14 Works

Data from: Does allopreening control avian ectoparasites?

Scott M. Villa, Graham B. Goodman, James S. Ruff & Dale H. Clayton
For birds, the first line of defence against ectoparasites is preening. The effectiveness of self-preening for ectoparasite control is well known. By contrast, the ectoparasite control function of allopreening—in which one birds preens another—has not been rigorously tested. We infested captive pigeons with identical numbers of parasitic lice, and then compared rates of allopreening to the abundance of lice on the birds over time. We documented a negative relationship between rates of allopreening and the...

Data from: Anaesthetic interventions for prevention of awareness during surgery

Anthony G. Messina, Michael Wang, Marshall J. Ward, Chase C. Wilker, Brett B. Smith, Daniel P. Vezina, Nathan Pace & Nathan Leon Pace
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is usually associated with unconsciousness. 'Awareness' is when patients have postoperative recall of events or experiences during surgery. 'Wakefulness' is when patients become conscious during surgery, but have no postoperative recollection of the period of consciousness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of two types of anaesthetic interventions in reducing clinically significant awareness: - anaesthetic drug regimens; and - intraoperative anaesthetic depth monitors. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled...

Data from: Size matters for lice on birds: coevolutionary allometry of host and parasite body size

Andrea Harnos, Zsolt Lang, Dóra Petrás, Sarah E. Bush, Krisztián Szabó & Lajos Rozsa
Body size is one of the most fundamental characteristics of all organisms. It influences physiology, morphology, behavior, and even interspecific interactions such as those between parasites and their hosts. Host body size influences the magnitude and variability of parasite size according to Harrison's Rule (HR: positive relationship between host and parasite body sizes) and Poulin’s Increasing Variance Hypothesis (PIVH: positive relationship between host body size and the variability of parasite body size). We analyzed parasite-host...

Data from: The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults

Carl S. Thummel & William E. Barry
Although mutations in HNF4A were identified as the cause of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young 1 (MODY1) two decades ago, the mechanisms by which this nuclear receptor regulates glucose homeostasis remain unclear. Here we report that loss of Drosophila HNF4 recapitulates hallmark symptoms of MODY1, including adult-onset hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). These defects are linked to a role for dHNF4 in promoting mitochondrial function as well as the expression...

Data from: Meta-analysis reveals that hydraulic traits explain cross-species patterns of drought-induced tree mortality across the globe

William R. L. Anderegg, Tamir Klein, Megan Bartlett, Lawren Sack, Adam F. A. Pellegrini, Brendan Choat & Steven Jansen
Drought-induced tree mortality has been observed globally and is expected to increase under climate change scenarios, with large potential consequences for the terrestrial carbon sink. Predicting mortality across species is crucial for assessing the effects of climate extremes on forest community biodiversity, composition, and carbon sequestration. However, the physiological traits associated with elevated risk of mortality in diverse ecosystems remain unknown, although these traits could greatly improve understanding and prediction of tree mortality in forests....

Data from: Ambient temperature influences tolerance to plant secondary compounds in a mammalian herbivore

Patrice Kurnath, Natalie D. Merz & M. Denise Dearing
Growing evidence suggests that plant secondary compounds (PSCs) ingested by mammals become more toxic at elevated ambient temperatures, a phenomenon known as temperature-dependent toxicity. We investigated temperature-dependent toxicity in the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida), a herbivorous rodent that naturally encounters PSCs in creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), which is a major component of its diet. First, we determined the maximum dose of creosote resin ingested by woodrats at warm (28–29°C) or cool (21–22°C) temperatures. Second, we...

Data from: Revision of the early crocodylomorph Trialestes romeri (Archosauria, Suchia) from the lower Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation of Argentina: one of the oldest-known crocodylomorphs

Agustina Lecuona, Martín D. Ezcurra & Randall B. Irmis
Trialestes romeri (Reig) is an early crocodylomorph from the Ischigualasto Formation (late Carnian – early Norian; Ischigualasto – Villa Unión Basin, Argentina) and one of the oldest-known members of this clade. Two specimens of this species are known, the holotype (PVL 2561) and a referred specimen (PVL 3889), both consisting of associated cranial and postcranial remains. These specimens are incomplete and poorly preserved thus leading previous authors to propose different phylogenetic hypotheses for the species....

Data from: Reproduction does not adversely affect liver mitochondrial respiratory function but results in lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidants in house mice

Annelise V. Mowry, Andreas N. Kavazis, Aubrey E. Sirman, Wayne K. Potts & Wendy R. Hood
Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a...

Data from: Mate-guarding by male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) is associated with female MHC genotype

Joanna M. Setchell, Shane A. Richards, Kristin M. Abbott & Leslie A. Knapp
Female choice for male major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotype has been widely tested, but the relationship between male mating strategies and female MHC genotype has received far less attention. Moreover, few studies of MHC-associated mate choice test for the fitness effects underlying such choice. We examined mate-guarding by male mandrills, a species with intense male–male competition and female offspring care. We developed a statistical model based on 10 years of observations to describe how the...

Emergence patterns of novelty in European vegetation assemblages over the past 15 000 years

Walter Finsinger, Thomas Giesecke, Simon Brewer & Michelle Leydet
Plant communities are not stable over time and biological novelty is predicted to emerge due to climate change, the introduction of exotic species and land-use change. However, the rate at which this novelty may arise over longer time periods has so far received little attention. We reconstruct the emergence of novelty in Europe for a set of baseline conditions over the past 15 000 years to assess past rates of emergence and investigate underlying causes....

Data from: Fossil evidence of the avian vocal organ from the Mesozoic

Julia A. Clarke, Sankar Chatterjee, Zhiheng Li, Tobias Riede, Federico Angolin, Franz Goller, Marcelo P. Isasi, Daniel R. Martinioni, Francisco J. Mussel & Fernando E. Novas
From complex songs to simple honks, birds produce sounds using a unique vocal organ called the syrinx1, 2. Located close to the heart at the tracheobronchial junction, vocal folds or membranes attached to modified mineralized rings vibrate to produce sound1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Syringeal components were not thought to commonly enter the fossil record6, and the few reported fossilized parts of the syrinx are geologically young8, 9, 10, 11 (from the Pleistocene...

Data from: Bayesian estimation of the global biogeographical history of the Solanaceae

Julia Dupin, Nicholas J. Matzke, Tiina Särkinen, Sandra Knapp, Richard G. Olmstead, Lynn Bohs & Stacey D. Smith
Aim: The tomato family Solanaceae is distributed on all major continents except Antarctica and has its centre of diversity in South America. Its worldwide distribution suggests multiple long-distance dispersals within and between the New and Old Worlds. Here, we apply maximum likelihood (ML) methods and newly developed biogeographical stochastic mapping (BSM) to infer the ancestral range of the family and to estimate the frequency of dispersal and vicariance events resulting in its present-day distribution. Location:...

Data from: Architecture of the sperm whale forehead facilitates ramming combat

Olga Panagiotopoulou, Panagiotis Spyridis, Hyab Mehari Abraha, David R. Carrier & Todd C. Pataky
Herman Melville’s novel Moby Dick was inspired by historical instances in which large sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus L.) sank 19th century whaling ships by ramming them with their foreheads. The immense forehead of sperm whales is possibly the largest, and one of the strangest, anatomical structures in the animal kingdom. It contains two large oil-filled compartments, known as the “spermaceti organ” and “junk”, that constitute up to one-quarter of body mass and extend one-third of...

Data from: Sexual selection on skeletal shape in Carnivora

Jeremy S. Morris & David R. Carrier
Lifetime reproductive success of males is often dependent upon the ability to physically compete for mates. However, species variation in social structure leads to differences in the relative importance of intraspecific aggression. Here we present a large comparative data set on sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape in Carnivora to test the hypotheses that carnivorans exhibit sexual dimorphism in skeletal anatomy that is reflective of greater specialization for physical aggression in males relative to females and...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Utah
  • University of Buenos Aires
  • ARUP Laboratories (United States)
  • University of Washington
  • Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center
  • The University of Texas at Austin
  • Princeton University
  • University of Queensland
  • Midwestern State University
  • University of Cambridge