16 Works

Data from: Ultra-Conserved Element phylogenomics of new world Ponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) illuminates the origin and phylogeographic history of the endemic exotic ant Ponera exotica

Michael G. Branstetter & John T. Longino
The genus Ponera is a lineage of leaf litter ants, with a center of diversity in the Indo-Australian region. Two species occur in the New World; however, uncertainty exists with regard to their biogeographic origins and species limits, especially for isolated cloud forest populations in Middle America. We investigate the geographic distribution, phylogeny, and phylogeography of these two species to better characterize the American ant fauna and to gain insight into the biogeography of taxa...

Osteology of the late Triassic bipedal archosaur Poposaurus gracilis (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia) from Western North America

Emma R. Schachner, Randall B. Irmis, Adam K. Huttenlocker, Kent Sanders, Robert L. Cieri & Sterling J. Nesbitt
Poposaurus gracilis is a bipedal pseudosuchian archosaur that has been poorly understood since the discovery of the holotype fragmentary partial postcranial skeleton in 1915. Poposaurus. gracilis is a member of Poposauroidea, an unusually morphologically divergent clade of pseudosuchians containing taxa that are bipedal, quadrupedal, toothed, edentulous, and some individuals with elongated thoracic neural spines (i.e., sails). In 2003, a well preserved, fully articulated, and nearly complete postcranial skeleton of P. gracilis was discovered with some...

Data from: Differences in epiphyte biomass and community composition along landscape and within-crown spatial scales

Autumn Amici, Nalini Nadkarni, Cameron Williams & Sybil Gotsch
Vascular epiphytes contribute to the structural, compositional, and functional complexity of tropical montane cloud forests because of their high biomass, diversity, and ability to intercept and retain water and nutrients from atmospheric sources. However, human-caused climate change and forest-to-pasture conversion are rapidly altering tropical montane cloud forests. Epiphyte communities may be particularly vulnerable to these changes because of their dependence on direct atmospheric inputs and host trees for survival. In Monteverde, Costa Rica, we measured...

Dense seismic three-component nodal array at the Bud Wellman Ranch

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High-Resolution imaging and monitoring of the subsurface structure and seismicity at a site along the San Jacinto fault zone using a dense seismic nodal array. The site is located about 8 km southeast of the town of Anza, California. The type of nodal sensor employed is the Fairfield Zland 3-component geophone (records ground velocity continuously). The array consists of 108 sensors, with 54 located along a linear across-fault profile and the remaining 54 sensors scattered...

Data from: Macroevolutionary patterns in overexpression of tyrosine: an anti-herbivore defense in a speciose tropical tree genus, Inga (Fabaceae)

Phyllis D. Coley, María‐José Endara, Gabrielle Ghabash, Catherine A. Kidner, James A. Nicholls, R. Toby Pennington, Anthony G. Mills, Abrianna J. Soule, Maristerra R. Lemes, Graham N. Stone & Thomas A. Kursar
Plant secondary metabolites are a key defence against herbivores, and their evolutionary origin is likely from primary metabolites. Yet for this to occur, an intermediate step of overexpression of primary metabolites would need to confer some advantage to the plant. Here, we examine the evolution of overexpression of the essential amino acid, L‐tyrosine and its role as a defence against herbivores. We examined overexpression of tyrosine in 97 species of Inga (Fabaceae), a genus of...

Contrasting effects of host tree isolation on population connectedness in two tropical epiphytic bromeliads

Autumn Amici, Nalini Nadkarni, Emily DiBlasi & Jon Seger
Premise of the study Conversion of primary forests to pastures is a major cause of habitat fragmentation in the tropics. Fragmentation is expected to impede gene flow for many plant species that are restricted to remaining forest fragments. Epiphytes may be especially vulnerable to this effect of forest fragmentation because they depend on host trees. However, trees that remain in pastures may enhance connectivity across the landscape for epiphyte species that can thrive on such...

Data from: Differing climatic mechanisms control transient and accumulated vegetation novelty in Europe and eastern North America

Kevin Burke, John Williams, Simon Brewer, Walter Finsinger, Thomas Giesecke, David Lorenz & Alejandro Ordonez
Understanding the mechanisms that produce novel ecosystems is of joint interest to conservation biologists and paleoecologists. Here, we define and differentiate transient from accumulated novelty and evaluate four climatic mechanisms proposed to cause species to reshuffle into novel assemblages: high climatic novelty, high spatial rates of change (displacement), high variance among displacement rates for individual climate variables, and divergence among displacement vector bearings. We use climate simulations to quantify climate novelty, displacement, and divergence across...

TypeTE: a tool to genotype mobile element insertions from whole genome resequencing data

Clément Goubert, Jainy Thomas, Lindsay Payer, Jeffrey Kidd, Julie Feusier, W. Scott Watkins, Kathleen Burns, Lynn Jorde & Cédric Feschotte
Alu retrotransposons account for more than 10% of the human genome, and insertions of these elements create structural variants segregating in human populations. Such polymorphic Alu are powerful markers to understand population structure, and they represent variants that can greatly impact genome function, including gene expression. Accurate genotyping of Alu and other mobile elements has been challenging. Indeed, we found that Alu genotypes previously called for the 1000 Genomes Project are sometimes erroneous, which poses...

Transitions in paternal social status predict patterns of offspring growth and metabolic transcription

Joseph W. Cauceglia, Adam C. Nelson, Nimrod D. Rubinstein, Shweta Kukreja, Lynsey N. Sasso, John A. Beaufort, Oliver J. Rando & Wayne K. Potts
Parental effects occur when changes in the parental phenotype or environment cause changes to offspring phenotype. While some parental effects are triggered in response to an environmental cue in a time-locked fashion, other parental effects persist even after the cue has been removed, suggesting multiple timescales of action. For parental effects to serve as reliable signals of current environmental conditions, they should be reversible, such that when the cue changes, offspring phenotypes change in accordance....

A mathematical model of flow-mediated coagulation identifies factor V as a modifier of thrombin generation in hemophilia A

Michael Stobb, Kathryn Link, Matthew Sorrells, Maria Bortot, Katherine Ruegg, Marilyn Manco-Johnson, Jorge DiPaola, Suzanne Sindi, Aaron Fogelson, Karin Leiderman & Keith Neeves
Hemophilia A is a bleeding disorder categorized as severe, mild, and moderate deficiencies in factor VIII (FVIII). Within these categories the variance in bleeding severity is significant and the origins unknown. The number of parameters that could modify bleeding are so numerous that experimental approaches are not feasible for considering all possible combinations. Consequently, we turn to a mathematical model of coagulation under flow to act as a screening tool to identify parameters that are...

Data from: Annual environmental variation influences host tolerance to parasites

Sabrina M. McNew, Sarah A. Knutie, Graham B. Goodman, Angela Theodosopoulos, Ashley Saulsberry, Janai Yepez R., Sarah E. Bush & Dale H. Clayton
When confronted with a parasite or pathogen, hosts can defend themselves by resisting or tolerating the attack. While resistance can be diminished when resources are limited, it is unclear how robust tolerance is to changes in environmental conditions. Here we investigate the sensitivity of tolerance in a single host population living in a highly variable environment. We manipulated the abundance of an invasive parasitic fly, Philornis downsi, in nests of Galápagos mockingbirds (Mimus parvulus) over...

Data from: Host defense triggers rapid adaptive radiation in experimentally evolving parasites

Sarah E. Bush, Scott M. Villa, Juan C. Altuna, Kevin P. Johnson, Michael D. Shapiro & Dale H. Clayton
Adaptive radiation occurs when the members of a single lineage evolve different adaptive forms in response to selection imposed by competitors or predators. Iconic examples include Darwin’s finches, Caribbean anoles, and Hawaiian silverswords, all of which live on islands. Although adaptive radiation is thought to be an important generator of biodiversity, most studies concern groups that have already diversified. Here we take the opposite approach. We experimentally triggered diversification in the descendants of a single...

Data from: Rapid experimental evolution of reproductive isolation from a single natural population

Scott M. Villa, Juan C. Altuna, James S. Ruff, Andrew B. Beach, Lane I. Mulvey, Erik J. Poole, Heidi E. Campbell, Kevin P. Johnson, Michael D. Shapiro, Sarah E. Bush & Dale H. Clayton
Ecological speciation occurs when local adaptation generates reproductive isolation as a by-product of natural selection. Although ecological speciation is a fundamental source of diversification, the mechanistic link between natural selection and reproductive isolation remains poorly understood, especially in natural populations. Here, we show that experimental evolution of parasite body size over 4 y (approximately 60 generations) leads to reproductive isolation in natural populations of feather lice on birds. When lice are transferred to pigeons of...

Parallel and Soft Representations of Climate Change: A Review of Astrid Bracke’s Climate Crisis and the 21st Century British Novel

Elizabeth Callaway
Elizabeth Callaway reviews Astrid Bracke's Climate Crisis and the 21st Century British Novel, which she uses as a jumping off point to explore the possibilities of a "soft" representation of climate in realist literary fiction, in particular Zadie Smith's NW.

Vibrant Wreckage: Salvation and New Materialism in Moby-Dick and Ambient Parking Lot

Dale Enggass
Instead of simply reviewing Vibrant Matter by Jane Bennett (Duke 2010), author Dale Enggass applies Bennett's "Political Ecology of Things" to longstanding (and not yet resolved) themes of salvation, materialism and transcendence in Melville's Moby-Dick and Pamela Lu's Ambient Parking Lot.

Data from: A four-questions perspective on public information use in sticklebacks (Gasterosteidae)

Mike M. Webster, Laura Chouinard-Thuly, Gábor Herczeg, Jun Kitano, Riva Riley, Sean Rogers, Michael D. Shapiro, Takahito Shikano & Kevin N. Laland
Whether learning primarily reflects general processes or species-specific challenges is a longstanding matter of dispute. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of public information use (PI-use) in sticklebacks (Gasterosteidae). PI-use is a form of social learning by which animals are able to assess the relative quality of resources, here prey patches, by observing the behaviour of others. PI-use was highly species-specific with only two of the assayed species, Pungitius spp. and their closest relative Culaea...

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