224 Works

Attacks on robotic prey mimics and controls

Terry Ord
Social animals are expected to face a trade-off between producing a signal that is detectible by mates and rivals, but not obvious to predators. This trade-off is fundamental for understanding how the design of many animal signals originates, and is often the lens through which the evolution of alternative communication strategies is viewed. We have a reasonable working knowledge of how conspecifics detect signals under different conditions, but how predators exploit conspicuous communication of prey...

Lessons from a century of conservation translocations

Shane D Morris, Barry W Brook, Katherine E Moseby & Christopher N Johnson
Translocation—moving individuals for release in new locations—is among the most important conservation interventions for increasing or re-establishing populations of threatened species. However, translocations often fail. To improve their effectiveness, we need to understand the features that distinguish successful from failed translocations. Here, we assembled and analysed a global database of translocations of terrestrial vertebrates (n=514) to assess the effects of various design features and extrinsic factors on success. Unlike previous reviews, we analysed outcomes using...

Data from: Profile of and risk factors for post-stroke cognitive impairment in diverse ethno-regional groups

Jessica W Lo, John D Crawford, David W Desmond, Olivier Godefroy, Hanna Jokinen, Simin Mahinrad, Hee-Joon Bae, Sebastian Köhler, Elles Douven, Julie Staals, Christopher Chen, Xin Xu, Eddie J Chong, Rufus O Akinyemi, Rajesh N Kalaria, Adesola Ogunniyi, Mélanie Barbay, Martine Roussel, Byung-Chul Lee, Velandai K Srikanth, Christopher Moran, Nagaendran Kandiah, Russell J Chander, Behnam Sabayan, J. Wouter Jukema … & Perminder S Sachdev
OBJECTIVE: To address the variability in prevalence estimates and inconsistencies in potential risk factors for post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) using a standardised approach and individual participant data (IPD) from international cohorts in the STROKOG consortium. METHODS: We harmonised data from thirteen studies based in eight countries. Neuropsychological test scores 2 to 6 months after stroke or TIA and appropriate normative data were used to calculate standardised cognitive domain scores. Domain-specific impairment was based on percentile...

Data from: Habitat partitioning and morphological differentiation: the Southeast Asian Draco lizards and Caribbean Anolis lizards compared

Terry J. Ord & Danielle A. Klomp
Sympatric species that initially overlap in resource use are expected to partition the environment in ways that will minimize interspecific competition. This shift in resource use can in turn prompt evolutionary changes in morphology. A classic example of habitat partitioning and morphological differentiation are the Caribbean Anolis lizards. Less well studied, but nevertheless striking analogues to the Anolis are the Southeast Asian Draco lizards. Draco and Anolis have evolved independently of each other for at...

Data from: Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players

Simon P. Lailvaux, Robbie Wilson & Michael M. Kasumovic
Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespans, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association...

Data from: Population variation in the life history of a land fish, Alticus arnoldorum, and the effects of predation and density

Edward R. M. Platt & Terry J. Ord
Life history variation can often reflect differences in age-specific mortality within populations, with the general expectation that reproduction should be shifted away from ages experiencing increased mortality. Investigators of life history in vertebrates frequently focus on the impact of predation, but there is increasing evidence that predation may have unexpected impacts on population density that in turn prompt unexpected changes in life history. There are also other reasons why density might impact life history independently...

Data from: Restricting access to invasion hubs enables sustained control of an invasive vertebrate

Mike Letnic, Jonathan K. Webb, Tim J. Jessop & Tim Dempster
Biological invasions often occur through expansion of satellite populations that become established at ‘invasion hubs’. Invasion hubs can result from random dispersal events, but frequently arise when invading individuals actively choose habitats using cues that signify high-quality environments where the fitness consequences are positive. Theoretical studies suggest that targeted control at invasion hubs can effectively suppress the populations and impacts of invaders. In arid Australia, small dams that provide water for livestock function as invasion...

Data from: Evidence that hepatitis C virus genome partly controls infection outcome

Matthew Hartfield, Rowena Bull, Peter A. White, Andrew Lloyd, Fabio Luciani & Samuel Alizon
Infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to one of two outcomes; either the infection resolves within approximately 6 months or the virus can persist indefinitely. Host genetics are known to affect the likelihood of clearance or persistence. By contrast, the importance of the virus genotype in determining infection outcome is unknown, as quantifying this effect traditionally requires well-characterized transmission networks, which are rare. Extending phylogenetic approaches previously developed to estimate the virus control over...

Data from: Modeling the dynamics of Plasmodium vivax infection and hypnozoite reactivation in vivo

Adeshina I. Adekunle, Mykola Pinkevych, Rose McGready, Christine Luxemburger, Lisa J. White, Francois Nosten, Deborah Cromer & Miles P. Davenport
The dynamics of Plasmodium vivax infection is characterized by reactivation of hypnozoites at varying time intervals. The relative contribution of new P. vivax infection and reactivation of dormant liver stage hypnozoites to initiation of blood stage infection is unclear. In this study, we investigate the contribution of new inoculations of P. vivax sporozoites to primary infection versus reactivation of hypnozoites by modeling the dynamics of P. vivax infection in Thailand in patients receiving treatment for...

Data from: Experimental evidence for phonemic contrasts in a nonhuman vocal system

Sabrina Engesser, Jodie M. S. Crane, James L. Savage, Andrew F. Russell & Simon W. Townsend
The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback...

Data from: Dendrogramma is a siphonophore

Timothy D. O'Hara, Andrew F. Hugall, Hugh MacIntosh, Kate M. Naughton, Alan Williams & Adnan Moussalli
Dendrogramma was the iconic deep-sea animal of 2014, voted among the top-ten new species described that year. The two species described are mushroom shaped animals, diploblastic, with an apparent gastrovascular system that extends from the base of the stalk to bifurcating canals that radiate through the flat disc. The authors could not assign the new genus to any known animal group with certainty, leading to numerous media reports that it belonged to an entirely new...

Data from: Population differentiation and behavioural association of the two ‘personality’ genes DRD4 and SERT in dunnocks (Prunella modularis)

Benedikt Holtmann, Stefanie Grosser, Malgorzata Lagisz, Sheri R. Johnson, Eduardo S. A. Santos, Carlos E. Lara, Bruce Robertson, Shinichi Nakagawa, S. L. Johnson & B. C. Robertson
Quantifying the variation in behaviour-related genes within and between populations provides insight into how evolutionary processes shape consistent behavioural traits (i.e. personality). Deliberate introductions of non-native species offer opportunities to investigate how such genes differ between native and introduced populations and how polymorphisms in the genes are related to variation in behaviour. Here, we compared the genetic variation of the two ‘personality’ genes, DRD4 and SERT, between a native (United Kingdom, UK) and an introduced...

Data from: The nutritional geometry of parental effects: maternal and paternal macronutrient consumption and offspring phenotype in a neriid fly

Russell Bonduriansky, Aidan Runagall-McNaull & Angela J. Crean
Although the ecological and evolutionary importance of environmentally induced parental effects is now widely recognized, such effects are still typically studied by contrasting just two environments in a single parental sex. Yet, parental effects should generally be viewed as reaction norms, and a more complete understanding of their ecological role therefore requires examining continuously varying and interacting environmental variables in both parental sexes. We used nutritional geometry to investigate linear, nonlinear and interactive effects of...

Data from: Extinction of South American sparassodontans (Metatheria): environmental fluctuations or complex ecological processes?

Camilo López-Aguirre, Michael Archer, Suzanne J. Hand & Shawn W. Laffan
Sparassodontans are a diverse but now extinct group of metatherians that were apex predators in South America during most of the Cenozoic. Studying their decline has been controversial mainly due to the scarcity of the fossil record, and different methodological approaches have led to contradictory hypotheses. In an effort to explore questions about their extinction, we developed a novel multi-model statistical approach to analyse all of the currently available data at a continental scale. Using...

Data from: Predator exposure improves anti-predator responses in a threatened mammal

Rebecca West, Mike Letnic, Daniel T. Blumstein & Katherine E. Moseby
Incorporating an understanding of animal behaviour into conservation programmes can influence conservation outcomes. Exotic predators can have devastating impacts on native prey species and thwart reintroduction efforts, in part due to prey naïveté caused by an absence of co-evolution between predators and prey. Attempts have been made to improve the anti-predator behaviours of reintroduced native prey by conducting laboratory-based predator recognition training but results have been varied and have rarely led to improved survival in...

Data from: Genetic rescue increases fitness and aids rapid recovery of an endangered marsupial population

Andrew R. Weeks, Dean Heinze, Louise Perrin, Jakub Stoklosa, Ary A. Hoffmann, Anthony Van Rooyen, Tom Kelly & Ian Mansergh
Genetic rescue has now been attempted in several threatened species, but the contribution of genetics per se to any increase in population health can be hard to identify. Rescue is expected to be particularly useful when individuals are introduced into small isolated populations with low levels of genetic variation. Here we consider such a situation by documenting genetic rescue in the mountain pygmy possum, Burramys parvus. Rapid population recovery occurred in the target population after...

Data from: Habitat filtering determines the functional niche occupancy of plant communities worldwide

Yuanzhi Li, Bill Shipley, Jodi N. Price, Vinícius De L. Dantas, Riin Tamme, Mark Westoby, Andrew Siefert, Brandon S. Schamp, Marko J. Spasojevic, Vincent Jung, Daniel C. Laughlin, Sarah J. Richardson, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Christian Schöb, Antonio Gazol, Honor C. Prentice, Nicolas Gross, Jacob Overton, Marcus V. Cianciaruso, Frédérique Louault, Chiho Kamiyama, Tohru Nakashizuka, Kouki Hikosaka, Takehiro Sasaki, Masatoshi Katabuchi … & Marco A. Batalha
How the patterns of niche occupancy vary from species-poor to species-rich communities is a fundamental question in ecology that has a central bearing on the processes that drive patterns of biodiversity. As species richness increases, habitat filtering should constrain the expansion of total niche volume, while limiting similarity should restrict the degree of niche overlap between species. Here, by explicitly incorporating intraspecific trait variability, we investigate the relationship between functional niche occupancy and species richness...

Data from: Phylogenetic diversity, types of endemism and the evolutionary history of New World bats

Camilo López-Aguirre, Suzanne J. Hand, Shawn W. Laffan & Michael Archer
New World bats represent over one third of global bat species and encompass the widest adaptive radiation among bats. Modern bat diversity in the Americas resulted from a mixture of migrations and colonisations of different taxa throughout the Cenozoic. Traditionally, these taxa are conceived as either South or North American, based on the location of their centres of diversification. To better understand the spatial and temporal processes behind modern biogeographic patterns of New World bat...

Data from: From ratites to rats: the size of fleshy fruits shapes species' distributions and continental rainforest assembly

Maurizio Rossetto, Jia-Yee S. Yap, Robert Kooyman & Shawn Laffan
Seed dispersal is a key process in plant spatial dynamics. However, consistently applicable generalisations about dispersal across scales are mostly absent because of the constraints on measuring propagule dispersal distances for many species. Here, we focus on fleshy-fruited taxa, specifically taxa with large fleshy fruits and their dispersers across an entire continental rainforest biome. We compare species-level results of whole-chloroplast DNA analyses in sister taxa with large and small fruits, to regional plot-based samples (310...

Data from: Restoration potential of threatened ecosystem engineers increases with aridity: broad scale effects on soil nutrients and function

Orsi Decker, David J. Eldridge & Heloise Gibb
Species extinctions alter ecosystem services, and the magnitude of this impact is likely to change across environmental gradients. In Australia, soil-disturbing mammals that are now considered ecologically extinct are thought to be important ecosystem engineers. Previous studies have demonstrated microsite-level impacts of reintroduced soil-disturbing mammals on soil functions, but effects are yet to be tested across larger scales. Further, it is unclear how impacts vary across environmental gradients and if the restoration potential of reintroductions...

Data from: Monitoring large and complex wildlife aggregations with drones

Mitchell B. Lyons, Kate J. Brandis, Nick J. Murray, John H. Wilshire, Justin A. McCann, Richard T. Kingsford & Corey T. Callaghan
Recent advances in drone technology have rapidly led to their use for monitoring and managing wildlife populations but a broad and generalised framework for their application to complex wildlife aggregations is still lacking. We present a generalised semi-automated approach where machine learning can map targets of interest in drone imagery, supported by predictive modelling for estimating wildlife aggregation populations. We demonstrated this application on four large spatially complex breeding waterbird colonies on floodplains, ranging from...

Data from: Personality-matching habitat choice, rather than behavioural plasticity, is a likely driver of a phenotype–environment covariance

Benedikt Holtmann, Eduardo S.A. Santos, Carlos E. Lara, Shinichi Nakagawa & Eduardo S. A. Santos
An emerging hypothesis of animal personality posits that animals choose the habitat that best fits their personality, and that the match between habitat and personality can facilitate population differentiation, and eventually speciation. However, behavioural plasticity and the adjustment of behaviours to new environments have been a classical explanation for such matching patterns. Using a population of dunnocks (Prunella modularis), we empirically tested whether personality or behavioural plasticity is responsible for the non-random distribution of shy...

Data from: Perceptual impairment in face identification with poor sleep

Louise Beattie, Darragh Walsh, Jessica McLaren, Stephany M. Biello & David White
Previous studies have shown impaired memory for faces following restricted sleep. However, it is not known whether lack of sleep impairs performance on face identification tasks that do not rely on recognition memory, despite these tasks being more prevalent in security and forensic professions—for example, in photo-ID checks at national borders. Here we tested whether poor sleep affects accuracy on a standard test of face-matching ability that does not place demands on memory: the Glasgow...

Data from: MR1-restricted mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells respond to mycobacterial vaccination and infection in nonhuman primates

Justin M. Greene, Pradyot Dash, Sobhan Roy, Curtis McMurtrey, Walid Awad, Jason S. Reed, Katherine B. Hammond, Shaheed Abdulhaqq, Helen L. Wu, Benjamin J. Burwitz, Benjamin F. Roth, David W. Morrow, Julia C. Ford, Guangwu Xu, Joseph Y. Bae, Hugh Crank, Alfred W. Legasse, Thurston H. Dang, Hui Yee Greenaway, Monica Kurniawan, Marielle C. Gold, Melanie J. Harriff, Deborah A. Lewinsohn, Byung S. Park, Michael K. Axthelm … & Jonah B. Sacha
Studies on mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAITs) in nonhuman primates (NHP), a physiologically relevant model of human immunity, are handicapped due to a lack of macaque MAIT-specific reagents. Here we show that while MR1 ligand-contact residues are conserved between human and multiple NHP species, three T-cell receptor contact-residue mutations in NHP MR1 diminish binding of human MR1 tetramers to macaque MAITs. Construction of naturally loaded macaque MR1 tetramers facilitated identification and characterization of macaque MR1-binding...

Data from: Association mapping of morphological traits in wild and captive zebra finches: reliable within but not between populations

Ulrich Knief, Holger Schielzeth, Niclas Backstrom, Georg Hemmrich-Stanisak, Michael Wittig, Andre Franke, Simon C. Griffith, Hans Ellegren, Bart Kempenaers & Wolfgang Forstmeier
Identifying causal genetic variants underlying heritable phenotypic variation is a longstanding goal in evolutionary genetics. We previously identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for five morphological traits in a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by whole-genome linkage mapping. We here follow up on these studies with the aim to narrow down on the quantitative trait variants (QTN) in one wild and three captive populations. First, we performed an association study using 672 single...

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