24,201 Works

Data from: Predictions of single-nucleotide polymorphism differentiation between two populations in terms of mutual information

Roderick C Dewar, William B Sherwin, Emma Thomas, Clare E Holleley & Richard A Nichols
Mutual information (I) provides a robust measure of genetic differentiation for the purposes of estimating dispersal between populations. At present, however, there is little predictive theory for I. The growing importance in population biology of analyses of single-nucleotide and other single feature polymorphisms (SFPs) is a potent reason for developing an analytic theory for I with respect to a single locus. This study represents a first step towards such a theory. We present theoretical predictions...

Data from: Covariation in life-history traits: differential effects of diet on condition, hormones, behavior and reproduction in genetic finch morphs

Sarah R. Pryke, Lee B. Astheimer, Simon C. Griffith & William A. Buttemer
The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors in determining variation in life-history traits is of central interest to evolutionary biologists, but the physiological mechanisms underlying these traits are still poorly understood. Here we experimentally demonstrate opposing effects of nutritional stress on immune function, endocrine physiology, parental care and reproduction between red and black head-color morphs of the Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae). Although body condition of black morphs was largely unaffected by diet manipulation, red...

Data from: A highly social, land-dwelling fish defends territories in a constantly fluctuating environment

Terry J. Ord & Shi-Tong Tonia Hsieh
The Pacific leaping blenny (Alticus arnoldorum) is a marine fish that has made a highly successful transition to land. We report an extensive field study on the behavior of this remarkable fish and how it has coped with life on land. The fish occurs in great abundance above the waterline along the rocky coastlines of Micronesia. We found them to be terrestrial in all aspects of their adult daily life, but heavily constrained by large...

Data from: Factors leading to the evolution and maintenance of a male ornament in territorial species

Grace K. Charles & Terry J. Ord
Male ornamentation is assumed to have evolved primarily from selection by female mate choice. Yet this is only one possible reason for ornament evolution. Ornaments might also be useful in aggressive competition by improving opponent assessment between males, or they might function to enhance signal detection by making males more conspicuous in the environment. We tested both these ideas in territorial Anolis lizards in which female choice is either absent or secondary to males competing...

Data from: Receiver perception predicts species divergence in long-range communication

Terry J. Ord
The design of animal signals is believed to reflect the combined effect of the sensory system of receivers, the type of environment in which communication is being conducted, and the distance signals must travel in that environment. While empirical studies have examined how each of these factors might separately explain the structure of signals used by animals within species, comparative evidence supporting the predicted interaction of the sensory system, environment and transmission range in the...

Data from: The use of MSR (Minimum Sample Richness) for sample assemblage comparisons

Kenny J. Travouillon, Gilles Escarguel, Serge Legendre, Michael Archer & Suzanne J. Hand
Minimum Sample Richness (MSR) is defined as the smallest number of taxa that must be recorded in a sample to achieve a given level of inter-assemblage classification accuracy. MSR is calculated from known or estimated richness and taxonomic similarity. Here we test MSR for strengths and weaknesses by using 167 published mammalian local faunas from the Paleogene and early Neogene of the Query and Liane area (Massif Central, southwestern France), and then apply MSR to...

Data from: Personality-matching habitat choice, rather than behavioural plasticity, is a likely driver of a phenotype–environment covariance

Benedikt Holtmann, Eduardo S.A. Santos, Carlos E. Lara, Shinichi Nakagawa & Eduardo S. A. Santos
An emerging hypothesis of animal personality posits that animals choose the habitat that best fits their personality, and that the match between habitat and personality can facilitate population differentiation, and eventually speciation. However, behavioural plasticity and the adjustment of behaviours to new environments have been a classical explanation for such matching patterns. Using a population of dunnocks (Prunella modularis), we empirically tested whether personality or behavioural plasticity is responsible for the non-random distribution of shy...

Data from: Population differentiation and behavioural association of the two ‘personality’ genes DRD4 and SERT in dunnocks (Prunella modularis)

Benedikt Holtmann, Stefanie Grosser, Malgorzata Lagisz, Sheri R. Johnson, Eduardo S. A. Santos, Carlos E. Lara, Bruce Robertson, Shinichi Nakagawa, S. L. Johnson & B. C. Robertson
Quantifying the variation in behaviour-related genes within and between populations provides insight into how evolutionary processes shape consistent behavioural traits (i.e. personality). Deliberate introductions of non-native species offer opportunities to investigate how such genes differ between native and introduced populations and how polymorphisms in the genes are related to variation in behaviour. Here, we compared the genetic variation of the two ‘personality’ genes, DRD4 and SERT, between a native (United Kingdom, UK) and an introduced...

Data from: Association mapping of morphological traits in wild and captive zebra finches: reliable within but not between populations

Ulrich Knief, Holger Schielzeth, Niclas Backstrom, Georg Hemmrich-Stanisak, Michael Wittig, Andre Franke, Simon C. Griffith, Hans Ellegren, Bart Kempenaers & Wolfgang Forstmeier
Identifying causal genetic variants underlying heritable phenotypic variation is a longstanding goal in evolutionary genetics. We previously identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for five morphological traits in a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by whole-genome linkage mapping. We here follow up on these studies with the aim to narrow down on the quantitative trait variants (QTN) in one wild and three captive populations. First, we performed an association study using 672 single...

Data from: The evolution of ontogenetic allometric trajectories in mammalian domestication

Laura A. B. Wilson
Morphological divergence of domesticated as compared to wild forms must result from changes in the ontogenetic process. Species-specific tests for heterochrony have rejected a single explanation of domestic forms representing juveniles of their wild relatives. Ontogenetic allometric trajectories for 12 pairs of wild and domestic mammals were examined using skull growth data for 1070 specimens, including representatives from all lineages in which domestication has occurred. A suite of tests were performed to quantify allometric disparity...

Data from: Predictions of single-nucleotide polymorphism differentiation between two populations in terms of mutual information

Roderick C Dewar, William B Sherwin, Emma Thomas, Clare E Holleley & Richard A Nichols
Mutual information (I) provides a robust measure of genetic differentiation for the purposes of estimating dispersal between populations. At present, however, there is little predictive theory for I. The growing importance in population biology of analyses of single-nucleotide and other single feature polymorphisms (SFPs) is a potent reason for developing an analytic theory for I with respect to a single locus. This study represents a first step towards such a theory. We present theoretical predictions...

Data from: Phylogenetic diversity, types of endemism and the evolutionary history of New World bats

Camilo López-Aguirre, Suzanne J. Hand, Shawn W. Laffan & Michael Archer
New World bats represent over one third of global bat species and encompass the widest adaptive radiation among bats. Modern bat diversity in the Americas resulted from a mixture of migrations and colonisations of different taxa throughout the Cenozoic. Traditionally, these taxa are conceived as either South or North American, based on the location of their centres of diversification. To better understand the spatial and temporal processes behind modern biogeographic patterns of New World bat...

Data from: Diet adaptation in dog reflects spread of prehistoric agriculture

Maja Arendt, Kylie M. Cairnes, J.W.O. Ballard, Peter Savolainen & Erik Axelsson
Adaptations allowing dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, including a significant AMY2B copy number gain, constituted a crucial step in the evolution of the dog from the wolf. It is however not clear if this change was associated with the initial domestication or represents a secondary shift related to the subsequent development of agriculture. Previous efforts to study this process were based on geographically limited data sets and low-resolution methods and it...

Data from: Genetic rescue increases fitness and aids rapid recovery of an endangered marsupial population

Andrew R. Weeks, Dean Heinze, Louise Perrin, Jakub Stoklosa, Ary A. Hoffmann, Anthony Van Rooyen, Tom Kelly & Ian Mansergh
Genetic rescue has now been attempted in several threatened species, but the contribution of genetics per se to any increase in population health can be hard to identify. Rescue is expected to be particularly useful when individuals are introduced into small isolated populations with low levels of genetic variation. Here we consider such a situation by documenting genetic rescue in the mountain pygmy possum, Burramys parvus. Rapid population recovery occurred in the target population after...

Data from: Study on surface settlement and structural deformation for large span subway station using a new pre-supporting system

Pengjiao Jia, Wen Zhao, Xi Du, Yang Chen, Chaozhe Zhang, Qian Bai & Zhiguo Wang
A new construction pre-supporting system, Steel Tube Slab system (STS), is proposed for large underground space excavation with shallow depth. The adjacent steel pipes in STS method are connected by a couple of flanges, bolt and concrete in order to improve the flexural capacity and lateral stiffness of the whole structure. STS method is firstly adopted to construct the ultra-shallow buried and large span subway station in China. Ground settlement and structural deformation are monitored...

Data from: Changes in desert avifauna associated with the functional extinction of a terrestrial top predator

James D. Rees, Richard T. Kingsford & Mike Letnic
We investigated how long-term suppression of populations of a top predator, the dingo Canis dingo, affected composition of sympatric avifauna in Australian deserts, by surveying bird assemblages across ~80 000 km2 of arid dunefields on either side of the Dingo Barrier Fence (DBF; a 5,614 km-long fence separating ecosystems in which dingoes are abundant from ecosystems in which dingoes are functionally extinct). Using fourth-corner modelling, incorporating species’ traits, we identified apparent declines of sedentary birds...

Data from: The nutritional geometry of parental effects: maternal and paternal macronutrient consumption and offspring phenotype in a neriid fly

Russell Bonduriansky, Aidan Runagall-McNaull & Angela J. Crean
Although the ecological and evolutionary importance of environmentally induced parental effects is now widely recognized, such effects are still typically studied by contrasting just two environments in a single parental sex. Yet, parental effects should generally be viewed as reaction norms, and a more complete understanding of their ecological role therefore requires examining continuously varying and interacting environmental variables in both parental sexes. We used nutritional geometry to investigate linear, nonlinear and interactive effects of...

Data from: Modeling the dynamics of Plasmodium vivax infection and hypnozoite reactivation in vivo

Adeshina I. Adekunle, Mykola Pinkevych, Rose McGready, Christine Luxemburger, Lisa J. White, Francois Nosten, Deborah Cromer & Miles P. Davenport
The dynamics of Plasmodium vivax infection is characterized by reactivation of hypnozoites at varying time intervals. The relative contribution of new P. vivax infection and reactivation of dormant liver stage hypnozoites to initiation of blood stage infection is unclear. In this study, we investigate the contribution of new inoculations of P. vivax sporozoites to primary infection versus reactivation of hypnozoites by modeling the dynamics of P. vivax infection in Thailand in patients receiving treatment for...

Data from: The interaction between genotype and juvenile and adult density environment in shaping multidimensional reaction norms of behaviour

Chang S. Han & Robert C. Brooks
1. Both juvenile (Ej) and adult (Ea) environment can alter developmental trajectories, independently or interactively (as environment by environment interaction; Ej×Ea), to shape behaviour in later life. However, within a population, the developmental response of behaviours to environments can vary among genotypes (G×E×E, multidimensional behavioural plasticity). 2. Here we use a full-sibling, split-brood experimental design and random regression model to study genetic variation in behavioural plasticity across juvenile/adult density conditions in four behavioural traits of...

Data from: Perceptual impairment in face identification with poor sleep

Louise Beattie, Darragh Walsh, Jessica McLaren, Stephany M. Biello & David White
Previous studies have shown impaired memory for faces following restricted sleep. However, it is not known whether lack of sleep impairs performance on face identification tasks that do not rely on recognition memory, despite these tasks being more prevalent in security and forensic professions—for example, in photo-ID checks at national borders. Here we tested whether poor sleep affects accuracy on a standard test of face-matching ability that does not place demands on memory: the Glasgow...

Data from: Increased temperature, but not acidification, enhances fertilization and development in a tropical urchin: potential for adaptation to a tropicalized eastern Australia

Shawna A. Foo, Symon A. Dworjanyn, Mehar S. Khatkar, Alistair G. B. Poore & Maria Byrne
To predict effects of global change on marine populations, it is important to measure the effects of climate stressors on performance and potential for adaptation. Adaptation depends on heritable genetic variance for stress tolerance being present in populations. We determined effects of near-future ocean conditions on fertilisation success of the sea urchin Pseudoboletia indiana. In 16 multiple dam-sire crosses, we quantified genetic variation in tolerance of warming (+3°C) and acidification (-0.3-0.5 pH units) at the...

Data from: Revisiting the cost of carnivory in mammals

Marlee A. Tucker, Terry J. Ord & Tracey L. Rogers
Predator-prey relationships play a key role in the evolution and ecology of carnivores. An understanding of predator-prey relationships and how this differs across species and environments provides information on how carnivorous strategies have evolved and how they may change in response to environmental change. We aim to determine how mammals overcame the challenges of living within the marine environment; specifically, how this altered predator-prey body mass relationships relative to terrestrial mammals. Using predator and prey...

Data from: Experimental evidence for phonemic contrasts in a nonhuman vocal system

Sabrina Engesser, Jodie M. S. Crane, James L. Savage, Andrew F. Russell & Simon W. Townsend
The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback...

Data from: MR1-restricted mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells respond to mycobacterial vaccination and infection in nonhuman primates

Justin M. Greene, Pradyot Dash, Sobhan Roy, Curtis McMurtrey, Walid Awad, Jason S. Reed, Katherine B. Hammond, Shaheed Abdulhaqq, Helen L. Wu, Benjamin J. Burwitz, Benjamin F. Roth, David W. Morrow, Julia C. Ford, Guangwu Xu, Joseph Y. Bae, Hugh Crank, Alfred W. Legasse, Thurston H. Dang, Hui Yee Greenaway, Monica Kurniawan, Marielle C. Gold, Melanie J. Harriff, Deborah A. Lewinsohn, Byung S. Park, Michael K. Axthelm … & Jonah B. Sacha
Studies on mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAITs) in nonhuman primates (NHP), a physiologically relevant model of human immunity, are handicapped due to a lack of macaque MAIT-specific reagents. Here we show that while MR1 ligand-contact residues are conserved between human and multiple NHP species, three T-cell receptor contact-residue mutations in NHP MR1 diminish binding of human MR1 tetramers to macaque MAITs. Construction of naturally loaded macaque MR1 tetramers facilitated identification and characterization of macaque MR1-binding...

Data from: Correlational selection does not explain the evolution of a behavioural syndrome

Chang S. Han & Robert C. Brooks
Correlated suites of behaviours, or behavioural syndromes, appear to be widespread, and yet few studies have explored how they arise and are maintained. One possibility holds that correlational selection can generate and maintain behavioural syndrome if certain behavioural combinations enjoy greater fitness than other combinations. Here we test this correlational selection hypothesis by comparing behavioural syndrome structure with a multivariate fitness surface based on reproductive success of male water striders. We measured the structure of...

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