627 Works

Data from: Can avian functional traits predict cultural ecosystem services?

Alejandra Echeverri, Daniel Karp, Robin Naidoo, Joseph Tobias, Jiaying Zhao & Kai Chan
The functional trait diversity of species assemblages can predict the provision of ecosystem services such as pollination and carbon sequestration, but it is unclear whether the same trait-based framework can be applied to identify the factors that underpin cultural ecosystem services and disservices. To explore the relationship between traits and the contribution of species to cultural ecosystem services and disservices, we conducted 404 questionnaire surveys with birdwatchers and local residents in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. We...

Data from: Climatic change only stimulated growth for trees under weak competition in central boreal forests

Yong Luo, Eliot J. B. McIntire, Celine Boivenue, Paul P. Nikiema & Han H. Y. Chen
1. Global change ecologists have often used trees under weak competition (e.g., dominant/codominant trees) to examine relationships between climatic change and tree growth. Scaling up these results to a forest relies on the assumption that the climatic change-tree growth relationship is not affected by tree-level competition. 2. Using permanent sample plot data from the central Canadian boreal region where warming did not result in water deficit, we tested the above-mentioned assumption by looking at whether...

Investigating morphological complexes using informational dissonance and bayes factors: A case study in corbiculate bees

Diego Porto, Eduardo Almeida & Matthew Pennell
It is widely recognized that different regions of a genome often have different evolutionary histories and that ignoring this variation when estimating phylogenies can be misleading. However, the extent to which this is also true for morphological data is still largely unknown. Discordance among morphological traits might plausibly arise due to either variable convergent selection pressures or else phenomena such as hemiplasy. Here we investigate patterns of discordance among 282 morphological characters, which we scored...

The genome of Draba nivalis shows signatures of adaptation to the extreme environmental stresses of the Arctic

Michael Nowak, Siri Birkeland, Terezie Mandáková, Rimjhim Roy Choudhury, Xinyi Guo, Lovisa Gustafsson, Abel Gizaw, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Marco Fracassetti, Anne Brysting, Loren Rieseberg, Tanja Slotte, Christian Parisod, Martin Lysak & Christian Brochmann
The Arctic is one of the most extreme terrestrial environments on the planet. Here we present the first complete genome assembly of a plant adapted to the high Arctic, Draba nivalis (Brassicaceae), an attractive model species for studying plant adaptation to the stresses imposed by this harsh environment. We used an iterative scaffolding strategy with data from short-reads, single-molecule long reads, proximity ligation data, and a genetic map to produce a 302 Mb assembly that...

Data for: Coevolution fails to maintain genetic variation in a host-parasite model with constant finite population size

Ailene MacPherson, Matthew Keeling & Sarah Otto
Coevolutionary negative frequency-dependent selection has been hypothesized to maintain genetic variation in host and parasites. Despite the extensive literature pertaining to host-parasite coevolution, the dynamics of genetic variation has not been examined in a matching-alleles model (MAM) with a finite population size relative to the expectation under neutral genetic drift alone. The dynamics of the MA coevolution in an infinite population, in fact, suggests that genetic variation in these coevolving populations behaves neutrally. By comparing...

Data from: Beyond a single patch: local and regional processes explain diversity patterns in a seagrass epifaunal metacommunity

Keila Stark
Ecological communities are jointly structured by dispersal, density-independent responses to environmental conditions and density-dependent biotic interactions. Metacommunity ecology provides a framework for understanding how these processes combine to determine community seagrass meadows along the British Columbia coast, we tested the hypothesis that eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) epifaunal invertebrate assemblages are influenced by local environmental conditions, but that high dispersal rates at larger spatial scales dampen effects of environmental differences. We used hierarchical joint species distribution...

Phylogenetic analysis of the distribution of deadly amatoxins among the little brown mushrooms of the genus Galerina

Mary Berbee, Brandon Landry, Jeannette Whitton, Anna Bazzicalupo & Oldriska Ceska
Some but not all of the species of 'little brown mushrooms' in the genus Galerina contain deadly amatoxins at concentrations equaling those in the death cap, Amanita phalloides. However, Galerina's ~300 species are notoriously difficult to identify by morphology and the identity of toxin-containing specimens has not been verified with DNA barcode sequencing. This left open the question of which Galerina species contain toxins and which do not. We selected specimens for toxin analysis using...

A study of tactical and sexual dimorphism in cognition with insights for sexual conflict

Hannah Griebling, Oscar Rios-Cardenas, Jessica Abbott & Molly Morris
The sexes may have different optima in cognitive traits due to differences in life history strategies and the expense of investing in metabolically costly brain tissue. However, given genetic correlations, each sex could be constrained from reaching its cognitive optimum due to intralocus sexual conflict. We compared learning performance of two male alternative reproductive tactics and females from known genotypes (both sire and dam) in the livebearing fish Xiphophorus multilineatus. We predicted that females’ learning...

Data from: Lythrum salicaria common garden under Neogalerucella herbivory

Michael Stastny, Risa Sargent & Jake Russell-Mercier
We transplanted1088 seedlings of the invasive perennial plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife), from 136 maternal families sourced from 17 populations in the region around Ottawa, Canada, into a common garden containing 4 plots. The 17 populations differed in their prior exposure to the biocontrol agent Neogalerucella spp. leaf beetles (naïve = no prior exposure; recent = secondary colonization, ~5-15 years; release = sites of biocontrol release, ~20 years ago). Plants were planted in a wetland...

Species differences in phenology shape coexistence

Christopher Blackford, Rachel Germain & Benjamin Gilbert
Ecological theory produces opposing predictions about whether differences in the timing of life history transitions, or ‘phenology’, promote or limit coexistence. Phenological separation is predicted to create temporal niche differences, increasing coexistence, yet phenological separation could also competitively favour one species, increasing fitness differences and hindering coexistence. We experimentally manipulated relative germination timing, a critical phenological event, of two annual grass species, Vulpia microstachys and V. octoflora, to test these contrasting predictions. We parameterized a...

Data from: Testing predictions of inclusive fitness theory in inbreeding relatives with biparental care

Elizabeth Gow, Peter Arcese, Danielle Dagenais, Rebecca Sardell, Scott Wilson & Jane Reid
Inclusive fitness theory predicts that parental care will vary with relatedness between potentially caring parents and offspring, potentially shaping mating system evolution. Systems with extra-pair paternity (EPP), and hence variable parent-brood relatedness, provide valuable opportunities to test this prediction. However, existing theoretical and empirical studies assume that a focal male is either an offspring’s father with no inbreeding, or is completely unrelated. We highlight that this simple dichotomy does not hold given reproductive interactions among...

On the evolutionary epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2

Troy Day, Sylvain Gandon, Sébastien Lion & Sarah P. Otto
There is no doubt that the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 is mutating and thus has the potential to adapt during the current pandemic. Whether this evolution will lead to changes in the transmission, the duration, or the severity of the disease is not clear. This has led to considerable scientific and media debate, from raising alarms about evolutionary change to dismissing it. Here we review what little is currently known about the evolution...

Data from: Convergent evolution of niche structure in Northeast Pacific kelp forests

Samuel Starko, Kyle Demes, Christopher Neufeld & Patrick Martone
Much of the morphological and ecological diversity present on earth is believed to have arisen through the process of adaptive radiation. Yet, this is seemingly at odds with substantial evidence that niches tend to be similar among closely related species (i.e., niche conservatism). Identifying the relative importance of these opposing processes in driving niche evolution under different circumstances is therefore essential to our understanding of the interaction between ecological and evolutionary phenomena. In this study,...

Data from: Habitat preference facilitates successful early breeding in an open-cup nesting songbird

Ryan R. Germain, Richard Schuster, Kira E. Delmore & Peter Arcese
Selecting breeding habitats that ameliorate environmental limits on fitness and facilitate successful reproduction should benefit individual animals. This is particularly true in the temperate zone, where breeding early in a season presents a unique series of environmental challenges that can limit an individual's fitness. While many studies document links between habitat quality and reproductive success, few identify the cues used to assess habitat quality or the components of reproduction most influenced by occupying higher quality...

Data from: Prediction accuracies for growth and wood attributes of interior spruce in space using genotyping-by-sequencing

Omnia Gamal El-Dien, Blaise Ratcliffe, Jaroslav Klápste, Charles Chen, Ilga Porth & Yousry A. El-Kassaby
Background: Genomic selection (GS) in forestry can substantially reduce the length of breeding cycle and increase gain per unit time through early selection and greater selection intensity, particularly for traits of low heritability and late expression. Affordable next-generation sequencing technologies made it possible to genotype large numbers of trees at a reasonable cost. Results: Genotyping-by-sequencing was used to genotype 1,126 Interior spruce trees representing 25 open-pollinated families planted over three sites in British Columbia, Canada....

Data from: Double decomposition: decomposing the variance in subcomponents of male extra-pair reproductive success

Sylvain Losdat, Peter Arcese & Jane M. Reid
1. Extra-pair reproductive success (EPRS) is a key component of male fitness in socially monogamous systems and could cause selection on female extra-pair reproduction if extra-pair offspring (EPO) inherit high value for EPRS from their successful extra-pair fathers. However, EPRS is itself a composite trait that can be fully decomposed into subcomponents of variation, each of which can be further decomposed into genetic and environmental variances. However, such decompositions have not been implemented in wild...

Data from: Evaluating methods for estimating local effective population size with and without migration

Kimberly Julie Gilbert & Michael C. Whitlock
Effective population size is a fundamental parameter in population genetics, evolutionary biology and conservation biology, yet its estimation can be fraught with difficulties. Several methods to estimate Ne from genetic data have been developed which take advantage of various approaches for inferring Ne. The ability of these methods to accurately estimate Ne, however, has not been comprehensively examined. In this study, we employ seven of the most cited methods for estimating Ne from genetic data...

Data from: A comparison of genomic selection models across time in interior spruce (Picea engelmannii × glauca) using unordered SNP imputation methods

Blaise Ratcliffe, Omnia Gamal El-Dien, Jaroslav Klápště, Ilga Porth, Charles Chen, Barry Jaquish & Yousry A. El-Kassaby
Genomic selection (GS) potentially offers an unparalleled advantage over traditional pedigree-based selection (TS) methods by reducing the time commitment required to carry out a single cycle of tree improvement. This quality is particularly appealing to tree breeders, where lengthy improvement cycles are the norm. We explored the prospect of implementing GS for interior spruce (Picea engelmannii × glauca) utilizing a genotyped population of 769 trees belonging to 25 open-pollinated families. A series of repeated tree...

Data from: Acceleration and novelty: community restoration speeds recovery and transforms species composition in Andean cloud forest

Sarah Jane Wilson & Jeanine M. Rhemtulla
Community-based tropical forest restoration projects, often promoted as a win-win solution for local communities and the environment, have increased dramatically in number in the past decade. Many such projects are underway in Andean cloud forests, which, given their extremely high biodiversity and history of extensive clearing, are understudied. This study investigates the efficacy of community-based tree-planting projects to accelerate cloud forest recovery, as compared to unassisted natural regeneration. This study takes place in northwest Andean...

Data from: The origin and evolution of phototropins

Fay-Wei Li, Kathleen M. Pryer, Gane K.-S. Wong, Carl J. Rothfels, Michael Melkonian, Sarah Mathews, Juan C. Villarreal & Sean W. Graham
Plant phototropism, the ability to bend toward or away from light, is predominantly controlled by blue-light photoreceptors, the phototropins. Although phototropins have been well-characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, their evolutionary history is largely unknown. In this study, we complete an in-depth survey of phototropin homologs across land plants and algae using newly available transcriptomic and genomic data. We show that phototropins originated in an ancestor of Viridiplantae (land plants + green algae). Phototropins repeatedly underwent independent...

Data from: Dioecy does not consistently accelerate or slow lineage diversification across multiple genera of angiosperms

Niv Sabath, Emma E. Goldberg, Lior Glick, Moshe Einhorn, Tia-Lynn Ashman, Ray Ming, Sarah P. Otto, Jana Vamosi, Itay Mayrose & Jana C. Vamosi
Dioecy, the sexual system in which male and female organs are found in separate individuals, allows greater specialization for sex-specific functions and can be advantageous under various ecological and environmental conditions. However, dioecy is rare among flowering plants. Previous studies identified contradictory trends regarding the relative diversification rates of dioecious lineages vs their nondioecious counterparts, depending on the methods and data used. We gathered detailed species-level data for dozens of genera that contain both dioecious...

Data from: Evolutionary origin of highly repetitive plastid genomes within the clover genus (Trifolium)

Saemundur Sveinsson & Quentin Cronk
Background: Some clover species, particularly Trifolium subterraneum, have previously been reported to have highly unusual plastomes, relative to closely related legumes, enlarged with many duplications, gene losses and the presence of DNA unique to Trifolium, which may represent horizontal transfer. In order to pinpoint the evolutionary origin of this phenomenon within the genus Trifolium, we sequenced and assembled the plastomes of eight additional Trifolium species widely sampled from across the genus. Results: The Trifolium plastomes...

Data from: Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction

Jane M. Reid, A. Bradley Duthie, Matthew E. Wolak & Peter Arcese
1. One hypothesis explaining extra-pair reproduction is that socially monogamous females mate with extra-pair males to adjust the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of extra-pair offspring (EPO) relative to that of within-pair offspring (WPO) they would produce with their socially paired male. Such adjustment of offspring f requires non-random extra-pair reproduction with respect to relatedness, which is in turn often assumed to require some mechanism of explicit pre-copulatory or post-copulatory kin discrimination. 2. We propose three...

Data from: Sociality influences cultural complexity

Michael Muthukrishna, Ben W. Shulman, Vlad Vasilescu & Joseph Henrich
Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with...

Data from: Previously unknown evolutionary groups dominate the ssDNA gokushoviruses in oxic and anoxic waters of a coastal marine environment

Jessica M. Labonté, Steven J. Hallam & Curtis A. Suttle
Metagenomic studies have revealed that ssDNA phages from the family Microviridae subfamily Gokushovirinae are widespread in aquatic ecosystems. It is hypothesized that gokushoviruses occupy specialized niches, resulting in differences among genotypes traversing water column gradients. Here, we use degenerate primers that amplify a fragment of the gene encoding the major capsid protein to examine the diversity of gokushoviruses in Saanich Inlet, a seasonally anoxic fjord on the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Amplicon sequencing...

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