Christophere Lepre, Hesham Buhedma, Ronald Mundil, William Parker, Cornelia Rasmussen & George Gehrels
The Colorado Plateau Coring Project Phase 1 (CPCP-1) acquired three continuous drill cores from Petrified Forest National Park (PFNP), Arizona, U.S.A. Two cores, CPCP-PFNP13-1A and CPCP-PFNP13-2B, hereafter CPCP-1A and CPCP-2B; respectively, intersected the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Lower(?)-Middle Triassic Moenkopi Formation (MF) and Permian Coconino Sandstone. We examined CPCP-1A and CPCP-2B cores to construct a high-resolution magnetostratigraphy of Moenkopi Formation strata. These data files contain progressive thermal demagnetization data collected from the specimens from cores...

Climate-driven dietary change on the Colorado Plateau, USA and implications for gender-specific foraging patterns

Lisbeth Louderback
Complementary archaeological and paleoenvironmental datasets from North Creek Shelter (Colorado Plateau, Utah, USA) are analyzed using the diet breadth model, revealing human dietary patterns during the early and middle Holocene. Abundance indices are derived from botanical and faunal datasets and along with stone tools, are used to test the prediction that increasing aridity caused the decline of high-return resources. This prediction appears valid with respect to botanical resources, as high-ranked plants drop out of the...

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