27 Works

Data from: Population variation in the life history of a land fish, Alticus arnoldorum, and the effects of predation and density

Edward R. M. Platt & Terry J. Ord
Life history variation can often reflect differences in age-specific mortality within populations, with the general expectation that reproduction should be shifted away from ages experiencing increased mortality. Investigators of life history in vertebrates frequently focus on the impact of predation, but there is increasing evidence that predation may have unexpected impacts on population density that in turn prompt unexpected changes in life history. There are also other reasons why density might impact life history independently...

Data from: Modeling the dynamics of Plasmodium vivax infection and hypnozoite reactivation in vivo

Adeshina I. Adekunle, Mykola Pinkevych, Rose McGready, Christine Luxemburger, Lisa J. White, Francois Nosten, Deborah Cromer & Miles P. Davenport
The dynamics of Plasmodium vivax infection is characterized by reactivation of hypnozoites at varying time intervals. The relative contribution of new P. vivax infection and reactivation of dormant liver stage hypnozoites to initiation of blood stage infection is unclear. In this study, we investigate the contribution of new inoculations of P. vivax sporozoites to primary infection versus reactivation of hypnozoites by modeling the dynamics of P. vivax infection in Thailand in patients receiving treatment for...

Data from: Experimental evidence for phonemic contrasts in a nonhuman vocal system

Sabrina Engesser, Jodie M. S. Crane, James L. Savage, Andrew F. Russell & Simon W. Townsend
The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback...

Data from: Population differentiation and behavioural association of the two ‘personality’ genes DRD4 and SERT in dunnocks (Prunella modularis)

Benedikt Holtmann, Stefanie Grosser, Malgorzata Lagisz, Sheri R. Johnson, Eduardo S. A. Santos, Carlos E. Lara, Bruce Robertson, Shinichi Nakagawa, S. L. Johnson & B. C. Robertson
Quantifying the variation in behaviour-related genes within and between populations provides insight into how evolutionary processes shape consistent behavioural traits (i.e. personality). Deliberate introductions of non-native species offer opportunities to investigate how such genes differ between native and introduced populations and how polymorphisms in the genes are related to variation in behaviour. Here, we compared the genetic variation of the two ‘personality’ genes, DRD4 and SERT, between a native (United Kingdom, UK) and an introduced...

Data from: From ratites to rats: the size of fleshy fruits shapes species' distributions and continental rainforest assembly

Maurizio Rossetto, Jia-Yee S. Yap, Robert Kooyman & Shawn Laffan
Seed dispersal is a key process in plant spatial dynamics. However, consistently applicable generalisations about dispersal across scales are mostly absent because of the constraints on measuring propagule dispersal distances for many species. Here, we focus on fleshy-fruited taxa, specifically taxa with large fleshy fruits and their dispersers across an entire continental rainforest biome. We compare species-level results of whole-chloroplast DNA analyses in sister taxa with large and small fruits, to regional plot-based samples (310...

Data from: Gendered disparities in quality of cataract surgery in a marginalised population in Pakistan: the Karachi marine fishing communities eye and general health survey

Khabir Ahmad, Anthony B. Zwi, Daniel J. M. Tarantola, Abdul Qadeem Soomro, Rashid Baig & Syed Iqbal Azam
Background: Marine fishing communities are among the most marginalised and hard-to-reach groups and have been largely neglected in health research. We examined the quality of cataract surgery and its determinants, with an emphasis on gender, in marine fishing communities in Karachi, Pakistan, using multiple indicators of performance. Methods and Findings: The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey was a door-to-door, cross-sectional study conducted between March 2009 and April 2010 in fishing communities...

Data from: Repeated evolution of exaggerated dewlaps and other throat morphology in lizards

Terry J. Ord, Danielle A. Klomp, Joan Garcia-Porta & Mattias Hagman
The existence of elaborate ornamental structures in males is often assumed to reflect the outcome of female mate choice for showy males. However, female mate choice appears weak in many iguanian lizards, but males still exhibit an array of ornament-like structures around the throat. We performed a phylogenetic comparative study to assess whether these structures have originated in response to male-male competition or the need for improved signal efficiency in visually difficult environments. We found...

Data from: Simulating regimes of chemical disturbance and testing impacts in the ecosystem using a novel programmable dosing system

Mark Anthony Browne, Paul R. Brooks, Robert Clough, Andrew S. Fisher, Mariana Mayer Pinto & Tasman P. Crowe
Pollution is a global issue at the frontier between ecology, environmental science, management, engineering and policy. Legislation requires experiments to determine how much contamination an ecosystem can absorb before there are structural or functional changes. Yet, existing methods cannot realistically simulate regimes of chemical disturbance and determine impacts to assemblages in ecosystems. This is because they lack ecologically relevant species and biotic interactions, are logistically difficult to set-up, and lack environmentally relevant regimes of chemical...

Data from: Inhibition of histone deacetylases facilitates extinction and attenuates reinstatement of nicotine self-administration in rats

Matthew R. Castino, Jennifer L. Cornish & Kelly J. Clemens
Chromatin remodelling is integral to the formation of long-term memories. Recent evidence suggests that histone modification may play a role in the persistence of memories associated with drug use. The present series of experiments aimed to examine the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition on the extinction and reinstatement of nicotine self-administration. Rats were trained to intravenously self-administer nicotine for 12 days on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. In Experiment 1, responding was then extinguished through...

Data from: Mesopredator suppression by an apex predator alleviates the risk of predation perceived by small prey

Christopher E. Gordon, Anna Feit, Jennifer Grüber, Mike Letnic & J. Gruber
Predators can impact their prey via consumptive effects that occur through direct killing, and via non-consumptive effects that arise when the behaviour and phenotypes of prey shift in response to the risk of predation. Although predators' consumptive effects can have cascading population-level effects on species at lower trophic levels there is less evidence that predators' non-consumptive effects propagate through ecosystems. Here we provide evidence that suppression of abundance and activity of a mesopredator (the feral...

Data from: Burn or rot: leaf traits explain why flammability and decomposability are decoupled across species

Saskia Grootemaat, Ian J. Wright, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen & William K. Cornwell
In fire-prone ecosystems, two important alternative fates for leaves are burning in a wildfire (when alive or as litter) or they get consumed (as litter) by decomposers. The influence of leaf traits on litter decomposition rate is reasonably well understood. In contrast, less is known about the influence of leaf traits on leaf and litter flammability. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to determine which morphological and chemical leaf traits drive flammability; and...

Data from: RNA-directed epigenetic silencing of Periostin inhibits cell motility

Nicholas C. Lister, Matthew Clemson & Kevin V. Morris
The over-expression of Periostin, a member of the fasciclin family of proteins, has been reported in a number of cancers and, in particular, in metastatic tumours. These include breast, ovarian, lung, colon, head and neck, pancreatic, prostate, neuroblastoma and thyroid cancers. It is thought that Periostin plays a major role in the development of metastases owing to its apparent involvement in restructuring of the extracellular matrix to create a microenvironment favouring invasion and metastases, angiogenesis,...

Data from: Functional extinction of a desert rodent: implications for seed fate and vegetation dynamics

Christopher E. Gordon & Mike Letnic
Population declines of once-abundant species have often preceded understanding of their roles within ecosystems. Consequently, important drivers of environmental change may remain undiagnosed because we simply do not know how species that are now rare or extinct shaped ecosystems in the past. Australia's desert rodents are thought to have little numerical impact on seed fate and vegetation recruitment when compared with ants or with desert rodents on other continents. However most research on granivory by...

Data from: A simple approach for maximizing the overlap of phylogenetic and comparative data

Matthew W. Pennell, Richard G. FitzJohn & William K. Cornwell
Biologists are increasingly using curated, public data sets to conduct phylogenetic comparative analyses. Unfortunately, there is often a mismatch between species for which there is phylogenetic data and those for which other data are available. As a result, researchers are commonly forced to either drop species from analyses entirely or else impute the missing data. A simple strategy to improve the overlap of phylogenetic and comparative data is to swap species in the tree that...

Data from: Female preference for multi-modal courtship: multiple signals are important for male mating success in peacock spiders

Madeline B. Girard, Damian O. Elias & Michael M. Kasumovic
A long-standing goal for biologists has been to understand how female preferences operate in systems where males have evolved numerous sexually-selected traits. Jumping spiders of the Maratus genus are exceptionally sexually dimorphic in appearance and signaling behavior. Presumably, strong sexual selection by females has played an important role in the evolution of complex signals displayed by males of this group, however, this has not yet been demonstrated. In fact, despite apparent widespread examples of sexual...

Data from: Moa diet fits the bill: virtual reconstruction incorporating mummified remains and prediction of biomechanical performance in avian giants

Marie R. G. Attard, Laura A. B. Wilson, Trevor H. Worthy, Paul Scofield, Peter Johnston, William C. H. Parr & Stephen Wroe
The moa (Dinornithiformes) are large to gigantic extinct terrestrial birds of New Zealand. Knowledge about niche partitioning, feeding mode and preference among moa species is limited, hampering palaeoecological reconstruction and evaluation of the impacts of their extinction on remnant native biota, or the viability of exotic species as proposed ecological ‘surrogates'. Here we apply three-dimensional finite-element analysis to compare the biomechanical performance of skulls from five of the six moa genera, and two extant ratites,...

Data from: Global effects of soil and climate on leaf photosynthetic traits and rates

Vincent Maire, Ian J. Wright, I. Colin Prentice, Niels H. Batjes, Radika Bhaskar, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Will K. Cornwell, David Ellsworth, Ülo Niinemets, Alejandro Ordoñez, Peter B. Reich & Louis S. Santiago
Aim: The influence of soil properties on photosynthetic traits in higher plants is poorly quantified in comparison with that of climate. We address this situation by quantifying the unique and joint contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Location: Terrestrial ecosystems world-wide. Methods: Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of 20 soil and 26 climate variables...

Data from: Point process models for presence-only analysis

Ian W. Renner, Jane Elith, Adrian Baddeley, William Fithian, Trevor Hastie, Steven Phillips, Gordana Popovic & David I. Warton
1. Presence-only data are widely used for species distribution modelling, and point process regression models are a exible tool that has considerable potential for this problem, when data arise as point events. 2. In this paper we review point process models, some of their advantages, and some common methods of fitting them to presence-only data. 3. Advantages include (and are not limited to): clarification of what the response variable is that is modelled; a framework...

Data from: Condition dependence of male and female genital structures in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

Luis Cayetano & Russell Bonduriansky
Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female...

Data from: On-shelf larval retention limits population connectivity in a coastal broadcast spawner

Peter R. Teske, Jonathan Sandoval-Castillo, Erik Van Sebille, Jonathan Waters, Luciano B. Beheregaray, LB Beheregaray &
Broadcast-spawning marine organisms with long pelagic larval duration are often expected to be genetically homogeneous throughout their ranges. When genetic structure is found in such taxa, it may be in the form of chaotic genetic patchiness: i.e. patterns that might seem independent of any underlying environmental variation. The joint analysis of population genetic data and marine environmental data can elucidate factors driving such spatial genetic diversity patterns. Using meso-scale sampling (at a scale of 10s...

Data from: How well do molecular and pedigree relatedness correspond, in populations with variable mating systems, and types and quantities of molecular and demographic data?

Anna M. Kopps, Jungkoo Kang, William B. Sherwin & Per J. Palsbøll
Kinship analyses are important pillars of ecological and conservation genetic studies with potentially far-reaching implications. There is a need for power analyses that address a range of possible relationships. Nevertheless, such analyses are rarely applied, and studies that use genetic-data-based-kinship inference often ignore the influence of intrinsic population characteristics. We investigated 11 questions regarding the correct classification rate of dyads to relatedness categories (relatedness category assignments; RCA) using an individual-based model with realistic life history...

Data from: Dynamics of pre-choice and post-choice behaviour: rats approximate optimal strategy in a discrete-trial decision task

Justine Fam, Reginald Fred Westbrook, Ehsan Arabzadeh & F. Westbrook
We simulate two types of environments to investigate how closely rats approximate optimal foraging. Rats initiated a trial where they chose between two spouts for sucrose, which was delivered at distinct probabilities. The discrete trial procedure used allowed us to observe the relationship between choice proportions, response latencies and obtained rewards. Our results show that rats approximate the optimal strategy across a range of environments that differ in the average probability of reward as well...

Data from: Developing state and transition models of floodplain vegetation dynamics as a tool for conservation decision-making: a case study of the Macquarie Marshes Ramsar wetland

Gilad Bino, Scott A. Sisson, Richard T. Kingsford, Rachael F. Thomas & Sharon Bowen
1. Floodplain vegetation states (communities) exhibit spatiotemporal dynamics in vegetation structure and composition, which reflect unique hydrological and connectivity patterns. Shifts in inundation regimes can drive succession and establish new stable states, determined by the magnitude and duration of the hydrological perturbation. 2. We aimed to develop a modelling approach that is able to capture ecosystem dynamics, identify and quantify the main drivers of change, and provide a tool for conservation decision-making. We developed state...

Data from: Death by sex in an Australian icon: a continent-wide survey reveals extensive hybridization between dingoes and domestic dogs

Danielle Stephens, Alan N. Wilton, Peter J. S. Fleming, Oliver Berry & Peter J.S. Fleming
Hybridization between domesticated animals and their wild counterparts can disrupt adaptive gene combinations, reduce genetic diversity, extinguish wild populations and change ecosystem function. The dingo is a free-ranging dog that is an iconic apex predator and distributed throughout most of mainland Australia. Dingoes readily hybridize with domestic dogs, and in many Australian jurisdictions, distinct management strategies are dictated by hybrid status. Yet, the magnitude and spatial extent of domestic dog–dingo hybridization is poorly characterized. To...

Data from: Experimental evidence of condition-dependent sexual dimorphism in the weakly dimorphic antler fly, Protopiophila litigata (Diptera: Piophilidae)

Mathieu J. Oudin, Russell Bonduriansky & Howard D. Rundle
Sexually dimorphic traits have a history of directional selection for exaggeration in at least one sex. Theory suggests that traits targeted by persistent selection should evolve heightened condition dependence whereby their expression reflects the availability and processing efficiency of metabolic resources. This joint dependence of sexual dimorphism and condition dependence on directional selection should result in a positive correlation between the extent of sexual dimorphism and the strength of condition dependence. However, because direct phenotypic...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    27

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    27

Affiliations

  • UNSW Sydney
    27
  • Macquarie University
    4
  • University of Otago
    3
  • Western Sydney University
    3
  • VU University Amsterdam
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2
  • University of Melbourne
    2
  • Flinders University
    2
  • Leiden University
    2
  • University of New England
    2