1,049 Works

The Effect of Alignment on People’s Ability to Judge Event Sequence Similarity

Roy Ruddle, Jürgen Bernard, Hendrik Lücke-Tieke, Thorsten May & Jörn Kohlhammer

Sheltered Income: Estimating Income Under-Reporting in Canada, 1998 and 2004

Geoffrey Dunbar & Chunling Fu
We use data from the Survey of Financial Security and the Survey of Household Spending to estimate the incidence and extent of income under-reporting in Canada in 1998 and 2004. We estimate that the proportion of households under-reporting income is roughly 35 to 50 per cent in both years. Our estimates also suggest that the amount of under-reported income rose by roughly 40 per cent between 1998 and 2004 and remained stable as a proportion...

Hakai Institute Nutrients (Dosser et al., 2021)

Hayley Dosser, Hayley Dosser, Jennifer Jackson, Wiley Evans, Chris Mackenzie, Brian Hunt, Stephanie Waterman & Charles Hannah
This repository contains the Hakai Institute nutrient dataset for measurements of nitrate+nitrite, silicate, and phosphate concentration used in the publication: Dosser, H. V., Waterman, S., Jackson, J. M., Hannah, C. G., Evans, W., Hunt, B. P. V. (2021). Stark physical and biogeochemical differences and implications for ecosystem stressors in the Northeast Pacific coastal ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126, e2020JC017033. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JC017033. Dissolved nutrient profiles for Nitrate + Nitrite, Phosphate and Silicate collected at Hakai...

Predetermined Prices and the Persistent Effects of Money on Output

Michael B. Devereux & James Yetman
This paper illustrates a model of predetermined pricing, where firms set a fixed schedule of nominal prices at the time of price readjustment, based on the work of Fischer (1977). This type of price-setting specification cannot produce any excess persistence in a fixed-duration model of staggered prices, but we show that with a probabilistic model of price adjustment, as in Calvo (1983), a predetermined pricing specification can produce excess persistence. Moreover, in response to a...

Multiple chromosomal inversions contribute to adaptive divergence of a dune sunflower ecotype

Kaichi Huang, Rose Andrew, Gregory Owens, Katherine Ostevik & Loren Rieseberg
Both models and case studies suggest that chromosomal inversions can facilitate adaptation and speciation in the presence of gene flow by suppressing recombination between locally adapted alleles. Until recently, however, it has been laborious and time-consuming to identify and genotype inversions in natural populations. Here we apply RAD sequencing data and newly developed population genomic approaches to identify putative inversions that differentiate a sand dune ecotype of the prairie sunflower (Helianthus petiolaris) from populations found...

Local adaptation to biotic interactions: a meta-analysis across latitudes

Anna Hargreaves, Rachel Germain, Megan Bontrager, Joshua Persi & Amy Angert
Adaptation to local conditions can increase species’ geographic distributions and rates of diversification, but which components of the environment commonly drive local adaptation—particularly the importance of biotic interactions—is unclear. Biotic interactions should drive local adaptation when they impose consistent divergent selection; if this is common we expect transplant experiments to detect more frequent and stronger local adaptation when biotic interactions are left intact. We tested this hypothesis using a meta-analysis of transplant experiments from >125...

Queen-worker conflict can drive the evolution of social polymorphism and split sex ratios in facultatively eusocial life-cycles

Andres Quiñones, Gil Henriques & Ido Pen
Hamilton’s idea that haplodiploidy favors the evolution of altruism – the haplodiploidy hypothesis -- relies on the relatedness asymmetry between the sexes, caused by the sex-specific ploidies. Theoretical work on the consequences of relatedness asymmetries has significantly improved our understanding of sex-allocation and intra-colony conflicts, but the importance of haplodiploidy for the evolution of altruism came to be seen as minor. However, recently it was shown that haplodiploidy can strongly favor the evolution of eusociality,...

Signatures of mito-nuclear climate adaptation in a warbler species complex

Silu Wang, Madelyn Ore, Else Mikkelsen, Julie Lee-Yaw, Sievert Rohwer & Darren Irwin
Mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (nDNA) genes interact to govern metabolic pathways of mitochondria. When differentiated populations interbreed at secondary contact, incompatibilities between mtDNA of one population and nDNA of the other could result in low fitness of hybrids. Hermit Warblers (S. occidentalis) and Townsend’s Warblers (Setophaga townsendi) exhibit distinct mtDNA haplotypes and a few nDNA regions of high differentiation, whereas coastal S. townsendi displays a mix of these genetic patterns consistent with ancient hybridization of...

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

Sitticine jumping spiders: phylogeny, classification and chromosomes (Araneae: Salticidae: Sitticini)

Wayne Maddison, David Maddison, Shahan Derkarabetian & Marshal Hedin
We review the systematics of sitticine jumping spiders, with a focus on the Palearctic and Nearctic regions, in order to revise their generic classification, clarify the species of one region (Canada), and study their chromosomes. A genome-wide molecular phylogeny of 23 sitticine species, using more than 700 loci from the arachnid Ultra-Conserved Element (UCE) probeset, confirms the Neotropical origins of sitticines, whose basal divergence separates the new subtribe Aillutticina (a group of 5 Neotropical genera)...

Rainfall and nest site competition delay Mountain Bluebird and Tree Swallow breeding but do not impact productivity

Anna Drake & Kathy Martin
Optimizing breeding phenology, an important aspect of fitness, is complex for migratory species as they must make key timing decisions early, and remotely, from breeding sites. We examined the role of weather (locally and cross-seasonally), cavity availability, and competitive exclusion in determining among-year variation in breeding phenology over 17 years for two migratory, cavity-nesting birds: Mountain Bluebirds (Sialia currucoides; n = 462 nests) and Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor; n = 572) using natural tree cavities...

Data from: RapidRat: development, validation and application of a genotyping-by-sequencing panel for rapid biosecurity and invasive species management

Bryson Sjodin, Robyn Irvine & Michael Russello
Invasive alien species (IAS) are among the main causes of global biodiversity loss. Invasive brown (Rattus norvegicus) and black (R. rattus) rats, in particular, are leading drivers of extinction on islands, especially in the case of seabirds where >50% of all extinctions have been attributed to rat predation. Eradication is the primary form of invasive rat management, yet this strategy has resulted in a ~10-38% failure rate on islands globally. Genetic tools can help inform...

Data from: Prey availability and ambient temperature influence carrion persistence in the boreal forest

Michael Peers, Sean Konkolics, Clayton Lamb, Yasmine Majchrzak, Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Rudy Boonstra, Alice Kenney, Charles Krebs, April Robin Martinig, Baily McCulloch, Joseph Silva, Laura Garland & Stan Boutin
1. Scavenging by vertebrates can have important impacts on food web stability and persistence, and can alter the distribution of nutrients throughout the landscape. However, scavenging communities have been understudied in most regions around the globe, and we lack understanding of the biotic drivers of vertebrate scavenging dynamics. 2. In this paper, we examined how changes in prey density and carrion biomass caused by population cycles of a primary prey species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus...

Data from: The function and evolution of motile DNA replication systems in ciliates

Nicholas Irwin, Alexandros Pittis, Varsha Mathur, LeAnn Howe, Patrick Keeling, Denis Lynn & William Bourland
DNA replication is a ubiquitous, complex, and conserved cellular process. However, regulation of DNA replication is only understood in a small fraction of organisms that poorly represent the diversity of genetic systems in nature. Here we used a combination of computational and experimental approaches to examine the function and evolution of one such system, the replication band (RB) in spirotrich ciliates, which is a localized, motile hub that traverses the macronucleus while replicating DNA. We...

Data from: Phylogenomics reveals novel relationships among Neotropical crocodiles (Crocodylus spp.)

Yoamel Milian-Garcia, George Amato, John Gatesy, Evon Hekkala, Natalia Rossi & Michael Russello
Extant species in the order Crocodylia are remnants of an ancient lineage of large-bodied archosaur reptiles. Despite decades of systematic studies, phylogenetic relationships among members of the genus Crocodylus (true crocodiles) in the Neotropics are poorly understood. Here we estimated phylogenomic relationships among the four extant Crocodylus species in the Americas. Species-tree reconstructions using genotypic data from 17,538 SNPs collected for 33 individuals spanning six Crocodylus species (four ingroup and two outgroup) revealed novel relationships...

Data for: Low predictability of energy balance traits and leaf temperature metrics in desert, montane, and alpine plant communities

Benjamin Blonder, Sabastian Escobar, Rozália Kapás & Sean Michaletz
Leaf energy balance may influence plant performance and community composition. While biophysical theory can link leaf energy balance to many traits and environment variables, predicting leaf temperature and key driver traits with incomplete parameterizations remains challenging. Predicting thermal offsets (δ, Tleaf – Tair difference) or thermal coupling strengths (β, Tleaf vs. Tair slope) is challenging. We ask: 1) whether environmental gradients predict variation in energy balance traits (absorptance, leaf angle, stomatal distribution, maximum stomatal conductance,...

Data: Avian cultural services peak in tropical wet forests

Alejandra Echeverri, Daniel Karp, Luke Frishkoff, Jaya Krishnan, Robin Naidoo, Jiaying Zhao, Jim Zook & Kai Chan
The current biodiversity crisis involves major shifts in biological communities at local and regional scales. The consequences for Earth’s life-support systems are increasingly well-studied, but knowledge of how community shifts affect cultural services associated with wildlife lags behind. We integrated bird census data (three years across 150 point-count locations) with questionnaire surveys (>400 people) to evaluate changes in culturally important species across climate and land-use gradients in Costa Rica. For farmers, urbanites, and birdwatchers alike,...

Climate-driven thermal opportunities and risks for leaf miners in aspen canopies

H. Arthur Woods, Geoffrey Legault, Joel Kingsolver, Sylvain Pincebourde, Alisha Shah & Beau Larkin
In tree canopies, incoming solar radiation interacts with leaves and branches to generate temperature differences within and among leaves, presenting thermal opportunities and risks for leaf-dwelling ectotherms. Although leaf biophysics and insect thermal ecology are well understood, few studies have examined them together in single systems. We examined temperature variability in aspen canopies, Populus tremuloides, and its consequences for a common herbivore, the leaf-mining caterpillar Phyllocnistis populiella. We shaded leaves in the field and measured...

Among-individual diet variation within a lake trout ecotype: Lack of stability of niche use

Louise Chavarie
In a polymorphic species, predictable differences in resource use are expected among ecotypes, and homogeneity in resource use is expected within an ecotype. Yet, using a broad resource spectrum has been identified as a strategy for fishes living in unproductive northern environments, where food is patchily distributed and ephemeral. We investigated whether specialization of trophic resources by individuals occurred within the generalist piscivore ecotype of lake trout from Great Bear Lake, Canada, reflective of a...

Analysis Data for \"Identifying and characterizing pesticide use on 9,000 fields of organic agriculture\"

Ashley Larsen, Sofie McComb, Claire Powers & Sofie McComb
We identify the location of ~9,000 organic fields from 2013 — 2019 using field-level crop and pesticide use data, along with state certification data, for Kern County, CA, one of the US’ most valuable crop producing counties. We parse apart how being organic relative to conventional affects decisions to spray pesticides and, if spraying, how much to spray. We show the expected probability of spraying any pesticides is reduced by about 30 percentage points for...

Adapting a propane turkey fryer to manipulate temperature in aquatic environments - Thermal manipulation datasets

Cassandra Konecny, Graham Brownlee & Christopher Harley
There is a growing need to better understand the potential impacts of altered thermal regimes on biodiversity and ecosystem function as mean temperatures, and the likelihood of extreme temperatures, continue to increase. One valuable approach to identify mechanisms and pathways of thermally-driven change at the community level is through the manipulation of temperature in the field. However, where methods exist, they are often costly or unable to produce ecologically relevant changes in temperature. Here, we...

The biogeography of community assembly: latitude and predation drive variation in community trait distribution in a guild of epifaunal crustaceans

Collin Gross, Collin Gross, J Duffy, Kevin Hovel, Melissa Kardish, Pamela Reynolds, Christoffer Boström, Katharyn Boyer, Mathiew Cusson, Johan Eklöf, Aschwin Engelen, Klemens Eriksson, Joel Fodrie, John Griffin, Clara Hereu, Masakazu Hori, A Randall Hughes, Mikhail Ivanov, Pablo Jorgensen, Claudia Kruschel, Kun-Seop Lee, Jonathan Lefcheck, Karen McGlathery, Per-Olav Moksnes, Masahiro Nakaoka … & Jay Stachowicz
While considerable evidence exists of biogeographic patterns in the intensity of species interactions, the influence of these patterns on variation in community structure is less clear. Using a model selection approach on measures of trait dispersion in crustaceans associated with eelgrass (Zostera marina) spanning 30º of latitude in two oceans, we found that dispersion strongly increased with increasing predation and decreasing latitude. Ocean and epiphyte load appeared as secondary predictors; Pacific communities were more overdispersed...

Ventilatory parameters measured in Madagascar hissing cockroaches during continuous gas exchange and DGCs

Tormod Rowe, Martin Gutbrod & Philip Matthews
This dataset is presented in the manuscript titled: 'Discontinuous gas exchange in Madagascar hissing cockroaches is not a consequence of hysteresis around a fixed PCO2 threshold'; published in JEB. The primary purpose of this investigation was to test if discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) were caused by PCO2 fluctuations around ventilatory setpoints. Madagascar hissing cockroaches were exposed to normoxic acapnia and treatments of either hypoxic acapnia, and normoxic hypercapnia, while displaying continious gas exchange, and...

Data from: Genotyping-in-Thousands by sequencing of archival fish scales reveals maintenance of genetic variation following a severe demographic contraction in kokanee salmon

Christopher Setzke, Carmen Wong & Michael Russello
Historical DNA analysis of archival samples has added new dimensions to population genetic studies, enabling spatiotemporal approaches for reconstructing population histories and informing conservation management. Here we tested the efficacy of Genotyping-in-Thousands by sequencing (GT-seq) for collecting targeted single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypic data from archival scale samples, and demonstrate its application to a study of kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Kluane National Park and Reserve (KNPR; Yukon, Canada) that underwent a severe 12-year population...

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